Nagpur is the seat of the annual winter session of the Maharashtra state assembly, "Vidhan Sabha". It is a major commercial and political centre of the Vidarbha region of Maharashtra. In addition, the city derives political importance from being the headquarters for the Hindu nationalist organisation RSS and an important location for the Dalit Buddhist movement. Nagpur is also known for Deekshabhoomi, the largest hollow stupa among all the Buddhist stupas in the world. Here Dr. B. R. Ambedkar along with nearly 500,000 followers converted to Buddhism. This was one of the first mass religious conversions in the history of India.
According to a survey by ABP News-Ipsos, Nagpur has been identified as the best city in India by topping the livability, greenery, public transport, and health care indices. The city has been adjudged as the 20th cleanest city in India and the top mover in the western zone as per Swachh Sarvekshan 2016.
It is famous for the Nagpur orange and is known as the "Orange City" for being a major trade centre of oranges cultivated in the region. The city was founded in 1703 by the Gonds King Bakht Buland Shah of Deogarh and later became a part of the Maratha Empire under the royal Bhonsale dynasty. The British East India Company took over Nagpur in the 19th century and made it the capital of the Central Provinces and Berar. After the first reorganisation of states, the city lost its status as the capital. Following the informal "Nagpur Pact" between political leaders, it was made the second capital of Maharashtra.
Also see: Nagpur state
One of the earlier names of Nagpur was "Fanindrapura". It derives its origin from the 'Fana' or hood of a cobra. In fact, Nagpur's first newspaper was named 'Fanindramani', which means a jewel that is believed to be suspended over a cobra's hood. It is this jewel that lights up the darkness, hence the name of the newspaper. The river Nag flows through the city. B. R. Ambedkar claimed that both the city and the river are named after "Nag people". The word "pur" means "city" in many Indian languages. During British rule, the name of the city was spelt and pronounced as "Nagpore".
In the 18th century, this city was created by leader of Gond Dynasty named Bakht Buland Shah in the first half of the century. Human existence around present-day Nagpur can be traced back 3000 years to the 8th century BCE. Mehir burial sites at Drugdhamna (near the Mhada colony) indicate that the megalithic culture existed around Nagpur and is still followed. The first reference to the name "Nagpur" is found in a 10th-century copper-plate inscription discovered at Devali in the neighbouring Wardha district. The inscription is a record of grant of a village situated in the visaya (district) of Nagpura-Nandivardhana during the time of the Rastrakuta king Krsna III in the Saka year 862 (940 CE). Towards the end of the 3rd century, King Vindhyasakti is known to have ruled the Nagpur region. In the 4th century, the Vakataka Dynasty ruled over the Nagpur region and surrounding areas and had good relations with the Gupta Empire. The Vakataka king Prithvisena I moved his capital to Nagardhan (ancient name Nandivardhana), 28 kilometres (17 mi) from Nagpur. After the Vakatakas, the region came under the rule of the Hindu kingdoms of the Badami Chalukyas, the Rashtrakutas, and finally the Yadavas. In 1296, Allauddin Khilji invaded the Yadava Kingdom after capturing Deogiri, after which the Tughlaq Dynasty came to power in 1317. In the 17th century, the Mughal Empire conquered the region, however during Mughal era, regional administration was carried out by the Gond kingdom of Deogarh-Nagpur in the Chhindwara district of the modern-day state of Madhya Pradesh. In the 18th, century Bhonsles of the Maratha Empire established the Nagpur Kingdom based in the city.
The next Raja (king) of Deogarh was Chand Sultan, who resided principally in the country below the hills, fixing his capital at Nagpur, which he turned into a walled town. On Chand Sultan's death in 1739, Wali Shah, an illegitimate son of Bakht Buland, usurped the throne and Chand Sultan's widow invoked the aid of the Maratha leader Raghoji Bhonsale of Berar in the interest of her sons Akbar Shah and Burhan Shah. The usurper was put to death and the rightful heirs placed on the throne. After 1743, a series of Maratha rulers came to power, starting with Raghoji Bhonsale, who conquered the territories of Deogarh, Chanda and Chhattisgarh by 1751.
