Trisha Shetty (Editor)

1914

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1914

1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (dominical letter D) of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Wednesday (dominical letter E) of the Julian calendar, the 1914th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 914th year of the 2nd millennium, the 14th year of the 20th century, and the 5th year of the 1910s decade. As of the start of 1914, the Gregorian calendar was 13 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. This year saw the beginning of what became known as World War I and also saw the first airline to provide scheduled regular commercial passenger services with heavier-than-air aircraft with the St. Petersburg–Tampa Airboat Line.

Contents

January

  • January 1 – The St. Petersburg–Tampa Airboat Line in the United States starts services between St. Petersburg and Tampa, Florida, becoming the first airline to provide scheduled regular commercial passenger services with heavier-than-air aircraft, with Tony Jannus (the first federally-licensed pilot) conveying passengers in a Benoist XIV flying boat. Abram C. Pheil, mayor of St. Petersburg, is the first airline passenger and over 3,000 people witness the first departure.
  • January 5 – Ford Motor Company announces an eight-hour workday and a daily wage of $5.
  • January 8 – A railway strike is declared in the Transvaal and Orange Free State.
  • January 9 – The Phi Beta Sigma fraternity is founded by African American students at Howard University in Washington, D.C.
  • January 11 – The Sakurajima volcano in Japan begins to erupt, becoming effusive after a very large earthquake on January 13. The lava flows cause the island which it forms to be linked to the Ōsumi Peninsula.
  • February

  • February 2 – Charlie Chaplin makes his film début in the comedy short Making a Living.
  • February 7 – Release of Charlie Chaplin's second film, the Keystone comedy Kid Auto Races at Venice, in which his character of The Tramp is introduced to audiences (although first filmed in Mabel's Strange Predicament, released two days later).
  • February 8 – The Luxembourg national football team has its first victory, beating France 5–4 in a friendly match, for the first and only time in football history.
  • February 10 – Release of the film Hearts Adrift; the name of Mary Pickford, the star, is displayed above the title on movie marquees.
  • February 12 – In Washington, D.C., the first stone of the Lincoln Memorial is put into place.
  • February 13 – Copyright: In New York City the American Society of Composers, Authors and Publishers is established to protect the copyrighted musical compositions of its members.
  • February 17 – Karl Staaff steps down as Prime Minister of Sweden in the aftermath of the Courtyard Crisis. He is replaced by the public official Hjalmar Hammarskjöld, father of Dag Hammarskjöld.
  • February 26 – The ocean liner that will become HMHS Britannic, sister to the RMS Titanic, is launched at the Harland and Wolff shipyards in Belfast.
  • February 28 – Autonomous Republic of Northern Epirus proclaimed by ethnic Greeks in Northern Epirus.
  • March

  • March 1 – The Republic of China joins the Universal Postal Union.
  • March 6 – Founding of FK Vojvodina football club in Novi Sad (Serbia).
  • March 7 – Prince William of Wied arrives in Albania to begin his reign.
  • March 8 – First transfer of aircraft to Don Muang Royal Thai Air Force Base.
  • March 10 – Suffragette Mary Richardson damages Velázquez' painting Rokeby Venus in London's National Gallery with a meat chopper.
  • March 16 – Henriette Caillaux, wife of French minister Joseph Caillaux, murders Gaston Calmette, editor of Le Figaro, fearing publication of letters showing she and Caillaux were romantically involved during his first marriage. (She is acquitted on July 28).
  • March 17 (Saint Patrick's Day) – Green beer is invented by Dr. Thomas H. Curtin and displayed at the Schnorrer Club of Morrisania in the Bronx, New York.
  • March 27 – Belgian surgeon Albert Hustin makes the first successful non-direct blood transfusion, using anticoagulants.
  • March 29 – Katherine Routledge and her husband arrive in Easter Island to make the first true study of it (they depart August 1915).
  • April

  • April 4–September 27 – Komagata Maru incident: Voyage of the Komagata Maru from India to Canada. Due to Canadian regulations designed to exclude Asian immigrants the boat is not allowed to dock in Vancouver and is forced to return to Calcutta with all its passengers.
  • April 9 – Tampico Affair, involving United States Navy sailors in Mexico.
  • April 11
  • Canadian Margaret C. MacDonald is appointed Matron-in-Chief of the Canadian Nursing service band and becomes the first woman in the British Empire to reach the rank of major.
  • Alpha Rho Chi, a professional architecture fraternity, is founded in the Hotel Sherman in Chicago.
  • April 14–18 – First International Criminal Police Congress held in Monaco. 24 countries are represented including some from Asia, Europe, and the Americas; the Dean of the Paris Law School is president.
  • April 20
  • Ludlow Massacre (Colorado Coalfield War): The Colorado National Guard attacks a tent colony of 1,200 striking coal miners in Ludlow, Colorado in the United States, killing 24 people.
  • President Woodrow Wilson asks the United States Congress to use military force in Mexico in reaction to the Tampico Affair.
  • April 21 – United States occupation of Veracruz: 2,300 U.S. Navy sailors and Marines from the South Atlantic fleet land in the port city of Veracruz, Mexico, which they will occupy for over 6 months. The Ypiranga incident occurs when they attempt to enforce an arms embargo against Mexico by preventing the German cargo steamer SS Ypiranga from unloading arms for the Mexican government in the port.
  • April 22 – Mexico ends diplomatic relations with the United States for the time being.
  • April 23 – The Afrikaans language receives official recognition when Cornelis Jacobus Langenhoven addresses the English caucus of the Cape Provincial Council.
  • May

  • May 1–November 1 – Exposition Internationale held at Lyon (France).
  • May 5–November 11 – Jubilee Exhibition (Jubilæumsutstillingen) held at Kristiania (Norway) to mark the centennial of the country's Constitution.
  • May 9 – J. T. Hearne becomes the first bowler to take 3,000 first-class wickets.
  • May 14 – Woodrow Wilson signs a Mother's Day proclamation.
  • May 17 – Protocol of Corfu provides for the provinces of Korçë and Gjirokastër, constituting Northern Epirus, to be granted autonomy under the nominal sovereignty of Albania.
  • May 25 – The United Kingdom's House of Commons passes Irish Home Rule.
  • May 29 – The ocean liner RMS Empress of Ireland sinks in the Gulf of St. Lawrence; 1,012 lives are lost.
  • May 30 – The ocean liner RMS Aquitania makes her maiden voyage.
  • June

