January 1 – International Telecommunication Union established.
January 7 – The Flash Gordon comic strip is first published, in the United States.
January 15 – The 8.0 Mw Nepal–Bihar earthquake strikes Nepal and Bihar with a maximum Mercalli intensity of XI (Extreme), killing an estimated 6,000–10,700 people.
January 20 – The Japanese company Fuji Photo Film is established.
January 26 – The 10 year German–Polish Non-Aggression Pact is signed by Nazi Germany and the Second Polish Republic.
January 30 – In Nazi Germany the political power of the federal states such as Prussia is substantially abolished by the "Law on the Reconstruction of the Reich" (Gesetz über den Neuaufbau des Reiches).
February 6 – French political crisis: The French far-right leagues rally in front of the Palais Bourbon in an attempted coup d'état against the Third Republic.
Gaston Doumergue forms a new government in France.
Greece, Romania, Turkey and Yugoslavia form the Balkan Pact.
February 12–16 – Austrian Civil War: the Fatherland Front consolidates its power in a series of clashes across the country.
February 16 – Commission of Government sworn in as form of direct rule for the Dominion of Newfoundland.
February 21 – Augusto César Sandino is assassinated in Managua by the National Guard.
March 1 – Manchuria becomes Manchukuo, following an invasion by the Japanese.
March 12 – Prime Minister in duties of the State Elder Konstantin Päts and General Johan Laidoner stage a coup in Estonia to neutralize the popular right wing Vaps Movement, starting the Era of Silence. Their actions are initially approved by the Riigikogu.
March 20 – The Great Hakodate Fire kills at least 2,166 people in southern Hokkaido, Japan.
March 24 – The Tydings–McDuffie Act is passed, allowing the Philippines a greater degree of self-government from the United States.
April 6 – Rudyard Kipling and William Butler Yeats are awarded the Gothenburg Prize for Poetry.
April 21 – Surgeon's Photograph: London gynaecologist Robert Kenneth Wilson takes a photograph of the Loch Ness Monster before being proven in 1994 it was an elaborate hoax.
May 1 – The May Constitution of 1934 heralds the beginning of the Austrofascist Federal State of Austria.
May 5 – The first Three Stooges short, Woman Haters, is released.
May 15 – Kārlis Ulmanis establishes an authoritarian government in Latvia.
May 19 – Kimon Georgiev stages a coup d'état in Bulgaria.
May 23 – American outlaws Bonnie and Clyde are ambushed and killed by police in Bienville Parish, Louisiana.
May 28 – Near Callander, Ontario, the Dionne quintuplets are born to Oliva and Elzire Dionne, becoming the first quintuplets to survive infancy.
June 9 – The Disney animated short, The Wise Little Hen featuring the debut of Donald Duck is released.
June 10 – Italy beats Czechoslovakia 2–1 after extra time to win the 1934 World Cup.
June 12 – Political parties are banned in Bulgaria.
June 14 – Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini meet for the first time, at the Venice Biennale.
June 18 – The Indian Reorganization Act is enacted.
June 27 – The Emir of Yemen and ibn Saud of Saudi Arabia conclude a peace treaty.
June 30–July 2 – Night of the Long Knives in Germany: Nazis purge the Sturmabteilung (SA), the left-wing Strasserist faction of the Nazi Party and prominent conservative anti-Nazis in a series of political murders.
June 30 – The Nazi Party SA camp Oranienburg becomes a national camp, taken over by the Schutzstaffel (SS).
July 13 – Hitler gives a speech to the Reichstag justifying his purge.
July 15 – The American film industry begins to rigorously enforce the Motion Picture Production Code.
July 25 – July Putsch: Austrian Nazis assassinate chancellor Engelbert Dollfuss during a failed coup attempt.
August 2 – Adolf Hitler becomes Führer of Germany, or head of state combined with that of Chancellor following the death of President Paul von Hindenburg.
August 8 – The Wehrmacht swears a personal oath of loyalty to Adolf Hitler.
August 15 – The United States Marine Corps leaves Haiti.
