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Cronquist system

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The Cronquist system is a taxonomic classification system of flowering plants. It was developed by Arthur Cronquist in a series of monographs and texts, including The Evolution and Classification of Flowering Plants (1968; 2nd edition, 1988) and An Integrated System of Classification of Flowering Plants (1981) (see Bibliography).

Contents

Cronquist's system places flowering plants into two broad classes, Magnoliopsida (dicotyledons) and Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Within these classes, related orders are grouped into subclasses. While the scheme was widely used, in either the original form or in adapted versions, many botanists now use the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants, first developed in 1998. The system as laid out in Cronquist's An Integrated System of Classification of Flowering Plants (1981) counts 64 orders and 321 families in class Magnoliopsida and 19 orders and 65 families in class Liliopsida.

The Evolution and Classification of Flowering Plants 1968 (monocots)

Class Liliatae (Monocotyledoneae)

  • Subclass Alismatidae 4 orders
  • Order Alismatales
  • ...
  • Order Triuridales
  • Subclass Commelinidae 8 orders
  • Order Commelinales
  • ...
  • Order Zingiberales
  • Subclass Arecidae 4 orders
  • Order Arecales
  • ...
  • Order Arales
  • Subclass Liliidae 2 orders
  • Order Liliales
  • Family Philydraceae
  • Family Pontederiaceae
  • Family Liliaceae
  • Family Iridaceae
  • Family Agavaceae
  • Family Xanthorrhoeaceae
  • Family Velloziaceae
  • Family Haemodoraceae
  • Family Taccaceae
  • Family Cyanastraceae
  • Family Stemonaceae
  • Family Smilacaceae
  • Family Dioscoreaceae
  • Order Orchidales
  • Class Magnoliopsida (dicotyledons)