Nagpur was burnt substantially in 1765 and again partially in 1811 by marauding Pindaris. However, the development of city of Nagpur continued. In 1803 Raghoji II Bhonsale joined the Peshwa against the British in the Second Anglo-Maratha War, but the British prevailed. After Raghoji II's death in 1816, his son Parsaji was deposed and murdered by Mudhoji II Bhonsale. Despite the fact that he had entered into a treaty with the British in the same year, Mudhoji joined the Peshwa in the Third Anglo-Maratha War in 1817 against the British but suffered a defeat at Sitabuldi in present-day Nagpur city. The fierce battle was a turning point as it laid the foundations of the downfall of the Bhonsales and paved the way for the British acquisition of Nagpur city. Mudhoji was deposed after a temporary restoration to the throne, after which the British placed Raghoji III Bhonsale, the grandchild of Raghoji II, on the throne. During the rule of Raghoji III(which lasted till 1840), the region was administered by a British resident. In 1853, the British took control of Nagpur after Raghoji III died without leaving an heir.
From 1853 to 1861, the Nagpur Province (which consisted of the present Nagpur region, Chhindwara, and Chhattisgarh) became part of the Central Provinces and Berar and came under the administration of a commissioner under the British central government, with Nagpur as its capital. Berar was added in 1903. The advent of the Great Indian Peninsula Railway (GIP) in 1867 spurred its development as a trade centre. Tata group started the country's first textile mill at Nagpur, formally known as Central India Spinning and Weaving Company Ltd. The company was popularly known as "Empress Mills" as it was inaugurated on 1 January 1877, the day queen Victoria was proclaimed Empress of India.
The non-co-operation movement was launched in the Nagpur session of 1920. The city witnessed a Hindu–Muslim riot in 1923 which had profound impact on K. B. Hedgewar, who in 1925 founded the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS), a Hindu nationalist organisation in Nagpur with an idea of creating a Hindu nation. After the 1927 Nagpur riots RSS gained further popularity in Nagpur and the organisation grew nationwide.
After Indian Independence in 1947, Central Provinces and Berar became a province of India and in 1950 became the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh, again with Nagpur as its capital. When the Indian states were re-organised along the linguistic lines in 1956, Nagpur and Berar regions were transferred to Bombay state, which in 1960 was split between the states of Maharashtra and Gujarat. At a formal public ceremony on 14 October 1956 in Nagpur B. R. Ambedkar with his supporters converted to Buddhism starting Dalit Buddhist movement which is still active. In 1994, the city witnessed its most violent day in modern times in form of the Gowari stampede deaths.
Nagpur completed 300 years of establishment in the year 2002. A big celebration was organised to mark the event.
Nagpur is located at the exact centre of the Indian peninsula. The city has the Zero Mile Stone locating the geographical centre of India, which was used by the British to measure all distances within the Indian subcontinent.
The city lies on the Deccan plateau of the Indian Peninsula and has a mean altitude of 310.5 meters above sea level. The underlying rock strata are covered with alluvial deposits resulting from the flood plain of the Kanhan River. In some places these give rise to granular sandy soil. In low-lying areas, which are poorly drained, the soil is alluvial clay with poor permeability characteristics. In the eastern part of the city, crystalline metamorphic rocks such as gneiss, schist and granites are found, while in the northern part yellowish sand stones and clays of the lower Gondwana formations are found. Nagpur city is dotted with natural and artificial lakes. The largest lake is Ambazari Lake. Other natural lakes include Gorewada Lake and Telangkhedi lake. Sonegaon and Gandhisagar Lakes are artificial, created by the city's historical rulers. Nag river, Pilli Nadi, and nallas form the natural drainage pattern for the city. Nagpur is known for its greenery and was adjudged the cleanest and second greenest in India after Chandigarh in 2010.
Nagpur has tropical savannah climate (Köppen climate classification) with dry conditions prevailing for most of the year. It receives about 163 mm of rainfall in June. The amount of rainfall is increased in July to 294 mm. Gradual decrease of rainfall has been observed from July to August (278 mm) and September (160 mm). The highest recorded daily rainfall was 304 mm on 14 July 1994. Summers are extremely hot, lasting from March to June, with May being the hottest month. Winter lasts from November to January, during which temperatures drop below 10 °C (50 °F). The highest recorded temperature in the city was 48 °C on May 19, 2015, while the lowest was 3.9 °C.