  • June 1 – Woodrow Wilson's envoy Edward Mandell House meets with Kaiser Wilhelm II.
  • June 8 – The Brazilian Football Confederation is founded, with Álvaro Zamith as its first president. The Brazilian Olympic Committee is founded on the same day.
  • June 9 – Pittsburgh Pirate Honus Wagner becomes the first baseball player in the 20th century with 3000 career hits.
  • June 12 – Greek genocide: Ottoman Greeks in Phocaea are massacred by Turkish irregular troops.
  • June 18 – Mexican Revolution: The Constitutionals take San Luis Potosí; Venustiano Carranza demands Victoriano Huerta's surrender.
  • June 23 – After it had been closed so that it could be deepened, the Kaiser-Wilhelm-Kanal is reopened by the Kaiser; the British Fleet under Sir George Warrender visits; the Kaiser inspects the Dreadnought HMS King George V.
  • June 24 – In Manchester, New Hampshire, a downtown fire causes $400,000 damage and injures 19 firemen.
  • June 28 – Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria: 19-year-old Serbian nationalist Gavrilo Princip assassinates Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria and his wife, Duchess Sophie, in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina, triggering the July Crisis and World War I.
  • June 29
  • Austria-Hungary: The Secretary of the Legation at Belgrade sends a dispatch to Vienna suggesting Serbian complicity in the crime of Sarajevo. Anti-Serb riots erupt in Sarajevo and throughout Bosnia generally.
  • Khioniya Guseva attempts and fails to assassinate Grigori Rasputin at his home town in Siberia.
  • International Exhibition opens at the "White City", Ashton Gate, Bristol (England). It closes on August 15 and the site is used as a military depot.
  • June 30 – Among those addressing the Parliament of the United Kingdom on the murdered Archduke are Lords Crewe and Lansdowne in the House of Lords and Messrs Asquith and Law in the Commons.
  • July

  • July 1 – The Royal Naval Air Service, a forerunner of the Royal Air Force, is established.
  • July 2 – The German Kaiser announces that he will not attend the Archduke's funeral.
  • July 4
  • The Archduke's funeral takes place at Artstetten Castle (50 miles west of Vienna), Austria-Hungary.
  • Lexington Avenue bombing: 4 people are killed in New York City when an anarchist bomb intended to kill John D. Rockefeller explodes prematurely in the plotters' apartment.
  • July 5 – A council is held at Potsdam, powerful leaders within Austria-Hungary and Germany meet to discuss possibilities of war with Serbia, Russia, and France.
  • July 7 – Austria-Hungary convenes a Council of Ministers, including Ministers for Foreign Affairs and War, the Chief of the General Staff and Naval Commander-in-Chief; the Council lasts from 11.30 a.m. to 6.15 p.m.
  • July 9 – The Emperor of Austria-Hungary receives the report of Austro-Hungarian investigation into the Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria at Sarajevo. The Times publishes an account of the Austro-Hungarian press campaign against the Serbians (who are described as "pestilent rats").
  • July 10 – Nicholas Hartwig, Russian Minister to Serbia, dies suddenly while visiting Austrian minister Wladimir Giesl von Gieslingen at the Austrian Legation in Belgrade.
  • July 11
  • Baseball legend Babe Ruth makes his major league debut with the Boston Red Sox.
  • USS Nevada, the United States Navy's first "super-dreadnought" battleship, is launched.
  • Over 5,000 attend a rally in Union Square, Manhattan, called by the Anti-Militarist League to commemorate the anarchists killed in the July 4 Lexington Avenue bombing.
  • July 12 – Supreme Court of the United States justice Horace H. Lurton succumbs to a heart attack at age 70.
  • July 13 – Reports surface of a projected Serbian attack upon the Austro-Hungarian Legation at Belgrade.
  • July 14 – The Government of Ireland Bill completes its passage through the House of Lords of the U.K. It allows Ulster counties to vote on whether or not they wish to participate in Home Rule from Dublin.
  • July 15 – Mexican Revolution: Victoriano Huerta resigns the presidency of Mexico and leaves for Coatzacoalcos, Veracruz.
  • July 18
  • The Signal Corps of the United States Army is formed, giving definite status to its air service for the first time.
  • British Fleet review at Spithead by George V.
  • Gandhi leaves South Africa for the last time, sailing out of Cape Town for England on board the SS Kinfauns Castle.
  • July 19 – George V summons a conference to discuss the Irish Home Rule problem. This meets from July 21 to 24 without reaching consensus.
  • July 23 – July Ultimatum: Austria-Hungary presents Serbia with an unconditional ultimatum.
  • July 25 – Austria-Hungary severs diplomatic ties with Serbia and begins to mobilize its own forces. Radomir Putnik, Chief of the Serbian General Staff, is arrested in Budapest but subsequently allowed to return to Serbia.
  • July 26 – King's Own Scottish Borderers of the British Army fire on Dubliners on Bachelor's Walk, killing 3 and injuring 38.
  • July 27 – Brother Felix Ysagun Manalo registers the Iglesia ni Cristo (Church of Christ) with the government of the Philippines.
  • July 28
  • World War I: Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia by telegram and its army bombards Belgrade. Tsar Nicholas II of Russia orders a partial mobilization against Austria-Hungary.
  • Henriette Caillaux, wife of French minister Joseph Caillaux is acquitted of murder by reason of crime passionnel.
  • July 28–August 10 – World War I: Pursuit of Goeben and Breslau: British and French naval forces fail to prevent the ships of the Imperial German Navy Mediterranean Division from reaching the Dardanelles.
  • July 29 – In Massachusetts, the new Cape Cod Canal opens; it shortens the trip between New York and Boston by 66 miles, but also turns Cape Cod into an island.
  • July 30 – Austrian artillery bombards Belgrade, capital of Serbia.
  • July 31
  • Russia orders full mobilization.
  • French antimilitarist socialist leader Jean Jaurès is assassinated by a nationalist in Paris.
  • August