    1. Subclass Magnoliidae (mostly basal dicots)
      1. Order Magnoliales
        1. Winteraceae
        2. Degeneriaceae
        3. Himantandraceae
        4. Eupomatiaceae
        5. Austrobaileyaceae
        6. Magnoliaceae (magnolia family)
        7. Lactoridaceae
        8. Annonaceae
        9. Myristicaceae
        10. Canellaceae
      2. Order Laurales
        1. Amborellaceae
        2. Trimeniaceae
        3. Monimiaceae
        4. Gomortegaceae
        5. Calycanthaceae
        6. Idiospermaceae
        7. Lauraceae (laurel family)
        8. Hernandiaceae
      3. Order Piperales
        1. Chloranthaceae
        2. Saururaceae
        3. Piperaceae (pepper family)
      4. Order Aristolochiales
        1. Aristolochiaceae
      5. Order Illiciales
        1. Illiciaceae
        2. Schisandraceae
      6. Order Nymphaeales
        1. Nelumbonaceae
        2. Nymphaeaceae
        3. Barclayaceae
        4. Cabombaceae
        5. Ceratophyllaceae
      7. Order Ranunculales
        1. Ranunculaceae
        2. Circaeasteraceae
        3. Berberidaceae
        4. Sargentodoxaceae
        5. Lardizabalaceae
        6. Menispermaceae
        7. Coriariaceae
        8. Sabiaceae
      8. Order Papaverales
        1. Papaveraceae
        2. Fumariaceae
    2. Subclass Hamamelidae [sic: correctly Hamamelididae]
      1. Order Trochodendrales
        1. Tetracentraceae
        2. Trochodendraceae
      2. Order Hamamelidales
        1. Cercidiphyllaceae
        2. Eupteleaceae
        3. Platanaceae
        4. Hamamelidaceae
        5. Myrothamnaceae
      3. Order Daphniphyllales
        1. Daphniphyllaceae
      4. Order Didymelales
        1. Didymelaceae
      5. Order Eucommiales
        1. Eucommiaceae
      6. Order Urticales
        1. Barbeyaceae
        2. Ulmaceae
        3. Cannabaceae
        4. Moraceae
        5. Cecropiaceae
        6. Urticaceae
      7. Order Leitneriales
        1. Leitneriaceae
      8. Order Juglandales
        1. Rhoipteleaceae
        2. Juglandaceae
      9. Order Myricales
        1. Myricaceae
      10. Order Fagales
        1. Balanopaceae
        2. Ticodendraceae
        3. Fagaceae
        4. Nothofagaceae
        5. Betulaceae
      11. Order Casuarinales
        1. Casuarinaceae
    3. Subclass Caryophyllidae
      1. Order Caryophyllales
        1. Phytolaccaceae
        2. Achatocarpaceae
        3. Nyctaginaceae
        4. Aizoaceae
        5. Didiereaceae
        6. Cactaceae (cactus family)
        7. Chenopodiaceae
        8. Amaranthaceae
        9. Portulacaceae
        10. Basellaceae
        11. Molluginaceae
        12. Caryophyllaceae
      2. Order Polygonales
        1. Polygonaceae
      3. Order Plumbaginales
        1. Plumbaginaceae
    4. Subclass Dilleniidae
      1. Order Dilleniales
        1. Dilleniaceae
        2. Paeoniaceae
      2. Order Theales
        1. Ochnaceae
        2. Sphaerosepalaceae
        3. Sarcolaenaceae
        4. Dipterocarpaceae
        5. Caryocaraceae
        6. Theaceae (tea family)
        7. Actinidiaceae
        8. Scytopetalaceae
        9. Pentaphylacaceae
        10. Tetrameristaceae
        11. Pellicieraceae
        12. Oncothecaceae
        13. Marcgraviaceae
        14. Quiinaceae
        15. Elatinaceae
        16. Paracryphiaceae
        17. Medusagynaceae
        18. Clusiaceae
      3. Order Malvales
        1. Elaeocarpaceae
        2. Tiliaceae
        3. Sterculiaceae
        4. Bombacaceae
        5. Malvaceae
      4. Order Lecythidales
        1. Lecythidaceae
      5. Order Nepenthales
        1. Sarraceniaceae
        2. Nepenthaceae
        3. Droseraceae
      6. Order Violales
        1. Flacourtiaceae
        2. Peridiscaceae
        3. Bixaceae
        4. Cistaceae
        5. Huaceae
        6. Lacistemataceae
        7. Scyphostegiaceae
        8. Stachyuraceae
        9. Violaceae (violet family)
        10. Tamaricaceae (tamarind family)
        11. Frankeniaceae
        12. Dioncophyllaceae
        13. Ancistrocladaceae
        14. Turneraceae
        15. Malesherbiaceae
        16. Passifloraceae
        17. Achariaceae
        18. Caricaceae
        19. Fouquieriaceae
        20. Hoplestigmataceae
        21. Cucurbitaceae
        22. Datiscaceae
        23. Begoniaceae
        24. Loasaceae
      7. Order Salicales
        1. Salicaceae
      8. Order Capparales
        1. Tovariaceae
        2. Capparaceae
        3. Brassicaceae
        4. Moringaceae
        5. Resedaceae
      9. Order Batales
        1. Gyrostemonaceae
        2. Bataceae
      10. Order Ericales
        1. Cyrillaceae
        2. Clethraceae
        3. Grubbiaceae
        4. Empetraceae
        5. Epacridaceae
        6. Ericaceae
        7. Pyrolaceae
        8. Monotropaceae
      11. Order Diapensiales
        1. Diapensiaceae
      12. Order Ebenales
        1. Sapotaceae
        2. Ebenaceae
        3. Styracaceae
        4. Lissocarpaceae
        5. Symplocaceae
      13. Order Primulales
        1. Theophrastaceae