The average number of heat wave days occurring in Nagpur in the Summer months of March, April & May is 0.5, 2.4 and 7.2 days respectively. May is the most uncomfortable and hottest month with, for example, 18 days of heat waves being experienced in 1973, 1988 and 2010. The summer season is characterised by other severe weather activity like thunderstorms, dust storms, hailstorms and squalls. Generally, hailstorms occur during March and dust storms during March and April. These occur infrequently (0.1 per day). Squalls occur more frequently with 0.3 per day in March and April rising to 0.8 per day in May. Due to the heat waves in the city the Indian Government with the help of New York-based National Resources Defense Council has launched a heat wave program from March 2016.
Nagpur was the capital of Central and Berar Province for 100 years. After the State Reorganisation in 1956, Nagpur and Vidarbha region become part of the new Maharashtra State. With this Nagpur lost the capital status and hence a pact was signed between leaders, the Nagpur Pact. According to the pact, Nagpur is the second capital of Maharashtra and the winter session of state legislature and the state legislative council takes place in Vidhan Bhavan, Nagpur. Nagpur has a District court and its own bench of the Bombay High Court. The city consists of six Vidhan Sabha constituencies namely Nagpur West, Nagpur South, Nagpur South West, Nagpur East, Nagpur North and Nagpur Central. These constituencies are part of the Nagpur Lok Sabha constituency.
The Municipal Council for Nagpur was established in 1864. At that time, the area under the jurisdiction of the Nagpur Municipal Council was 15.5 km2 and the population was 82,000. The duties entrusted to the Nagpur Municipal Council were to maintain cleanliness and arrange for street lights and water supply with government assistance. The Municipal Corporation came into existence in March 1951. Nagpur is administered by the Nagpur Municipal Corporation (NMC), which is a democratically elected civic governing body. The Corporation elects a Mayor who along with a Deputy Mayor heads the organisation. The Mayor carries out the activities through various committees such as the Standing Committee, health and sanitation committee, education committee, water works, public works, public health and market committee. The administrative head of the Corporation is the Municipal Commissioner, an Indian Administrative Service (IAS) officer appointed by the state government. The Municipal Commissioner along with the Deputy Municipal Commissioners, carry out various activities related to engineering, health and sanitation, taxation and its recovery. Various departments such as public relations, library, health, finance, buildings, slums, roads, street lighting, traffic, establishment, gardens, public works, local audit, legal services, water works, education, octroi and fire services manage their specific activities. The activities of NMC are administered by its zonal offices. There are 10 zonal offices in Nagpur – Laxmi Nagar, Dharampeth, Hanuman Nagar, Dhantoli, Nehru Nagar, Gandhi Baugh, Sataranjipura, Lakkadganj, Ashi Nagar and Mangalwari. These zones are divided into 145 wards. Each ward is represented by a corporator, a majority of whom are elected in local elections. NMC has various departments including healthcare, education, fire brigade etc. dedicated for each service and project of the city. Nagpur Improvement Trust (NIT) is a local planning authority which works with NMC and carries out the development of the civic infrastructure and new urban areas on its behalf. NIT is headed by a Chairman, an Indian Administrative Service Officer appointed by the state government.
Nagpur Police is headed by a Police Commissioner who is of the rank of Additional Director General of Police of Maharashtra Police. Nagpur Police is Divided into 4 Zones, each headed by a Deputy Commissioner of Police. The State C.I.D Regional Headquarter and State Reserve Police Force Campus are situated in Nagpur.
Originally, all the utility services of the city were carried out by NMC departments, but from 2008 onwards privatisation had started for major utility services. The Orange City Water Private Limited (OCW), a joint venture of Veolia Water India Pvt. Ltd and Vishwaraj Infrastructure Ltd., manages the water supply for the city as well as Nagpur Municipal Corporation’s Water Treatment Plants at Gorewada, all the elevated service reservoirs, ground service reservoirs, master balancing reservoirs commonly known as Water Tanks. This joint venture was established in November 2011 and was awarded the contract to execute 24x7 water supply project and operational and maintenance of water works for 25 years. Kanak Resources Management Ltd. has been awarded the contract for garbage collection in the city as per Nagpur Bin Free Project in 2009 by NMC. It collects garbage from all the residents in the city and then delivers it to the Bhandewadi dumpyard in Nagpur's eastern part. Similarly, in electricity supply, which was first managed by MSEB was then replaced by MSEDCL. After some years the distribution franchisee system was introduced to reduce the losses in the divisions and so Spanco was awarded the distribution franchisee for 15 years to manage three of the four divisions from Nagpur Urban circle namely, Civil Lines, Mahal and Gandhibagh on 23 February 2011 by MSEDCL. To facilitate this system, Spanco Nagpur Discom Limited or SNDL Nagpur company was formed for the sole purpose of electricity distribution and maintenance in three divisions of the city. The power distribution and maintenance for the fourth division i.e. Congress Nagar division is still being managed by MSEDCL. India Post which is a governmental postal department has two head post offices and many post offices and sub-post offices at various locations in the city and are part of the logistics services in the city along with various other private operators.