  • August 1
  • The German Empire declares war on the Russian Empire, following Russia's military mobilization in support of Serbia; Germany also begins mobilization.
  • France orders general mobilization.
  • New York Stock Exchange closed due to war in Europe, where nearly all stock exchanges are already closed.
  • Marcus Garvey founds the Universal Negro Improvement Association in Jamaica.
  • August 2
  • German troops occupy Luxembourg in accordance with the Schlieffen Plan.
  • A secret treaty between the Ottoman Empire and Germany secures Ottoman neutrality.
  • At 7:00 pm (local time) Germany issues a 12-hour ultimatum to neutral Belgium to allow German passage into France.
  • August 3
  • Germany declares war on Russia's ally, France.
  • At 7:00 am (local time) Belgium declines to accept Germany's ultimatum of August 2.
  • August 4
  • German troops invade Belgium at 8:02 am (local time). Declaration of war by the United Kingdom on Germany for this violation of Belgian neutrality. This effectively means a declaration of war by the whole British Empire against the German Empire, beginning World War I from the British perspective. The United States declares neutrality.
  • Imperial German Navy Rear-Admiral Wilhelm Souchon bombards the French Algerian ports of Bône and Philippeville from battlecruiser Goeben and light cruiser Breslau.
  • Gandhi is in the English Channel (en route from South Africa) when he learns that war has been declared. Later this day he arrives in London.
  • August 5
  • Germany declares war on Belgium.
  • The Kingdom of Montenegro declares war on Austria-Hungary.
  • The guns of Point Nepean fort at Port Phillip Heads in Victoria (Australia) fire across the bows of the Norddeutscher Lloyd steamer SS Pfalz which is attempting to leave the Port of Melbourne in ignorance of the declaration of war and she is detained; this is said to be the first Allied shot of the war.
  • SS Königin Luise, taken over two days earlier by the Imperial German Navy as a minelayer, lays mines 40 miles (64 km) off the east coast of England. She is intercepted and sunk by the British Royal Navy light cruiser HMS Amphion, the first German naval loss of the war. The following day, Amphion strikes mines laid by the Königin Luise and is sunk with some loss of life, the first British casualties of the war.
  • German zeppelins drop bombs on Liège in Belgium, killing 9 civilians.
  • First electric traffic light is installed between Euclid Avenue and East 105 Street, Cleveland, Ohio.
  • August 5–16 – Battle of Liège: The German Army overruns and defeats the Belgians.
  • August 6 – World War I:
  • Austria-Hungary declares war on Russia.
  • First engagement between ships (light cruisers) of the British Royal Navy and the Imperial German Navy when HMS Bristol pursues the SMS Karlsruhe (which escapes) in the West Indies.
  • August 7 – World War I:
  • Battle of Mulhouse: France launches its first attack of the war in an ultimately unsuccessful attempt to recover the province of Alsace from Germany, beginning the Battle of the Frontiers.
  • British colonial troops of the British Gold Coast Regiment entering the German West African colony of Togoland encounter the German-led police force at a factory in Nuatja, near Lomé, and the police open fire on the patrol. Alhaji Grunshi returns fire, the first soldier in British service to fire a shot in the war.
  • August 8
  • German colonial forces execute Martin-Paul Samba for high treason.
  • Sir Ernest Shackleton's Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition sets sail on the Endurance from England in an attempt to cross Antarctica.
  • August 9 – World War I: British Royal Navy light cruiser HMS Birmingham rams and sinks German submarine U-15 off Fair Isle, the first U-boat lost in action.
  • August 12 – World War I:
  • Battle of Haelen: Belgian troops repulse the Germans.
  • Formal declaration of war by the United Kingdom on Austria-Hungary.
  • August 13 – Treaties of Teoloyucan(Spanish) are signed in the State of Mexico.
  • August 15
  • The Panama Canal is inaugurated with the passage of the SS Ancon.
  • Mexican Revolution: Venustiano Carranza's troops under general Álvaro Obregón enter Mexico City.
  • A dismissed servant kills seven people at American architect Frank Lloyd Wright's studio and home, Taliesin in Wisconsin (including his mistress, Mamah Borthwick), and sets it on fire.
  • August 15–24 – World War I: Battle of Cer: Serbian troops defeat the Austro-Hungarian army, marking the first Entente victory of the War.
  • August 16 – World War I:
  • German warships SMS Goeben and Breslau (both commissioned in 1912), which reached Constantinople on August 10, are transferred to the Ottoman Navy, Goeben becoming its flagship, Yavuz Sultan Selim.
  • Lake Nyasa is the scene of a brief naval battle when Captain Edmund Rhoades, commander of the British steamship SS Gwendolen, hears that World War I has broken out, and he receives orders from the British high command to "sink, burn, or destroy" the German Empire's only ship on the lake, the Hermann von Wissmann, commanded by a Captain Berndt. Rhoades's crew find the Hermann von Wissmann in a bay near "Sphinxhaven", in German East African territorial waters. Gwendolen disables the German vessel with a single cannon shot from a range of about 1,800 metres (2,000 yd). This very brief engagement is hailed by The Times in England as the British Empire's first naval victory of World War I.
  • August 17–September 2 – World War I: The Battle of Tannenberg begins between German and Russian forces.
  • August 20 – World War I: German forces occupy Brussels.
  • August 22 – World War I: Battle of Rossignol: German forces decisively defeat the French.
  • August 23 – World War I:
  • Battle of Mons: In its first major action, the British Expeditionary Force holds the German forces but then begins a month-long fighting Great Retreat to the Marne.
  • Japan declares war on Germany.
  • August 26
  • The German West African colony of Togoland (now Togo from 1960) surrenders to Britain and France.
  • Battle of Río de Oro: British Royal Navy protected cruiser HMS Highflyer forces the SS Kaiser Wilhelm der Grosse, sailing as an auxiliary cruiser, to scuttle.
  • August 26–27 – Battle of Le Cateau: British, French and Belgian forces make a successful tactical retreat from the German advance.
  • August 26–30 – The Russian Second Army is surrounded and defeated in the Battle of Tannenberg.
  • August 28 – Battle of Heligoland Bight: British cruisers under Admiral Beatty sink three German cruisers.
  • August 29–30 – The Battle of St. Quentin: French forces hold back the German advance.
  • September

  • September 1
  • Saint Petersburg in Russia changes its name to Petrograd.
  • The last known passenger pigeon "Martha" dies in the Cincinnati Zoo.
  • September 2 – World War I: The French village of Moronvilliers is occupied by the Germans.
  • September 3
  • Pope Benedict XV (Giacomo della Chiesa) succeeds Pope Pius X as the 258th pope.
  • William, Prince of Albania leaves the country after just six months due to opposition to his rule.
  • September 5 – World War I:
  • London Agreement: No member of the Triple Entente (Britain, France, or Russia) may seek a separate peace with the Central Powers.
  • First Battle of the Marne begins: Northeast of Paris, the French 6th Army under General Maunoury attacks German forces nearing Paris. Over two million fight (500,000 are killed/wounded) in the Allied victory. A French and British counterattack at the Marne ends the German advance on Paris.
  • British Royal Navy scout cruiser HMS Pathfinder is sunk by German submarine U-21 in the Firth of Forth (Scotland), the first ship ever to be sunk by a locomotive torpedo fired from a submarine.
  • September 7 – World War I: Turkey declares war on Belgium.
  • September 8 – World War I: Private Thomas Highgate becomes the first British soldier to be executed for desertion during the War.
  • September 10 – South Africa declares war on Germany.
  • September 13 – World War I:
  • Conclusion of Battle of Grand Couronné ends the Battle of the Frontiers with the north-east segment of the Western Front stabilizing.
  • South African troops open hostilities in German South-West Africa (modern-day Namibia) with an assault on the Ramansdrift police station.
  • September 15
  • Maritz Rebellion of disaffected Boers against the government of the Union of South Africa begins.
  • General Koos de la Rey, a Boer general during the Boer War, is shot dead after his driver fails to stop at a police roadblock.
  • September 17
  • World War I: Beginning of the Race to the Sea by opposing forces on the Western Front.
  • Andrew Fisher becomes Prime Minister of Australia for the third time.
  • September 21 – World War I: British Imperial police forces capture Schuckmannsburg in the Caprivi Strip of German South-West Africa.
  • September 22 – World War I: Action of 22 September 1914: German submarine U-9 torpedoes three British Royal Navy armoured cruisers, HMS Aboukir, Cressy and Hogue, with the death of more than 1,400 men, in the North Sea.
  • September 25 – The Battle of Albert begins.
  • September 26 – The United States Federal Trade Commission (FTC) is established by the Federal Trade Commission Act.
  • September 28 – The First Battle of the Aisne ends indecisively.
  • September 30 – The Flying Squadron of America is established to promote the temperance movement.
  • October

