Kalpana Kalpana (Editor)

Boraginaceae

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Kingdom  Plantae
Clade  Eudicots
Order  Boraginales
Higher classification  Boraginales
Clade  Angiosperms
Clade  asterids
Scientific name  Boraginaceae
Rank  Family
Boraginaceae Flowering Plant Families UH Botany
Lower classifications  borage, viper's bugloss, Comfrey, Cordia, Heliotropium

Boraginaceae, the borage or forget-me-not family, includes a variety of shrubs, trees, and herbs, totaling about 2,000 species in 146 genera found worldwide.

Boraginaceae Boraginaceae Borage Family Identify plants flowers shrubs and trees

According to the APG II, the Boraginaceae belongs among the euasterid I group, including the orders Gentianales, Lamiales, and Solanales, but whether it should be assigned to one of these orders or to its own (Boraginales) is still uncertain. Under the older Cronquist system it was included in Lamiales, but it is now clear that it is no more similar to the other families in this order than they are to families in several other asterid orders. The Boraginaceae is paraphyletic with respect to Hydrophyllaceae and the latter is included in the former in the APG II system. In some recent classifications the Boraginaceae is broken up into several families: Boraginaceae sensu stricto, Cordiaceae, Ehretiaceae, Heliotropiaceae, Lennoaceae, and Hydrophyllaceae.

Boraginaceae Angiosperm families Boraginaceae Juss

These plants have alternately arranged leaves, or a combination of alternate and opposite leaves. The leaf blades usually have a narrow shape; many are linear or lance-shaped. They are smooth-edged or toothed, and some have petioles. Most species have bisexual flowers, but some taxa are dioecious. Most pollination is by hymenopterans, such as bees. Most species have inflorescences that have a coiling shape, at least when new. The flower has a usually five-lobed calyx. The corolla varies in shape from rotate to bell-shaped to tubular, but it generally has five lobes. It can be green, white, yellow, orange, pink, purple, or blue. There are five stamens and one style with one or two stigmas. The fruit is a drupe, sometimes fleshy.

Boraginaceae httpsuploadwikimediaorgwikipediacommonsthu

Most members of this family have hairy leaves. The coarse character of the hairs is due to cystoliths of silicon dioxide and calcium carbonate. These hairs can induce an adverse skin reaction, including itching and rash in some individuals, particularly among people who handle the plants regularly, such as gardeners. In some species, anthocyanins cause the flowers to change color from red to blue with age. This is may be a signal to pollinators that a flower is old and depleted of pollen and nectar.

Boraginaceae Flowering Plant Families UH Botany

Well-known members of the family include:

  • alkanet (Alkanna tinctoria)
  • borage (Borago officinalis)
  • comfrey (Symphytum spp.)
  • fiddleneck (Amsinckia spp.)
  • forget-me-not (Myosotis spp.)
  • geigertree (Cordia sebestena)
  • green alkanet (Pentaglottis sempervirens)
  • heliotrope (Heliotropium spp.)
  • hound's tongue (Cynoglossum spp.)
  • lungwort (Pulmonaria spp.)
  • oysterplant (Mertensia maritima)
  • purple viper's bugloss (Echium plantagineum)
  • Siberian bugloss (Brunnera macrophylla)
  • viper's bugloss (Echium vulgare)

  • Boraginaceae FileBorago officinalis 39Borage39 Boraginaceae flowerJPG

    Boraginaceae Angiosperm families Boraginaceae Juss

    References

    Boraginaceae Wikipedia


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