August 19 – German referendum, 1934: In a referendum, 90% of the German population approves of Hitler's assumption of presidential powers as Führer and Reichskanzler.
September 5–10 – 6th Nuremberg Rally staged by the German Nazi Party.
September 8 – Off the New Jersey coast, a fire aboard the passenger liner SS Morro Castle kills 134 people.
The Soviet Union joins the League of Nations.
Bruno Richard Hauptmann is arrested in connection with the Lindbergh kidnapping case in the U.S.
September 21 – Muroto typhoon in Honshū, Japan kills 3,036 people, and destroys the temple, schools, and other buildings in Osaka.
September 22 – A gas explosion at Gresford Colliery in Wrexham, north-east Wales, kills 266 miners and rescuers.
September 28 – Afghanistan joins the League of Nations.
October 2 – A tornado in Osaka and Kyoto kills 1,660, injures 5,400, and destroys the rice harvest.
October 6 – Events of October the 6th: the President of Catalonia, Lluís Companys, declared the Catalan State of the Spanish Federal Republic, but Spanish troops swiftly crushed the Catalan forces and arrested him and the members of the Catalan government. The autonomy of Catalonia was suspended until 1936.
October 9 – King Alexander of Yugoslavia and French foreign minister Louis Barthou are assassinated during the king's state visit in Marseille.
October 16 – The Long March of the People's Liberation Army of the Communist Party of China begins.
October 20 – Start of MacRobertson Air Race from London to Melbourne
November 23 – An Anglo-Ethiopian boundary commission in the Ogaden discovers an Italian garrison at Walwal, which lays well within Ethiopian territory. This encounter leads to the Abyssinia Crisis.
November 27– Daniel Salamanca Urey, President of Bolivia, is deposed in a military coup and replaced by José Luis Tejada Sorzano.
December 5 – Abyssinia Crisis: Ethiopian and Italian troops exchange gunfire. Reported casualties for the Ethiopians are 150, and for the Italians 50.
December 27 – Persia becomes Iran.
December 29 – Japan renounces the Washington Naval Treaty of 1922 and the London Naval Treaty of 1930.
Winter – Tadj ol-Molouk, Empress consort of Iran, and her daughters appear publicly in Tehran without a veil, leading to its abolition in the country.
Abidjan becomes the capital of the French colony of Ivory Coast.
The sonoluminescence effect is discovered at the University of Cologne.
The Australian frontier wars end after 146 years.
Yomiuri Giants, a successful professional baseball club in Japan, founded in Tokyo.
George D. Behrakis, Greek American philanthropist
Alan Berg, Jewish talk show host (d. 1984)
January 4 – Hellmuth Karasek, German journalist, literary critic, novelist (d. 2015)
January 5 – Eddy Pieters Graafland, Dutch football goalkeeper
Jean Corbeil, Canadian politician (d. 2002)
Charles Jenkins, American sprinter
Joseph Naso, American serial killer
Tassos Papadopoulos, Cypriot politician, 5th President of Cyprus (d. 2008)
January 8 – Piet Dankert, Dutch politician (d. 2003)
January 9 – Bart Starr, American football player
January 10 – Leonid Kravchuk, President of Ukraine
January 11 – Jean Chrétien, 20th Prime Minister of Canada
January 12 – Mick Sullivan, English rugby league footballer
January 13 – Rip Taylor, American comedian
January 14 – Richard Briers, English actor (d. 2013)
January 16 – Marilyn Horne, American mezzo-soprano
January 17 – Cedar Walton, jazz pianist (d. 2013)
January 18 – Raymond Briggs, British writer and illustrator