  • October 3 – World War I: 25,000 Canadian troops depart for Europe.
  • October 4 (00:07)
  • 1914 Burdur earthquake in Turkey.
  • The Manifesto of the Ninety-Three is signed supporting the early German war effort.
  • October 9 – World War I: Siege of Antwerp: Antwerp (Belgium) falls to German troops.
  • October 14 – World War I: The Canadian Expeditionary Force arrives on 32 ocean liners in Plymouth Sound.
  • October 16–31 – World War I: Battle of the Yser: The Belgian army halts the German advance, but with heavy losses.
  • October 19 – World War I:
  • First Battle of Ypres begins.
  • Effective end of the Race to the Sea, with the Western Front reaching the Belgian coast.
  • October 27
  • World War I: The British super-dreadnought battleship HMS Audacious (23,400 tons), is sunk off Tory Island, north-west of Ireland, by a minefield laid by the armed German merchant-cruiser Berlin.
  • The Greek army occupies Northern Epirus with the approval of the Allies.
  • October 28
  • World War I: Battle of Penang, Malaya: The German cruiser Emden sinks a Russian cruiser and French destroyer before escaping.
  • Sentencing of participants in the Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria at Sarajevo. Gavrilo Princip, being under 20 at the date of the assassination, cannot be given a death sentence and is given twenty years imprisonment.
  • October 29 – World War I: Ottoman warships shell Russian Black Sea ports; Russia, France, and Britain declare war on November 1–November 5.
  • October 31 – World War I: Battle of the Vistula River concludes in Russian victory over German and Austro-Hungarian forces around Warsaw.
  • November

  • November 1 – World War I: Battle of Coronel: A Royal Navy squadron commanded by Rear-Admiral Sir Christopher Cradock is met in the eastern Pacific and defeated by superior German forces led by Vice-Admiral Maximilian von Spee, in the first British naval defeat of the war, resulting in the loss of HMS Good Hope and HMS Monmouth.
  • November 5
  • World War I
  • Britain and France declare war on Turkey. The United Kingdom annexes Cyprus, which it controls until 1960.
  • The Battle of Tanga ends with the British Indian Expeditionary Force B failing to capture German East Africa defences.
  • Alpha Phi Delta is founded as a Greek social fraternity at Syracuse University in the United States.
  • November 7 – Siege of Tsingtao: The Japanese and British seize Jiaozhou Bay in China, the base of the German East Asia Squadron.
  • November 9 – World War I: Battle of Cocos: The German cruiser Emden is sunk by the Australian cruiser Sydney.
  • November 16 – A year after being created by passage of the Federal Reserve Act of 1913, the Federal Reserve Bank of the United States officially opens for business.
  • November 21 – In New Haven, Connecticut the new Yale Bowl officially opens; Harvard defeats Yale 36-0 in the first football game held here.
  • November 23 – U.S. troops withdraw from Veracruz. Venustiano Carranza's troops take over and Carranza makes the town his headquarters.
  • November 24 – Benito Mussolini is expelled from the Italian Socialist Party.
  • November 28 – World War I: Following a war-induced closure in July, the New York Stock Exchange re-opens for bond trading.
  • December

  • December 2 – Serbian Campaign (World War I): Austro-Hungarian forces occupy Belgrade, Serbia.
  • December 8 – World War I: Battle of the Falkland Islands: A superior British Royal Navy squadron under Doveton Sturdee defeats ships of the Imperial German Navy under Maximilian von Spee.
  • December 12 – The New York Stock Exchange re-opens, having been closed since August 1 except for bond trading.
  • December 15 – A gas explosion at the Mitsubishi Hojyo coal mine, Kyūshū, Japan, kills 687 (the worst coal mine disaster in Japanese history).
  • December 16 – World War I: Raid on Scarborough, Hartlepool and Whitby: Imperial German Navy battlecruisers attack English North Sea ports, resulting in 137 deaths.
  • December 17 – President of the United States Woodrow Wilson signs the Harrison Narcotics Tax Act (initially introduced by Francis Burton Harrison).
  • December 18 – Egypt becomes a British protectorate.
  • December 19
  • Serbian Campaign (World War I): The Battle of Kolubara ends, resulting in a decisive Serbian victory over Austria-Hungary.
  • Mohandas Gandhi leaves England sailing for India on this date (accompanied by his wife Kasturba). He begins to learn the Bengali language whilst on board.
  • December 24 – World War I:
  • Unofficial temporary Christmas truce between British and German soldiers on the Western Front begins.
  • German air raid on Dover, England.
  • December 25 – World War I: Cuxhaven Raid: British aircraft launched from warships attack the German port of Cuxhaven with submarine support, although little damage is caused.
  • Date unknown

  • China declares its neutrality in World War I.
  • The capital of the Guangxi Province of China is moved from Guilin to Nanning.
  • Oxymorphone, a powerful narcotic analgesic closely related to morphine is first developed in Germany.
  • The first everyday items made of stainless steel come into public circulation.
  • Blaise Diagne of Senegal becomes the first black African representative in the French parliament.
  • The Port of Orange, Texas, is dredged for the fabrication of vessels for the United States Navy.
  • The United States Power Squadrons is formed.
  • Phi Sigma, a local undergraduate classical club, is founded by a group of students in the Greek Department at the University of Chicago.
  • Fashion and perfumes company Puig is founded in Barcelona.
  • Woodman's of Essex, the famous family-owned clam shack on Boston's North Shore opened.
  • January

  • January 2
  • Kenny Clarke, American jazz musician (d. 1985)
  • Noor Inayat Khan, World War II heroine (d. 1944)
  • Vivian Stuart (aka Alex Stuart, Barbara Allen, Fiona Finlay, V.A. Stuart, William Stuart Long, Robyn Stuart), British writer (d. 1986)
  • January 4
  • Herman Franks, American baseball player (d. 2009)
  • Jean-Pierre Vernant, French historian and anthropologist (d. 2007)
  • January 5 – George Reeves, American actor (Superman) (d. 1959)
  • January 7 – Edwin La Dell, British artist (d. 1970)
  • January 12 – Albrecht von Goertz, German car designer (d. 2006)
  • January 13 – Ted Willis, British television dramatist and author (d. 1992)
  • January 14 – Harold Russell, Canadian actor (d. 2002)
  • January 15 – Hugh Trevor-Roper, English historian (d. 2003)
  • January 17
  • Anacleto Angelini, Italian-born businessman (d. 2007)
  • William Stafford, American poet and pacifist (d. 1993)
  • January 18 – Arno Schmidt, German author (d. 1979)
  • January 20 – Roy Plomley, English radio broadcaster, producer, playwright and novelist (d. 1985)
  • January 22 – Syd Hartley, English professional association football player (d. 1987)
  • January 26 – Princess Hadice Hayriye Ayshe Dürrühsehvar (d. 2006)
  • January 27 – Smokey Hogg, American Texas blues and country blues musician (d. 1960)
  • January 30
  • John Ireland, Canadian-born actor (d. 1992)
  • David Wayne, American actor (d. 1995)
  • January 31
  • Carey Loftin, American actor and stuntman (d. 1997)
  • Daya Mata, President of Self-Realization Fellowship (d. 2010)
  • Jersey Joe Walcott, American boxer (d. 1994)
  • February