NMC in collaboration with Central Government, State Government, UNICEF, World Health Organization and Non-governmental organisation conducts and maintains various health schemes in the city. City health line is an initiative started by NMC dedicated to the health of citizens of Nagpur. This includes providing computerised comparative information and action in the field to Local citizens. NMC runs three indoor patient hospitals including Indira Gandhi Rugnalaya at LAD square, Panchpaoli Maternity Hospital in Panchpaoli and Isolation Hospital in Immamwada. Besides, the civic body runs three big diagnostic centres at Mahal, Sadar and also at Indira Gandhi Rugnalaya. Apart from these, NMC has 57 out patient dispensaries (OPDs), including 23 health posts sanctioned under Union Government's schemes, 15 allopathy hospitals, 12 ayurvedic hospitals, three homoeopathy hospitals, three naturopathy hospitals and one unani hospital. In 2013, ABP News-Ipsos declared Nagpur the country's best city for health care services. The city is home to numerous hospitals, some run by the government and some private. Nagpur is a health hub for Central India & caters to a large geographical area arbitrarily bounded by Delhi in the North, Calcutta in the East, Mumbai-Pune in the West and Hyderabad in the South. People from Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Uttar Pradesh, Orissa, Andhra Pradesh and Telangana regularly come to Nagpur for their health needs. Nagpur boasts of super-specialty physicians & surgeons serving its population in both public sector government run hospitals and well equipped private hospitals catering to all strata of society. AIIMS Nagpur is the latest feather in the cap of Nagpur health care services.
According to 2005 National Family Health Survey, Nagpur has a fertility rate of 1.9 which is below the replacement level. The infant mortality rate was 43 per 1,000 live births, and the mortality rate for children under five was 50 per 1,000 live births. About 57% slum and 72% non-slum children have received all the mandatory vaccines which include BCG, measles and full courses of polio and DPT. In Nagpur, 78 percent of poor children are anaemic, including 49 percent who have moderate to severe anaemia. About 45% of children under 5 years of age and 31% of women are underweight. The poor people from the city mostly cite the reason of lack of a nearby facility, poor quality of care and excessive waiting time for not visiting any government hospitals for treatment.
Nagpur is the third largest in Maharashtra in terms of population as per the 2011 census.
Since the 1990s the urban agglomeration has rapidly expanded beyond the City’s municipal boundaries. This growth has presented challenges for the future growth of the city and its fringes in an organised manner. With a view to achieve balanced development within the region, the Nagpur Improvement Trust (NIT) has been notified as the Special Planning Authority (SPA) for the Nagpur Metropolitan Area (NMA) and entrusted with preparation of a Statutory Development Plan as per provisions of the MRTP Act, 1966. The notified NMA comprises areas outside the Nagpur city and includes 721 villages under 9 tehsils of the Nagpur District spreading across an area of 3,567 km2.
In 1999, the government of Maharashtra declared that the Nagpur Metropolitan Area shall comprise all of Nagpur city, Nagpur Gramin (rural areas near Nagpur), Hingna, Parseoni, Mauda and Kamptee Taluka and parts of Savner, Kalmeshwar, Umred and Kuhi. The boundaries of the "Metro region" around the municipal corporation limits of the city have been defined as per the notification.
In 2002, the government extended the jurisdiction of the Nagpur Improvement Trust (NIT) by 25 to 40 kilometres. This new area was defined under clause 1(2) of NIT Act-1936 as "Nagpur Metropolitan Area".
NIT has proposed the Metro region plan in two phases:
Nagpur is an important city for the Indian armed forces. Maintenance Command of Indian Air Force has its current headquarter at Vayusena Nagar in Nagpur. It houses Mi-8 helicopters and the IAF carriers IL-76 and handles the maintenance, repair, and operations of all aircraft, helicopters and other equipment.