Tom Baker, British actor
Dave Hull, American former radio personality
January 21 – Ann Wedgeworth, American actress
Bill Bixby, American actor and director (d. 1993)
Graham Kerr, British television personality
Nolan Strong, Detroit doo-wop singer with The Diablos (d. 1970)
January 23 – Lou Antonio, American actor and director
January 24 – Stanisław Grochowiak, Polish poet and dramatist (d. 1976)
January 30 – Tammy Grimes, American actress (d. 2016)
February 5 – Hank Aaron, African-American baseball player
Eddie Fenech Adami, 10th Prime Minister of Malta and 7th President of Malta
Earl King, American musician (d. 2003)
February 10 – Fleur Adcock, New Zealand poet
Tina Louise, American actress
Manuel Noriega, Panamanian military dictator (1983–1989)
Mary Quant, British fashion designer
John Surtees, British race car driver
Mel Carnahan, American politician (d. 2000)
Anne Krueger, American economist
Bill Russell, American basketball player
February 13 – George Segal, American actor
Michel Corboz, Swiss conductor
Florence Henderson, American actress, singer and television personality (d. 2016)
February 15 – Niklaus Wirth, Swiss computer scientist
February 16 – Harold "Hal" & Herbert "Herbie" Kalin, American singers (The Kalin Twins) (d. 2005 and 2006, respectively)
Sir Alan Bates, British actor (d. 2003)
Barry Humphries, Australian actor and comedian
February 18 – Ronald F. Marryott, American admiral (d. 2005)
February 20 – Bobby Unser, American race car driver
February 21 – Rue McClanahan, American actress (d. 2010)
Sparky Anderson, American baseball manager (d. 2010)
Van Williams, American actor
February 23 – Augusto Algueró, Spanish composer (d. 2011)
Bettino Craxi, Prime Minister of Italy (d. 2000)
Renata Scotto, Italian soprano
Bingu wa Mutharika, Malawian President and economist (d. 2012)
February 25 – Bernard Bresslaw, British actor (d. 1993)
Vincent Fourcade, French-born interior designer and socialite (d. 1992)
Ralph Nader, American consumer activist and presidential candidate
Jean-Michel Folon, Belgian sculptor (d. 2005)
Joan Hackett, American actress (d. 1983)
Mario Davidovsky, Argentinian composer
John Duffey, American bluegrass musician (d. 1996)
Anne Haney, American actress (d. 2001)
Barbara McNair, African-American singer and actress (d. 2007)
Janez Strnad, Slovenian physicist
Daniel Kahneman, Israeli economist, Nobel Prize laureate
Nicholas Smith, English actor (d. 2015)
Franklin Clarke, American football player
Willard Scott, American television weather reporter
Del Close, American actor, improviser, writer and teacher (d. 1999)
Yuri Gagarin, Russian cosmonaut, first human in space (d. 1968)
Joyce Van Patten, American actress
March 11 – Sam Donaldson, American reporter
March 13 – Barry Hughart, American author
Eugene Cernan, American astronaut (d. 2017)
Paul Rader, General of The Salvation Army
March 15 – Richard Layard, Baron Layard, British economist
March 16 – Ray Hnatyshyn, Governor General of Canada (d. 2002)
March 17 – Frederick T. Mackenzie, American sedimentary and global biogeochemist
March 20 – Willie Brown, Mayor of San Francisco
Orrin Hatch, U.S. Senator from Utah
Larry Martyn, British comic actor (d. 1994)
March 23 – Mark Rydell, American actor and director
Johnny Burnette, American rockabilly singer, songwriter, and musician (d. 1964)
Gloria Steinem, American feminist
March 26 – Alan Arkin, American actor
Laurie Taitt, British sprint hurdler (d. 2006)
Lester R. Brown, American Author and Environmentalist.