  • February 3
  • George Nissen, American gymnast and inventor of the trampoline (d. 2010)
  • Mary Carlisle, American actress, singer and dancer (or 1912)
  • February 4 – Alfred Andersch, German writer (d. 1980)
  • February 5
  • William S. Burroughs, American author (d. 1997)
  • Alan Lloyd Hodgkin, British scientist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (d. 1998)
  • Silvius Magnago, Italian politician (d. 2010)
  • February 6 – Thurl Ravenscroft, American voice actor (d. 2005)
  • February 9
  • Bill Justice, American Disney animator (d. 2011)
  • Ernest Tubb, American singer (d. 1984)
  • February 10 – Larry Adler, American musician (d. 2001)
  • February 11 – Matt Dennis, American singer and songwriter (d. 2002)
  • February 12 – Tex Beneke, American bandleader (d. 2000)
  • February 15 – Kevin McCarthy, American actor (d. 2010)
  • February 16 – Jimmy Wakely, American country-western singer and actor (d. 1982)
  • February 17 – Arthur Kennedy, American actor (d. 1990)
  • February 19 – Jacques Dufilho, French comedian and actor (d. 2005)
  • February 20 – Peter Rogers, British film producer (d. 2009)
  • February 21
  • Zachary Scott, American actor (d. 1965)
  • Park Su-geun, Korean painter (d. 1965)
  • February 22
  • Renato Dulbecco, Italian-born virologist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (d. 2012)
  • Karl Otto Götz, German painter
  • February 23 – Theofiel Middelkamp, Dutch cyclist (d. 2005)
  • February 25 – John Arlott, British journalist, author and cricket commentator (d. 1991)
  • February 26 – Robert Alda, American-born actor (d. 1986)
  • March

  • March 1
  • Harry Caray, baseball broadcaster (d. 1998)
  • Ralph Ellison, American writer (d. 1994)
  • March 2
  • Mayo Kaan, bodybuilder (d. 2002)
  • Hansi Knoteck, Austrian actress (d. 2014)
  • Martin Ritt, American director (d. 1990)
  • March 3
  • Julio Franco Arango, Colombian Roman Catholic bishop (d. 1980)
  • Asger Jorn, Danish painter (d. 1973)
  • March 4
  • Ward Kimball, American cartoonist (d. 2002)
  • Robert R. Wilson, American physicist, sculptor and architect (d. 2000)
  • March 6 – Kiril Kondrashin, Russian conductor (d. 1981)
  • March 8 – Yakov Borisovich Zel'dovich, Russian physicist (d. 1987)
  • March 12 – Frank Soo, English footballer and manager (d. 1991)
  • March 13
  • Saroj Dutta, Indian communist leader (d. 1971)
  • Edward "Butch" O'Hare, American pilot (d. 1943)
  • Olaf Pooley, English actor and screenwriter (d. 2015)
  • March 14
  • Abdias do Nascimento, Brazilian actor, artist and politician (d. 2011)
  • Bill Owen, English actor (Last of the Summer Wine's 'Compo') (d. 1999)
  • Hubert Zemke, American fighter ace (d. 1994)
  • March 17 – Sammy Baugh, American football player (d. 2008)
  • March 19
  • Jay Berwanger, American football player (d. 2002)
  • Jiang Qing, Chinese politician (d. 1991)
  • March 20 – Richard Carlyle, American actor (d. 2009)
  • March 25 – Norman Borlaug, American agricultural scientist, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize (d. 2009)
  • March 26 – William Westmoreland, American Vietnam War general (d. 2005)
  • March 27 – Budd Schulberg, American screenwriter (d. 2009)
  • March 28 – Edmund Muskie, American politician (d. 1996)
  • March 30 – Sonny Boy Williamson I, American musician (d. 1948)
  • March 31 – Octavio Paz, Mexican diplomat and writer, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1998)
  • April

  • April 2
  • Alec Guinness, English actor (d. 2000)
  • Hans Wegner, Danish furniture designer (d. 2007)
  • April 3 – Sam Manekshaw, Field Marshal of Indian Army (d. 2008)
  • April 4
  • Richard Coogan, American actor (d. 2014)
  • Marguerite Duras, French author and director (d. 1996)
  • April 8 – María Félix, Mexican actress (d. 2002)
  • April 11 – Robert Stanfield, Premier of Nova Scotia (d. 2003)
  • April 12
  • Armen Alchian, American author and economist (d. 2013)
  • Adriaan Blaauw, Dutch astronomer (d. 2010)
  • Jan van Cauwelaert, Belgian bishop (d. 2016)
  • April 13 – Orhan Veli, Turkish poet (d. 1950)
  • April 18 – Claire Martin, Canadian author (d. 2014)
  • April 21 – James Henry Quello, American Federal Communications Commissioner (d. 2010)
  • April 22
  • Baldev Raj Chopra, Indian film director (d. 2008)
  • José Quiñones Gonzales, Peruvian aviator (d. 1941)
  • Jan de Hartog, Dutch writer (d. 2002)
  • Michael Wittmann, German tank commander (d. 1944)
  • April 25 – Ross Lockridge, Jr., American novelist (d. 1948)
  • April 26
  • Bernard Malamud, American author (d. 1986)
  • Lilian Rolfe, French-born World War II heroine (d. 1945)
  • April 28 – Michel Mohrt, French author and historian (d. 2011)
  • April 30 – Dorival Caymmi, Brazilian songwriter (d. 2008)
  • May