        2. Myrsinaceae
        3. Primulaceae
    5. Subclass Rosidae
      1. Order Rosales
        1. Brunelliaceae
        2. Connaraceae
        3. Eucryphiaceae
        4. Cunoniaceae
        5. Davidsoniaceae
        6. Dialypetalanthaceae
        7. Pittosporaceae
        8. Byblidaceae
        9. Hydrangeaceae
        10. Columelliaceae
        11. Grossulariaceae
        12. Greyiaceae
        13. Bruniaceae
        14. Anisophylleaceae
        15. Alseuosmiaceae
        16. Crassulaceae
        17. Cephalotaceae
        18. Saxifragaceae
        19. Rosaceae (rose family)
        20. Neuradaceae
        21. Crossosomataceae
        22. Chrysobalanaceae
        23. Surianaceae
        24. Rhabdodendraceae
      2. Order Fabales
        1. Mimosaceae (mimosa family)
        2. Caesalpiniaceae
        3. Fabaceae
      3. Order Proteales
        1. Elaeagnaceae
        2. Proteaceae
      4. Order Podostemales
        1. Podostemaceae
      5. Order Haloragales
        1. Haloragaceae
        2. Gunneraceae
      6. Order Myrtales
        1. Sonneratiaceae
        2. Lythraceae
        3. Penaeaceae
        4. Crypteroniaceae
        5. Thymelaeaceae
        6. Trapaceae
        7. Myrtaceae
        8. Punicaceae
        9. Onagraceae
        10. Oliniaceae
        11. Melastomataceae
        12. Combretaceae
        13. Alzateaceae
        14. Memecylaceae
        15. Rhyncocalycaceae
      7. Order Rhizophorales
        1. Rhizophoraceae
      8. Order Cornales
        1. Alangiaceae
        2. Nyssaceae
        3. Cornaceae
        4. Garryaceae
      9. Order Santalales
        1. Medusandraceae
        2. Dipentodontaceae
        3. Olacaceae
        4. Opiliaceae
        5. Santalaceae
        6. Misodendraceae
        7. Loranthaceae
        8. Viscaceae
        9. Eremolepidaceae
        10. Balanophoraceae
      10. Order Rafflesiales
        1. Hydnoraceae
        2. Mitrastemonaceae
        3. Rafflesiaceae
      11. Order Celastrales
        1. Geissolomataceae
        2. Celastraceae
        3. Hippocrateaceae
        4. Stackhousiaceae
        5. Salvadoraceae
        6. Aquifoliaceae
        7. Icacinaceae
        8. Aextoxicaceae
        9. Cardiopteridaceae
        10. Corynocarpaceae
        11. Dichapetalaceae
        12. Tepuianthaceae
      12. Order Euphorbiales
        1. Buxaceae
        2. Simmondsiaceae
        3. Pandaceae
        4. Euphorbiaceae
      13. Order Rhamnales
        1. Rhamnaceae
        2. Leeaceae
        3. Vitaceae
      14. Order Linales
        1. Erythroxylaceae
        2. Humiriaceae
        3. Ixonanthaceae
        4. Hugoniaceae
        5. Linaceae
      15. Order Polygalales
        1. Malpighiaceae
        2. Vochysiaceae
        3. Trigoniaceae
        4. Tremandraceae
        5. Polygalaceae
        6. Xanthophyllaceae
        7. Krameriaceae
      16. Order Sapindales
        1. Staphyleaceae
        2. Melianthaceae
        3. Bretschneideraceae
        4. Akaniaceae
        5. Sapindaceae
        6. Hippocastanaceae
        7. Aceraceae
        8. Burseraceae
        9. Anacardiaceae
        10. Julianiaceae
        11. Simaroubaceae
        12. Cneoraceae
        13. Meliaceae
        14. Rutaceae
        15. Zygophyllaceae
      17. Order Geraniales
        1. Oxalidaceae
        2. Geraniaceae
        3. Limnanthaceae
        4. Tropaeolaceae
        5. Balsaminaceae
      18. Order Apiales
        1. Araliaceae
        2. Apiaceae
    6. Subclass Asteridae
      1. Order Gentianales
        1. Loganiaceae
        2. Retziaceae
        3. Gentianaceae
        4. Saccifoliaceae
        5. Apocynaceae
        6. Asclepiadaceae
      2. Order Solanales
        1. Duckeodendraceae
        2. Nolanaceae
        3. Solanaceae
        4. Convolvulaceae
        5. Cuscutaceae
        6. Menyanthaceae
        7. Polemoniaceae
        8. Hydrophyllaceae
        9. Retziaceae
      3. Order Lamiales
        1. Lennoaceae
        2. Boraginaceae
        3. Verbenaceae
        4. Lamiaceae
      4. Order Callitrichales
        1. Hippuridaceae
        2. Callitrichaceae
        3. Hydrostachyaceae
      5. Order Plantaginales
        1. Plantaginaceae
      6. Order Scrophulariales
        1. Buddlejaceae
        2. Oleaceae (olive family)
        3. Scrophulariaceae
        4. Globulariaceae
        5. Myoporaceae
        6. Orobanchaceae
        7. Gesneriaceae
        8. Acanthaceae
        9. Pedaliaceae
        10. Bignoniaceae
        11. Mendonciaceae
        12. Lentibulariaceae
      7. Order Campanulales
        1. Pentaphragmataceae
        2. Sphenocleaceae
        3. Campanulaceae
        4. Stylidiaceae
        5. Donatiaceae
        6. Brunoniaceae
        7. Goodeniaceae
      8. Order Rubiales
        1. Rubiaceae
        2. Theligonaceae
      9. Order Dipsacales
        1. Caprifoliaceae
        2. Adoxaceae
        3. Valerianaceae
        4. Dipsacaceae
      10. Order Calycerales
        1. Calyceraceae
      11. Order Asterales
        1. Asteraceae