Richard Chamberlain, American actor
Shirley Jones, American singer, actress, and first wife of Jack Cassidy
Carlo Rubbia, Italian physicist, Nobel Prize laureate
Orion Samuelson, American television personality
Jim Ed Brown, American country singer-songwriter (d. 2015)
Don Hastings, American actor
Rod Kanehl, American baseball player (d. 2004)
Vladimir Posner, Russian journalist
Paul Avery, American journalist (d. 2000)
Paul Cohen, American mathematician (d. 2007)
Brian Glover, British actor and wrestler (d. 1997)
April 3 – Jane Goodall, British zoologist
April 5 – Roman Herzog, 9th President of Germany (d. 2017)
April 6 – Anton Geesink, Dutch 10th-dan judoka (d. 2010)
April 9 – Bill Birch, New Zealand politician
April 11 – Mark Strand, Canadian-born American poet (d. 2014)
April 16 – Vince Hill, English singer-songwriter, producer and playwright
April 18 – James Drury, American actor
Jayakanthan, Tamil writer (d. 2015)
Shirley MacLaine, American actress, dancer, writer
Peter McParland, Irish footballer
Denny Miller, American actor (Wagon Train) (d. 2014)
Pedro Verona Rodrigues Pires, President of Cape Verde
Akira Takarada, Japanese actor
Henry Cooper, British boxer (d. 2011)
Frankie Valli, American musician
May 4 – Tatiana Samoilova, Russian actress (d. 2014)
May 6 – Richard Shelby, U. S. senator from Alabama
May 9 – Alan Bennett, British actor and writer
May 10 – Gary Owens, American disc jockey, voice actor and announcer (d. 2015)
May 13 – Leon Wagner, American baseball player (d. 2004)
May 15 – George Roper, British comedian (d. 2003)
May 18 – Dwayne Hickman, American actor
May 19 – Jim Lehrer, American television journalist
May 21 – Bengt I. Samuelsson, Swedish biochemist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
May 22 – Peter Nero, American pianist
May 23 – Robert Moog, American inventor of the synthesizer (d. 2005)
May 24 – Barry Rose, British choir director and organist
May 27 – Harlan Ellison, American writer
May 28 – Dionne quintuplets, Canadian quintuplets
May 29 – Nanette Newman, English actress and author
May 30 – Alexey Leonov, Russian cosmonaut
Pat Boone, American actor and singer
Ken Rex McElroy, American criminal (d. 1981)
June 3 – Rolland D. McCune, American theologian
Dame Monica Dacon, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines schoolteacher, educator and politician
Dame Daphne Sheldrick, Kenyan conservationist and author
June 5 – Bill Moyers, American journalist
June 6 – King Albert II of Belgium
June 15 – Rubén Aguirre, Mexican actor (d. 2016)
Dame Eileen Atkins, British actress
Kumari Kamala, Indian dancer and actress
William F. Sharpe, American economist, Nobel Prize laureate
June 20 – Samuel Zoll, Massachusetts jurist (d. 2011)
Josef Stoer, German mathematician
Ken Matthews, English race walker
Luigi Albertelli, Italian lyricist
Maro Kontou, Greek actress and politician
Ragnar Svensson, Greco-Roman wrestler from Sweden
Nancy R. Stocksdale, American politician
Russ Snyder, American Major League Baseball player
Virbhadra Singh, Indian politician
Jack W. Hayford, American author, Pentecostal minister, and Chancellor of The King's University
Keith Sutton, British bishop
Marino Casem, American football coach and athletic administrator
Rodney Peppé, British author and illustrator
Gloria Christian, Italian Canzone Napoletana singer
Peter Stoddart, English cricketer
Beatriz Sheridan, Mexican actress and director (d. 2006)
Willie Rodriguez, West Indian cricketer
Jack Hayford, American evangelist and author
Toru Goto, Japanese freestyle swimmer
Gustav Wiklund, Finnish actor
Josef Sommer, German-American stage and film actor
Jeremy Wolfenden, British journalist (d. 1965)
Ed Hobaugh, Major League Baseball player
Bill Hay, Australian rules footballer
Bob Wilson, Scottish former professional association football player