  • May 3 – Martín de Riquer, Spanish writer and Romantic scholar (d. 2013)
  • May 5 – Tyrone Power, American actor (d. 1958)
  • May 8 – Romain Gary, Russian-born writer and diplomat (d. 1980)
  • May 9 – Hank Snow, Canadian country musician (d. 1999)
  • May 12
  • Bertus Aafjes, Dutch poet (d. 1993)
  • Howard K. Smith, American journalist (d. 2002)
  • May 13
  • Phil Drabble, British author and television personality (d. 2007)
  • Joe Louis, American boxer (d. 1981)
  • May 14
  • Corneliu Coposu, Romanian politician (d. 1995)
  • Hideko Maehata, Japanese swimmer (d. 1995)
  • Mir Gul Khan Nasir, Baloch politician and poet from Pakistan (d. 1983)
  • May 16 – Edward T. Hall, American anthropologist (d. 2009)
  • May 18
  • Alla Bayanova, Russian singer (d. 2011)
  • Boris Christoff, Bulgarian opera singer (d. 1993)
  • Pierre Balmain, French fashion designer (d. 1982)
  • Maxine Grimm, American religious figure (d. 2017)
  • May 19
  • Max Perutz, Austrian-born molecular biologist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry (d. 2002)
  • Alex Shibicky, Canadian hockey player (d. 2005)
  • May 20 – Avraham Shapira, head of the Rabbinical court of Jerusalem and the Supreme Rabbinic Court; rosh yeshiva of Mercaz HaRav (d. 2007)
  • May 22
  • Howard Lawson, English cricketer (d. 2006)
  • Vance Packard, American social critic and author (d. 1996)
  • Sun Ra, American musician (d. 1993)
  • Edward Arthur Thompson, British historian (d. 1994)
  • May 24
  • Arthur A. Link, American politician (d. 2010)
  • Lilli Palmer, German actress (d. 1986)
  • George Tabori, Hungarian writer and director (d. 2007)
  • May 26 – Frankie Manning, American choreographer and dancer (d. 2009)
  • May 28 – W. G. G. Duncan Smith, British World War II pilot (d. 1996)
  • May 29
  • Charles Mozley, British artist (d. 1991)
  • Tenzing Norgay, Nepalese/Tibetan mountaineer (d. 1986)
  • May 31 – Akira Ifukube, Japanese classical music/film composer (d. 2006)
  • June

  • June 6 – Zhang Jingfu, Chinese politician (d. 2015)
  • June 10 – Trammell Crow, American developer (d. 2009)
  • June 12 – Go Seigen, Japanese Go player (d. 2014)
  • June 15
  • Yuri Andropov, Soviet leader (d. 1984)
  • Louis Edwards, Manchester United chairman 1965-1980 (d. 1980)
  • Lena Kennedy, English author (d. 1986)
  • Saul Steinberg, Romanian-born cartoonist (d. 1999)
  • June 18 – E. G. Marshall, American actor (d. 1998)
  • June 19 – Alan Cranston, U.S. Senator (d. 2000)
  • June 21 – William Vickrey, Canadian economist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1996)
  • June 25 – Mavis Pugh, English actress (d. 2006)
  • June 26
  • Kathryn Johnston shooting, police elderly Atlanta, Georgia (d. 2006)
  • Laurie Lee, English author (d. 1997)
  • Doc Williams, American musician (d. 2011)
  • June 27
  • Helena Benitez, Filipina academic and administrator (d. 2016)
  • Rose Cabat, American studio ceramicist (d. 2015)
  • June 29
  • Franz Joseph, American artist and writer (d. 1994)
  • Rafael Kubelík, Czech-born conductor (d. 1996)
  • June 30
  • Agnès Valois, French religious
  • Bill Monti, Australian rugby union player (d. 1977)
  • July

  • July 1
  • Thomas Pearson, British Army officer
  • John Feenan, Irish and Northern Irish footballer
  • Christl Cranz, German alpine skier (d. 2004)
  • July 2
  • Frederick Fennell, American conductor (d. 2004)
  • Ethelreda Leopold, American film actress (d. 1998)
  • Bob Allen, American Major League Baseball pitcher (d. 2005)
  • Erich Topp, German commander (d. 2005)
  • July 5 – Gerda Gilboe, Danish actress (d. 2009)
  • July 6
  • Ernest Kirkendall, American chemist and metallurgist (d. 2005)
  • Vincent J. McMahon, professional wrestling promoter (d. 1984)
  • July 7 – Harvey B. Scribner, American educator and administrator (d. 2002)
  • July 8
  • Jyoti Basu, Indian politician (d. 2010)
  • Sarah P. Harkness, American architect (d. 2013)
  • July 9
  • Mac Wilson, Australian rules footballer
  • Willi Stoph, Prime Minister (1964-1973, 1976-1989) and Chairman of the Council of State (1973-1976) of the GDR (d. 1999)
  • July 10
  • Charles Donnelly, Irish poet (d. 1937)
  • Joe Shuster, Canadian-born comic book author (d. 1992)
  • Rempo Urip, Indonesian director
  • July 11 – Aníbal Troilo, Argentine tango musician (d. 1975)
  • July 12 – Francesco and Luisa Pace, Italian supercentenarians
  • July 14
  • Fred Fox, French musician
  • George Putnam, American reporter and talk show host (d. 2008)
  • July 15
  • Akhtar Hameed Khan, pioneer of microcredit in developing countries (d. 1999)
  • Gavin Maxwell, Scottish naturalist and author (d. 1969)
  • Howard Vernon, Swiss actor (d. 1996)
  • July 16 – Franco Ponzinibio, Argentine professional football player
  • July 18 – Oscar Heisserer, French footballer (d. 2004)
  • July 19
  • César Povolny, German-French association footballer
  • Camille Teissonnier, French footballer
  • John Kenneth Macalister, Canadian World War II hero (d. 1944)
  • Marius Russo, American baseball player (d. 2005)
  • July 20
  • Dobri Dobrev, Bulgarian philanthropist
  • Charilaos Florakis, Greek Communist leader (d. 2005)
  • Masa Niemi, Finnish actor (d. 1960)
  • Ersilio Cardinal Tonini, Italian Roman Catholic prelate (d. 2013)
  • July 23 – Virgil Finlay, American artist (d. 1971)
  • July 24
  • Frances Oldham Kelsey, American Food and Drug Administration reviewer (d. 2015)
  • Ed Mirvish, Canadian businessman and philanthropist (d. 2007)
  • July 25 – Lionel Van Deerlin, American politician (d. 2008)
  • July 27 – Gusti Huber, Austrian actress (d. 1993)
  • July 29
  • Irwin Corey, American actor and comedian (d. 2017)
  • Abram Games, British graphic designer (d. 1996)
  • July 30 – Michael Morris, 3rd Baron Killanin, Irish president of the International Olympic Committee (d. 1999)
  • July 31 – Louis de Funès, French actor (d. 1983)
  • August

  • August 2 – Beatrice Straight, American actress (d. 2001)
  • August 5
  • Parley Baer, American actor (d. 2002)
  • David Brian, American actor (d. 1993)
  • August 9
  • Gordon Cullen, British architect (d. 1994)
  • Ferenc Fricsay, Hungarian conductor (d. 1963)
  • Tove Jansson, Finnish author (d. 2001)
  • August 10
  • Ken Annakin, British film director (d. 2009)
  • Jeff Corey, American actor and drama teacher (d. 2002)
  • August 11 – Hugh Martin, American composer (d. 2011)
  • August 15 – Paul Rand, American graphic designer (d. 1996)
  • August 17
  • Franklin Delano Roosevelt, Jr., American lawyer and politician (d. 1988)
  • Gabrielle Weidner, Belgian World War II heroine (d. 1945)
  • August 26 – Julio Cortázar, Argentine writer (d. 1984)
  • August 27 – Heidi Kabel, German actress (d. 2010)
  • August 30 – Julie Bishop, American actress (d. 2001)
  • August 31 – Joan Barclay, American actress (d. 2002)
  • September