The ordnance factory and staff college of ordnance factory Ambajhari and National Academy of Defence Production for Group A officer of ordnance factories are in the western part of the city. Sitabuldi Fort is managed by the 118th infantry battalion of the Indian Army and citizens are allowed to visit the premises on certain days.
The 'raison d'être' for Kamptee, the military cantonment, is still operational. Kamptee Cantonment houses the Officers Training Academy for National Cadets Corps, which is the only one of its kind. It is also the home of one of the oldest and most respected regiments in the Indian Army, the Brigade of the Guards. Guards, located at Kamptee, are the only group in the Indian Army which have won two PVC (Param Veer Chakra), the highest gallantry awarded to soldiers for wartime operations. There are also other important units such as the Institute of Military Law and a well equipped military hospital to care for the health of the soldiers. The Army Postal Service centre is also operational in the cantonment since 1948, to provide training to personnel of Department of Post who volunteer themselves for the Army. Nagpur's National Civil Defence College provides civil defence and disaster management training to pupils from all over India and abroad. Indian Air Force's giant IL-76 transport planes nicknamed "Gajraj" are also based in Nagpur.
As of the 2011 census, Nagpur municipality has a population of 2,405,665. The total population constitute, 1,225,405 males and 1,180,270 females. The total children (ages 0–6) are 247,078, of whom 128,290 are boys and 118,788 are girls. Children form 10.27% of total population of Nagpur. The total number of slums number 179,952, in which 859,487 people reside. This is around 35.73% of the total population of Nagpur. The municipality has a sex ratio of 963 females per 1,000 males and child sex ratio of 926 girls per 1,000 boys. 1,984,123 people are literate, of whom 1,036,097 are male and 948,026 are female. Average literacy rate of Nagpur city are 91.92%. Men are 94.44% and women are 89.31% literate.
The urban agglomeration has a population of 3602341 with 1,887532 males and 1714809females.
Hinduism is majority religion in Nagpur city with 59.46% followers. Buddhism is second most popular religion in Nagpur city with 25.57% following it. In Nagpur city, Islam is followed by 11.95%, Christianity by 1.15%, Jainism by 0.90% and Sikhism by 0.68%. Around 0.10% stated 'Other Religion' and approximately 0.20% stated 'No Particular Religion'.
In Nagpur, Marathi is the most spoken languages. Marathi is the official language of the city. Due to the city's cosmopolitan nature, the language is heavily influenced by neighbouring state languages. Many of the slang words in Nagpur are a combination of Hindi and Marathi. Also the Marathi spoken in the city is quite distinct that from western Maharashtra. English language is mostly spoken in the academics and offices.
Nagpur is an emerging metropolis. In 2004, it was ranked the fastest-growing city in India in terms of the number of households with an annual income of Rs 1 crore (10 million) or more. Nagpur has been the main centre of commerce in the region of Vidarbha since its early days and is an important trading location. Although, Nagpur's economic importance gradually declined relative to Mumbai and Pune after the merging of Vidarbha into the Maharashtra because of a period of neglect by the state government, the city's economy later recovered. During the slowdown, state and central government offices were a major source of employment.
Nagpur's economy has recovered from past slowdowns and the city has attracted ₹5000 crore in investment in 2004. It was ranked the 14th most competitive city in the country by the Institute for Competitiveness in its 2014 report. Its per capita income was ₹123,610 (US$1,900) in 2015. The city is important for the banking sector as it hosts the regional office of Reserve Bank of India, which was opened on 10 September 1956. The Reserve Bank of India has two branches in Nagpur, one of which houses India's entire gold assets. Sitabuldi market in central Nagpur, known as the heart of the city, is the major commercial market area.
Nagpur is home to ice-cream manufacturer Dinshaws, Indian dry food manufacturer Haldiram's international, Indian ready-to-cook food manufacturer Actchawa and Ayurvedic products company Vicco and Baidyanath.
For centuries, Nagpur has been famous for its orange gardens in the country, hence the name "Orange City". Orange cultivation has been expanding and it is the biggest marketplace for oranges in the country. The Maharashtra Agro Industrial Development Corporation has its multi fruit processing division called Nagpur Orange Grower's Association (NOGA) which has an installed capacity of 4,950 MT of fruits per annum. Orange is also exported to various regions in the country as well to other countries. Nagpur is also famous for the cotton and silk which is woven by its large Koshti population of handloom weavers which are around 5000.