Carl Levin, United States Senator
Shiraz Ali, Bermudian cricketer
June 29 – Duane Wilson, American former professional baseball player
Richard Jolly, leading development economist
Harry Blackstone Jr., American magician (d. 1997)
Jamie Farr, American actor
Jean Marsh, British actress
Ester Pajusoo, Estonian actress
Ilselil Larsen, Danish film actress
Paddy Jones, British salsa dancer
Sydney Pollack, American film director (d. 2008)
July 8 – Marty Feldman, English comedy writer, comedian and actor (d. 1982)
July 9 – Michael Graves, American architect (d. 2015)
Alfred Biolek, German entertainer and television producer
Jerry Nelson, American puppeteer (d. 2012)
July 11 – Giorgio Armani, Italian fashion designer
July 12 – Van Cliburn, American pianist (d. 2013)
Wole Soyinka, Nigerian writer, Nobel Prize laureate
Aleksei Yeliseyev, Russian cosmonaut
July 14 – John Tyndall, British politician (d. 2005)
July 15 – Harrison Birtwistle, British composer
July 19 – Francisco de Sá Carneiro, Prime Minister of Portugal (d. 1980)
July 21 – Jonathan Miller, British theatre director
July 22 – Louise Fletcher, American actress
July 24 – P. S. Soosaithasan, Sri Lankan Tamil politician
July 27 – Luang Por Ajahn Sumedho, Theravada Buddhist representative in the West
July 28 – Bud Luckey, American voice actor and Pixar animator
July 30 – Bud Selig, American Major League Baseball commissioner
August 2 – Valery Bykovsky, Russian cosmonaut
August 3 – Jonas Savimbi, Angolan political and rebel leader (d. 2002)
August 4 – Dallas Green, American baseball manager and executive
August 5 – Cammie King, Former American child actor (d. 2010)
Wendell Berry, American novelist, essayist, poet
Gay Byrne, Irish broadcaster
August 6 – Billy Boston, Welsh rugby league footballer
August 10 – James Tenney, American experimental composer (d. 2006)
August 15 – Nino Ferrer, French singer (d. 1998)
Donnie Dunagan, American actor
Ed van Thijn, Dutch politician
Diana Wynne Jones, British writer (d. 2011)
Vincent Bugliosi, American prosecutor and author (d. 2015)
Ronnie Carroll, Northern Irish singer (d. 2015)
Roberto Clemente, Puerto Rican Major League Baseball player (d. 1972)
August 19 – Renée Richards, American transsexual physician and tennis player
Armi Kuusela, Miss Universe 1952
Tom Mangold, British journalist and author
August 22 – Norman Schwarzkopf, U.S. Army general (d. 2012)
August 23 – Sonny Jurgensen, American football player
August 24 – Kenny Baker, English actor (d. 2016)
Eddie Ilarde, Filipino broadcaster and politician
Ayatollah Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani, 4th President of Iran (d. 2017)
August 26 – Tom Heinsohn, American basketball player, coach, and broadcaster
Helen Craig, English children's author, illustrator (Angelina Ballerina)
Anatoly Solonitsyn, Russian actor (d. 1982)
September 2 – Grady Nutt, American humorist (d. 1982)
Clive Granger, Welsh-born economist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 2009)
Eduard Khil, Russian baritone singer ("Trololo") (d. 2012)
September 6 – Marshall Rosenberg, American psychologist and writer (d. 2015)
Little Milton, American musician (d. 2005)
Omar Karami, 58th Prime Minister of Lebanon (d. 2015)
September 8 – Peter Maxwell Davies, English composer (d. 2016)
September 9 – Nicholas Liverpool, Dominican lawyer and politician, 6th President of Dominica (d. 2015)
September 10 – Charles Kuralt, American journalist (d. 1997)
September 11 – Ian Abercrombie, English-American actor (d. 2012)
September 15 – Fred Nile, Australian Christian politician
Elgin Baylor, American basketball player and executive
Ronnie Drew, Irish singer with The Dubliners band (d. 2008)
Maureen Connolly, American tennis player (d. 1969)
Binoy Majumdar, Indian Hungryalist poet (d. 2006)