  • September 2 – Lord George-Brown, British politician (d. 1985)
  • September 5
  • Sor Isolina Ferré, Puerto Rican Catholic nun (d. 2000)
  • Nicanor Parra, Chilean poet
  • September 7 – James Van Allen, American physicist (d. 2006)
  • September 10 – Robert Wise, American film director and producer (d. 2005)
  • September 11 – Serbian Patriarch Pavle, leader of the Serbian Orthodox Church (d. 2009)
  • September 12
  • Desmond Llewelyn, Welsh actor (d. 1999)
  • Janusz Żurakowski, Polish-born pilot (d. 2004)
  • September 13 – Ralph Rapson, American architect (d. 2008)
  • September 14 – Clayton Moore, American actor (The Lone Ranger) (d. 1999)
  • September 15
  • Creighton Abrams, U.S. Vietnam War general (d. 1974)
  • Adolfo Bioy Casares, Argentine writer (d. 1999)
  • Jens Otto Krag, Danish politician, Prime Minister of Denmark (d. 1978)
  • Robert McCloskey, American children's author/illustrator (d. 2003)
  • September 16 – Allen Funt, American television show host (Candid Camera) (d. 1999)
  • September 17 – Thomas J. Bata, Czech-born businessman (d. 2008)
  • September 18
  • Jack Cardiff, British cinematographer, director, and photographer (d. 2009)
  • Harry Townes, American actor (d. 2001)
  • September 20
  • Ken Hechler, American politician (d. 2016)
  • Kenneth More, English actor (d. 1982)
  • Anna Karen Morrow, American actress (d. 2009)
  • September 21 – Bob Lido, American singer and musician (d. 2000)
  • September 22 – Siegfried Lowitz, German television actor (d. 1999)
  • September 23
  • Bethsabée de Rothschild, English philanthropist and patron of dance (d. 1999)
  • Omar Ali Saifuddien III, Sultan of Brunei (d. 1986)
  • September 24 – Andrzej Panufnik, Polish-born British musician and composer (d. 1991)
  • September 25 – Elena Lucena, Argentine film actress (d. 2015)
  • September 26 – Jack LaLanne, American fitness, exercise and nutritional expert (d. 2011)
  • September 27 – Sophie Sooäär, Estonian actress and singer (d. 1996)
  • October

  • October 1 – Daniel J. Boorstin, American historian, writer, and Librarian of Congress (d. 2004)
  • October 2 – Jack Parsons, American rocket engineer and occultist (d. 1952)
  • October 4 – Jim Cairns, Australian politician (d. 2003)
  • October 6 – Thor Heyerdahl, Norwegian explorer (d. 2002)
  • October 7 – Begum Akhtar, Indian singer (d. 1974)
  • October 8 – Henry C. Pearson, American abstract and modernist painter (d. 2006)
  • October 10
  • Tommy Fine, American baseball player (d. 2005)
  • Agostino Straulino, Italian sailor and sailboat racer (d. 2004)
  • October 14 – Raymond Davis Jr., American physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 2006)
  • October 15 – Mohammed Zahir Shah, King of Afghanistan (d. 2007)
  • October 17 – Jerry Siegel, American comic book author (d. 1996)
  • October 19 – Juanita Moore, American actress (d. 2014)
  • October 21 – Martin Gardner, American writer (d. 2010)
  • October 23 – Dick Durrance, American skier (d. 2004)
  • October 25
  • John Berryman, American poet (d. 1972)
  • Maudie Prickett, American actress (d. 1976)
  • October 26 – Jackie Coogan, American actor (d. 1984)
  • October 27 – Dylan Thomas, Welsh poet and author (d. 1953)
  • October 28
  • Glenn Robert Davis, American congressman (d. 1988)
  • Jonas Salk, American medical scientist (d. 1995)
  • Richard Laurence Millington Synge, English chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1994)
  • October 29 – Ben Gage, American actor, singer, and radio announcer (d. 1978)
  • October 30 – Anna Wing, English actress, better known for her role in EastEnders (d. 2013)
  • November

  • November 1 – Moshe Teitelbaum, Hassidic rabbi (d. 2006)
  • November 2
  • Johnny Vander Meer, baseball player (d. 1997)
  • Ray Walston, American actor (d. 2001)
  • November 5 – Alton Tobey, American artist (d. 2005)
  • November 6
  • Jonathan Harris, American actor (Lost in Space) (d. 2002)
  • Leonard Miall, British broadcaster and television personality (d. 2005)
  • November 8
  • George Dantzig, American mathematician (d. 2005)
  • Norman Lloyd, American actor, producer, director and husband of Peggy Lloyd
  • November 9 – Hedy Lamarr, Austrian actress (d. 2000)
  • November 10 – Tod Andrews, American actor (d. 1972)
  • November 11 – Howard Fast, American novelist and television writer (d. 2003)
  • November 13
  • Alberto Lattuada, Italian film director (d. 2005)
  • Amelia Bence, Argentine actress (d. 2016)
  • November 18 – William Phillips, New Zealand economist (d. 1974)
  • November 23
  • Roger Avon, English actor (d. 1998)
  • George Dunn, American actor (d. 1982)
  • November 25 – Joe DiMaggio, American baseball player (d. 1999)
  • November 29 – Coleridge Goode, Jamaican-born British jazz bassist (d. 2015)
  • December

  • December 2 – Bill Erwin, American actor (d. 2010)
  • December 6 – Ruchoma Shain, American-born teacher and author (d. 2013)
  • December 7 – Alberto Castillo, Argentine tango singer and actor (d. 2002)
  • December 9 – Frances Reid, American actress (d. 2010)
  • December 10 – Dorothy Lamour, American actress and singer (d. 1996)
  • December 12 – Patrick O'Brian, British novelist (d. 2000)
  • December 13 – Larry Parks, American actor (d. 1975)
  • December 14
  • Karl Carstens, German president (d. 1992)
  • Rosalyn Tureck, American pianist and harpsichordist (d. 2003)
  • December 15 – Anatole Abragam, French physicist (d. 2011)
  • December 19 – Dietrich Hrabak, German World War II flying ace (d. 1995)
  • December 20 – Harry F. Byrd, Jr., American politician (d. 2013)
  • December 21 – Frank Fenner, Australian virologist and microbiologist (d. 2010)
  • December 23 – David Alexander, American television director (d. 1983)
  • December 24
  • Herbert Reinecker, German writer (d. 2007)
  • Zoya Bulgakova, Russian Soviet stage actress (d. 2017)
  • December 25 – Abelardo Raidi, Venezuelan sportswriter and radio broadcaster (d. 2002)
  • December 26 – Richard Widmark, American actor (d. 2008)
  • December 28 – Bidia Dandaron, Buddhist author and teacher in the USSR (d. 1974)
  • December 29 – Billy Tipton, American musician (d. 1989)
  • December 30 – Bert Parks, American singer and actor (Miss America Pageant) (d. 1992)
  • Date unknown