    Class Liliopsida (monocotyledons)

    1. Subclass Alismatidae
      1. Order Alismatales
        1. Butomaceae
        2. Limnocharitaceae
        3. Alismataceae
      2. Order Hydrocharitales
        1. Hydrocharitaceae
      3. Order Najadales
        1. Aponogetonaceae
        2. Scheuchzeriaceae
        3. Juncaginaceae
        4. Potamogetonaceae
        5. Ruppiaceae
        6. Najadaceae
        7. Zannichelliaceae
        8. Posidoniaceae
        9. Cymodoceaceae
        10. Zosteraceae
      4. Order Triuridales
        1. Petrosaviaceae
        2. Triuridaceae
    2. Subclass Arecidae
      1. Order Arecales
        1. Arecaceae (palm family)
      2. Order Cyclanthales
        1. Cyclanthaceae
      3. Order Pandanales
        1. Pandanaceae (pandan family)
      4. Order Arales
        1. Acoraceae
        2. Araceae
        3. Lemnaceae
    3. Subclass Commelinidae
      1. Order Commelinales
        1. Rapateaceae
        2. Xyridaceae
        3. Mayacaceae
        4. Commelinaceae
      2. Order Eriocaulales
        1. Eriocaulaceae
      3. Order Restionales
        1. Flagellariaceae
        2. Joinvilleaceae
        3. Restionaceae
        4. Centrolepidaceae
      4. Order Juncales
        1. Juncaceae
        2. Thurniaceae
      5. Order Cyperales
        1. Cyperaceae
        2. Poaceae (Grass family)
      6. Order Hydatellales
        1. Hydatellaceae
      7. Order Typhales
        1. Sparganiaceae
        2. Typhaceae
    4. Subclass Zingiberidae
      1. Order Bromeliales
        1. Bromeliaceae
      2. Order Zingiberales
        1. Strelitziaceae
        2. Heliconiaceae
        3. Musaceae
        4. Lowiaceae
        5. Zingiberaceae (Ginger family)
        6. Costaceae
        7. Cannaceae
        8. Marantaceae
    5. Subclass Liliidae
      1. Order Liliales
        1. Philydraceae
        2. Pontederiaceae
        3. Haemodoraceae
        4. Cyanastraceae
        5. Liliaceae (Lily family)
        6. Iridaceae (Iris family)
        7. Velloziaceae
        8. Aloeaceae (Aloe family)
        9. Agavaceae
        10. Xanthorrhoeaceae
        11. Hanguanaceae
        12. Taccaceae
        13. Stemonaceae
        14. Smilacaceae
        15. Dioscoreaceae
      2. Order Orchidales
        1. Geosiridaceae
        2. Burmanniaceae
        3. Corsiaceae
        4. Orchidaceae (Orchid family)

    References

    Cronquist system Wikipedia


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