September 19 – Brian Epstein, English manager of the Beatles and co-founder of Northern Songs (d. 1967)
David Marquand, English academic and politician
Jeff Morris, American actor (d. 2004)
Rajinder Puri, Indian cartoonist, veteran columnist and political activist (d. 2015)
Sophia Loren, Italian actress
Tony Alamo, American religious leader and convicted criminal
Takayuki Kubota, martial artist and founder of the Gosoku-ryu style of karate
Leonard Cohen, Canadian poet, novelist and singer/songwriter (d. 2016)
David J. Thouless, Scottish-born condensed-matter physicist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physics
September 22 – Lute Olson, American basketball coach
September 23 – Ahmad Shah Khan, Crown Prince of Afghanistan
Tommy Anderson, Scottish footballer
Robert Lang, English stage and television actor (d. 2004)
Beverly Armstrong, American female professional baseball player
Wilford Brimley, American actor
September 28 – Brigitte Bardot, French actress, animal rights activist
Alan A'Court, English footballer (d. 2009)
Udo Jürgens, Austrian-Swiss composer and singer of popular music (d. 2014)
Anna Kashfi, Welsh actress (d. 2015)
Chuck Hiller, American baseball player (d. 2004)
Emilio Botín, Spanish banker (d. 2014)
Shakeb Jalali, Urdu poet (d. 1966)
October 2 – Earl Wilson, baseball player (d. 2005)
October 3 – Harold Henning, South African golfer (d. 2004)
October 4 – Sam Huff, American football player
October 7 – Amiri Baraka, African-American poet, playwright and activist (d. 2014)
Jill Ker Conway, Australian-born author
Abdullah Ibrahim, South African pianist and composer
October 13 – Nana Mouskouri, Greek singer
October 17 – Rico Rodriguez, Cuban-born Jamaican trombonist (d. 2015)
October 18 – Chuck Swindoll, American evangelist
Michael Dunn, a.k.a. Gary Neil Miller, dwarf American actor and singer (d. 1973)
Charles S. Liebman, American-Israeli political scientist and author (d. 2003)
Frans Brüggen, Dutch flutist, recorder player and conductor
Hamilton Camp, English-American actor (d. 2005)
November 1 – Umberto Agnelli, Swiss-born automobile executive (d. 2004)
November 2 – Ken Rosewall, Australian tennis champion
November 6 – Barton Myers, American/Canadian architect
November 7 – Jackie Joseph, American actress
November 9 – Carl Sagan, American astronomer and writer (d. 1996)
November 10 – Joanna Moore, American actress (d. 1997)
Suzanne Lloyd, Canadian film and television actress
Elżbieta Krzesińska, Polish athlete (d. 2015)
November 12 – Charles Manson, American cult leader and criminal
John Gowans, General of The Salvation Army (d. 2012)
Garry Marshall, American film producer, director and actor (d. 2016)
November 14 – Dave Mackay, Scottish football player (d. 2015)
November 15 – Irén Pavlics, Slovene author in Hungary
November 17 – Jim Inhofe, United States Senator
November 21 – Laurence Luckinbill, American actor
November 23 – Lew Hoad, Australian tennis champion (d. 1994)
November 24 – Alfred Schnittke, Volga German composer (d. 1998)
Ammo Baba, Assyrian soccer player (d. 2009)
Gilbert Strang, American mathematician
November 29 – Willie Morris, American writer (d. 1999)
November 30 – Lansana Conté, President of Guinea (d. 2008)
December 1 – Billy Paul, American singer (d. 2016)
December 2 – Andre Rodgers, American baseball player (d. 2004)
December 3 – Viktor Gorbatko, Russian cosmonaut
December 4 – Victor French, American actor and director (d. 1989)
December 5 – Joan Didion, American novelist
December 6 – Nick Bockwinkel, American professional wrestler (d. 2015)
Judi Dench, British actress
Junior Wells, American harmonica player (d. 1998)
December 10 – Howard Martin Temin, American geneticist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (d. 1994)
December 13 – Richard D. Zanuck, American producer (d. 2012)