  • Sudha Roy, Indian radical leader (d. 1987)
  • Clint C. Wilson, Sr., African American editorial cartoonist (d. 2005)
  • January

  • January 8 – Simon Bolivar Buckner, American soldier and politician and Confederate soldier (b. 1823)
  • January 11 – Carl Jacobsen, Danish brewer and patron of the arts (b. 1842)
  • January 13 – Valentin Zubiaurre, Spanish composer and professor of the Madrid Royal Conservatory (b. 1837)
  • January 16 – Ito Sukeyuki, Japanese admiral (b. 1843)
  • January 18 – Georges Picquart, French general and politician (b. 1854)
  • February

  • February 20 – Federico Degetau, Puerto Rican politician (b. 1862)
  • February 24 – Joshua Chamberlain, American Civil War general (b. 1828)
  • February 25 – John Tenniel, English illustrator (b. 1820)
  • March

  • March 1 – Gilbert Elliot-Murray-Kynynmound, 4th Earl of Minto (b. 1845)
  • March 6 – George Washington Vanderbilt II, American businessman (b. 1862)
  • March 12 – George Westinghouse, American entrepreneur (b. 1846)
  • March 16 – Charles Albert Gobat, Swiss politician, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize (b. 1843)
  • March 19 – Giuseppe Mercalli, Italian volcanologist (b. 1850)
  • March 25 – Frédéric Mistral, French writer, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1830)
  • March 31 – Christian Morgenstern, German poet and writer (b. 1871)
  • April

  • April 1 – Rube Waddell, American baseball player and MLB Hall of Famer (b. 1876)
  • April 2 – Paul von Heyse, German writer, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1830)
  • April 7 – Mohammad Ayyub Khan, former Emir of Afghanistan (b. 1855)
  • April 19
  • Charles Sanders Peirce, American philosopher (b. 1839)
  • Empress Shōken, empress-consort of the Meiji Emperor (b. 1849)
  • April 26 – Eduard Suess, Austrian geologist (b. 1831)
  • May

  • May 2 – John Campbell, 9th Duke of Argyll, husband of Princess Louise of the United Kingdom (b. 1845)
  • May 8 – Seth Edulji Dinshaw, Pakistani philanthropist
  • May 23 – Gustav Hamel, pioneer aviator, carried first airmail (b. 1889)
  • June

  • May 26 – Jacob Riis, Danish-American social reformer (b. 1849)
  • June 11 – Adolf Friedrich V, Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (b. 1848)
  • June 14 – Adlai E. Stevenson I, 23rd Vice President of the United States (b. 1835)
  • June 15 – John Robert Sitlington Sterrett, American classical scholar and archeologist (b. 1851)
  • June 19 – Brandon Thomas, British actor and playwright (Charley's Aunt) (b. 1848)
  • June 21 – Bertha von Suttner, Austrian writer and pacifist, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize (b. 1843)
  • June 28
  • Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria (assassinated) (b. 1863)
  • Sophie, Duchess of Hohenberg, wife of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria (assassinated) (b. 1868)
  • July

  • July 2 – Joseph Chamberlain, British politician (b. 1836)
  • July 17 – Luis Uribe, Chilean naval hero (b. 1847)
  • July 31 – Jean Jaurès, French pacifist (assassinated) (b. 1859)
  • August

  • August 4 – Hubertine Auclert, French feminist (b. 1848)
  • August 6 – Ellen Axson Wilson, First Lady of the United States (b. 1860)
  • August 8
  • Martin-Paul Samba, Cameroonian rebel leader (executed)
  • Rudolf Duala Manga Bell, Cameroonian resistance leader (executed)
  • August 9 – Roque Sáenz Peña, President of Argentina (b. 1851)
  • August 12 – John Philip Holland, Irish developer of the submarine (b. 1840)
  • August 20 – Pope Pius X (b. 1835)
  • August 26 – Achille Pierre Deffontaines, French general (died of wounds received in action) (b. 1858)
  • August 27 – Eugen Böhm von Bawerk, Austrian economist (b. 1851)
  • August 30 – Aleksander Samsonov, Russian general (suicide) (b. 1859)
  • September

  • September 3 – Albéric Magnard, French composer (b. 1865)
  • September 8 – Hans Leybold, German nihilist poet (b. 1892)
  • September 11 – Ismail Gasprinski, Crimean Tatar intellectual (b. 1851)
  • September 15 – Koos de la Rey, Boer general (b. 1847)
  • September 16 – C. X. Larrabee, American businessman (b. 1843)
  • September 22 – Alain-Fournier, French writer (killed in action) (b. 1886)
  • September 26 – August Macke, German painter (killed in action) (b. 1887)
  • September 28 – Richard Warren Sears, American founder of Sears, Roebuck and Company (b. 1863)
  • October

  • October 1 – Kitty Lange Kielland, Norwegian painter (b. 1843)
  • October 10 – King Carol I of Romania (b. 1839)
  • October 19 – Julio Argentino Roca, Argentine general and statesman, former President of the Republic (b. 1843)
  • October 23 – José Evaristo Uriburu, Argentine politician, former President of the Republic (b. 1831)
  • October 25 – Charles W. H. Douglas, British Army general (b. 1850)
  • November

  • November 1
  • Christopher Cradock, British admiral (killed in action) (b. 1862)
  • Adna Chaffee, American Lieutenant General (b. 1842)
  • November 2 – Heinrich Burkhardt, German mathematician (b. 1861)
  • November 3 – Georg Trakl, Austrian poet (suicide) (b. 1887)
  • November 5
  • Robert Kekewich, British general (suicide) (b. 1854)
  • August Weismann, German evolutionary biologist (b. 1834)
  • November 11 – A. E. J. Collins, British cricketer and soldier (killed in action) (b. 1885)
  • November 12 – Augusto dos Anjos, Brazilian poet (b. 1884)
  • November 14 – Frederick Roberts, 1st Earl Roberts, British field marshal (b. 1832)
  • November 19 – Robert Jones Burdette, American minister and sentimental humorist (b. 1844)
  • November 21 – Thaddeus C. Pound, American businessman and politician (b. 1833)
  • December

  • December 1 – Alfred Thayer Mahan, United States Navy admiral and American geostrategist and historian (b. 1840)
  • December 8 – Maximilian von Spee, German admiral (killed in action) (b. 1861)
  • December 24 – John Muir, American naturalist (b. 1838)
  • Nobel Prizes

  • Physics – Max von Laue
  • Chemistry- Theodore William Richards
  • Medicine – Róbert Bárány
  • Literature – not awarded
  • Peace – not awarded
  • References

    1914 Wikipedia


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