December 18 – Boris Volynov, Russian cosmonaut
Aki Aleong, Trinidad and Tobago actor
Al Kaline, American baseball player
Rudi Carrell, Dutch singer and entertainer (d. 2006)
Pratibha Patil, President of India
December 24 – Stjepan Mesić, 2nd President of Croatia
December 27 – Larisa Latynina, Russian gymnast
Maggie Smith, British actress
Yujiro Ishihara, Japanese actor (d. 1987)
December 29 – Ed Flanders, American actor (d. 1995)
John Norris Bahcall, American astrophysicist (d. 2005)
Joseph P. Hoar, U.S. Marine commander
Del Shannon, American singer (Runaway) (d. 1990)
Russ Tamblyn, American film and television actor
January 1 – Jakob Wassermann, German writer (b. 1873)
January 6 – Herbert Chapman, English football manager (b. 1878)
January 7 – Auguste Dubail, French general (b. 1851)
January 8 – Andrei Bely, Russian writer (b. 1880)
January 10 – Marinus van der Lubbe, Dutch communist accused of setting fire to the Reichstag (executed) (b. 1909)
January 15 – Hermann Bahr, Austrian writer and playwright (b. 1863)
January 29 – Fritz Haber, German chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1868)
February 13 – József Pusztai, Slovene writer, poet and journalist in Hungary (b. 1864)
February 17 – King Albert I of Belgium (b. 1875)
February 21 – Augusto César Sandino, Nicaraguan revolutionary and rebel (murdered) (b. 1895)
February 23 – Edward Elgar, English composer (b. 1857)
February 25 – John McGraw, American baseball manager and MLB Hall of Famer (b. 1873)
March 1 – Charles Webster Leadbeater, English author and Theosophist (b.1854)
March 15 – Davidson Black, Canadian-born paleoanthropologist (b.1884)
Emma of Waldeck and Pyrmont, Dutch Queen and regent (b.1858)
Sydney Deane, Australian cricketer and actor (b. 1863)
March 21 – Lilyan Tashman, American actress (b. 1896)
March 28 – Mahmoud Mokhtar, Egyptian sculptor (b. 1891)
March 29 – Otto Hermann Kahn, German-born philanthropist (b. 1867)
March 30 – Ronald Munro Ferguson, 1st Viscount Novar, Scottish politician, former Governor-General of Australia (b. 1860)
April 7 – Karl von Einem, German general (b. 1853)
April 11 – Gerald du Maurier, British actor (b. 1873)
April 15 – Karl Dane, Danish actor (b. 1886)
April 18 – Raffaele Garofalo, Italian criminologist and jurist (b. 1851)
April 27 – Joe Vila, American sportswriter (b. 1866)
April 30 – Hugh L. Scott, Major General of the US Army (b. 1853)
May 3 – William Woodin, American politician (b. 1868)
May 17 – Cass Gilbert, American architect (b. 1859)
Clyde Barrow, American outlaw, member of Barrow Gang (shot) (b. 1909)
Bonnie Parker, American outlaw, member of Barrow Gang (shot) (b. 1910)
May 24 – Brand Whitlock, American journalist and politician (b. 1869)
May 25 – Gustav Holst, English composer (b. 1874)
May 30 – Tōgō Heihachirō, Japanese admiral (b. 1848)
May 31 – Lew Cody, American actor (b. 1884)
Dorothy Dell, American actress (b. 1915)
Jesse Root Grant, Son of President Ulysses S. Grant (b. 1858)
June 10 – Frederick Delius, English composer (b. 1862)
June 11 – Lev Vygotsky, Russian developmental psychologist (b. 1896)
June 20 – Andrew Jackson Zilker, American philanthropist (b. 1858)
June 27 – Francesco Buhagiar, 2nd Prime Minister of Malta (b. 1876)
June 30 – Murdered during the Night of the Long Knives:
Fritz Gerlich, German journalist (b. 1883)
Gustav von Kahr, German politician (b. 1862)
Karl Ernst, Nazi SA leader in Berlin (b. 1904)
Edmund Heines, Deputy SA leader (b. 1897)
Gregor Strasser, German politician, early Nazi leader (b. 1892)
Kurt von Schleicher, 23rd Chancellor of Germany (b. 1882)
July 1 – Ernst Röhm, Nazi SA Leader (b. 1887)
Marie Curie, Polish-born scientist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry and physics (b. 1867)
Hayim Nahman Bialik considered Israel's national poet (b. 1873)
July 8 – Benjamin Baillaud, French astronomer (b. 1848)
Kate Sheppard, most prominent member of New Zealand Women's suffrage (b. 1848)
Ignacio Sánchez Mejías, Spanish bullfighter (b. 1891)
Louis F. Gottschalk, American composer (b. 1864)
Jules Renkin, former Prime Minister of Belgium (b. 1862)
July 18 – Sy Sanborn, American sportswriter (b. 1866)
July 21 – Hubert Lyautey, Marshal of France (b. 1854)
July 22 – John Dillinger, American criminal (b. 1903)
July 24 – Hans Hahn, Austrian mathematician (b. 1879)
François Coty, French perfume manufacturer (b. 1874)
Engelbert Dollfuss, Chancellor of Austria (assassinated) (b. 1892)
Nestor Makhno, Ukrainian anarchist (b. 1889)
July 26 – Winsor McCay, American comic creator and animator (b. 1871)
Marie Dressler, Canadian actress (b. 1868)
Louis Tancred, South African cricketer (b. 1876)
Edith Yorke, English actress (b. 1867)
August 2 – Paul von Hindenburg, German general and politician (b. 1847)
August 8 – Wilbert Robinson, American baseball manager and MLB Hall of Famer (b. 1863)
August 9 – Alfred Steux, Belgian road racing cyclist (b. 1892)
August 10 – George W. Hill, American director (b. 1895)
August 13 – Mary Hunter Austin, American writer of fiction and non-fiction (b. 1868)
August 14 – Raymond Hood, American architect (b. 1881)
August 23 – Homer Van Meter, American criminal and bank robber (b. 1905)
Russ Columbo, American singer and actor (b. 1908)
Alcide Nunez, American musician (b. 1884)
September 9 – Roger Fry, British artist (b. 1866)
October 5 – Jean Vigo, French film director (b. 1905)
October 9 – King Alexander I of Yugoslavia (b. 1888) (assassinated)
October 12 – Willy Clarkson, English costume designer and wigmaker (b. 1861)
October 14 – Mikhail Matyushin, Russian painter y composer (b. 1861)
October 15 – Raymond Poincaré, 3-Time Prime Minister of France and President of France, Leaders of World War I(b. 1860)
October 17 – Santiago Ramón y Cajal, Spanish histologist and neuroscientist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (b. 1852)
October 19 – Alexander von Kluck, German general (b. 1846)
October 22 – Pretty Boy Floyd, American bank robber (b. 1904)
October 29 – Lou Tellegen, Dutch actor (b. 1881)
November 2 – Edmond James de Rothschild, French philanthropist (b. 1845)
November 3 – Robert McAlpine, Scottish builder (b. 1847)
November 10 – Ion Farris, American politician, former Speaker of the Florida House of Representatives (b. 1878)
Alice Liddell, English inspiration for Alice's Adventures in Wonderland (b. 1852)
Carl von Linde, German scientist and engineer (b. 1842)
Georgi Todorov, Bulgarian general (b. 1858)
November 20 – Willem de Sitter, Dutch mathematician, physicist and astronomer (b. 1872)
November 22 – Harry Steppe, American vaudeville performer (b. 1888)
November 27 – Baby Face Nelson, American gangster (b. 1908)
November 30 – Hélène Boucher, French aviator (b. 1908)
December 1 – Sergey Kirov, Soviet politician (b. 1886)
December 5 – Oskar von Hutier, German general (b. 1857)
December 6 – Charles Michael, Duke of Mecklenburg, head of the House of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (b. 1863)
December 26 – Wallace Thurman, American writer (b. 1902)
Lowell Sherman, American actor and director (b. 1885)
Pablo Gargallo, Spanish sculptor and painter (b. 1881)
Physics – Not awarded this year
Chemistry – Harold Clayton Urey
Physiology or Medicine – George Hoyt Whipple, George Richards Minot, William Parry Murphy
Literature – Luigi Pirandello
Peace – Arthur Henderson
1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (dominical letter G) of the Gregorian calendar, the 1934th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 934th year of the 2nd millennium, the 34th year of the 20th century, and the 5th year of the 1930s decade.