Nagpur and the Vidarbha region have a very prominent power sector as compared to the rest of Maharashtra. Koradi Thermal Power Station and Khaparkheda Thermal Power Station are two major thermal power stations located near Nagpur and operated by MSPGCL. NTPC has a super thermal power plant called Mauda Super Thermal Power Station in Mauda around 40 km from Nagpur and Vidarbha Industries Power Limited (a subsidiary of Reliance Power) is situated in Butibori
The Multi-modal International Hub Airport at Nagpur (MIHAN) is a project for the Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar International Airport, Nagpur. It is the biggest economical development project currently underway in India in terms of investments. The project aims to exploit the central location of Nagpur and convert the airport into a major cargo hub with integrated road and rail connectivity. This project consists of two parts:An international airport to act as a cargo hub and
A Special Economic Zone (SEZ) with residential zone covering an area of 40.25 km² on the southern end of Nagpur.
The government of Maharashtra formed a special purpose entity, Maharashtra Airport Development Company, for the development of MIHAN. The project is financed by Indian banks with a loan of INR 3,000 million along with investment from the state government and Airports Authority of India. With a projected target of serving 14 million passengers and handling 0.87 million tons of cargo, this is one of the largest aviation projects in India. The estimated capital cost of the project is INR 2581 crores (by the year 2035) and it is supposed to generate revenues INR 5280 crores.
TCS, India's largest IT company, has build its campus on a 50-acre area in the MIHAN SEZ. Infosys has commenced its construction work for its Nagpur campus at MIHAN SEZ. Mahindra Satyam is also building its campus. TAL Manufacturing Solutions has its facility in the SEZ for manufacturing structural components for Boeing's 787 Dreamliner aeroplane. Air India has its MRO Facility in the SEZ which was constructed by Boeing and is ready for commercial operation.
Reliance Group has announced an Aerospace Park named Dhirubhai Ambani Aerospace Park (DAAP) in MIHAN which will be undertaken by Reliance Aerostructure Ltd. The project would be the first integrated facility in aerospace structure, engine design and manufacture, fabrication and platform integration in the country.
The Butibori industrial area is one of the largest in Asia in terms of area. The estate's largest unit is Indo Rama Synthetics, which manufactures synthetic polyester yarn. Other units in Butibori include the power transmission company Gammon India Limited (T & D), Gammon India Ltd. (Infra), KEC, ACE Refractories, Hyundai Unitech, ACC Nihon Castings Ltd and Electrolux. CEAT Tyres has announced its plans to invest Rs. 400 crore in a state-of-the-art tyre plant in Butibori, Nagpur. Devendra Fadnavis, Chief Minister of Maharashtra, laid the cornerstone for the plant that will be set up in three phases. In the first phase (2014– 2016), Rs. 400 crore will be invested.
The Hingna industrial estate on the western fringes of the city is made up of around 900 small and medium industrial units. The major ones among them are the tractor manufacturing plant of Mahindra and Mahindra, casting units of NECO Ltd. (the country's largest casting group), units of International Combustion, Bajaj Auto group, Candico (the second largest confectionery manufacturing plant in India), Bharat Containers making aluminium aerosol cans, Ajanta toothbrushes and Sanvijay Group (the largest steel rolling group of companies for long products in Central India).
Kalmeshwar MIDC has almost 150 industrial plots. JSW Steel, KTM Textile, ESAB India Ltd, ZIM Pharma ltd, Metlok Pvt. Ltd., Unijuels life sciences, Chemfield Pharmaceuticals Private Ltd., Minex Injection Product Private Ltd., Minex Metallurgical Co.Ltd. and Porohit Textile are a few big names.
Owing to rich natural resources in the region, mining is a major activity. Several government organisations related to the mining industry are based in Nagpur, which includes Western Coalfields Limited (one of the eight fully owned subsidiaries of Coal India Limited), MOIL and Indian Bureau of Mines.
Nagpur is a major education hub in Central India.
There are two types of schools in the city. NMC (Government) run schools and private schools run by trusts. These schools follow the 10+2+3/4 plan (15 years of schooling leading to the first degree), the first 10 years constituting school education consisting of four years primary level, three years of upper primary level and three years of high school level with a public examination at the end of 10th class and 12th class constituting the Secondary & Higher Secondary Board Examination respectively. This is followed by either a general degree course in a chosen field of study, or a professional degree course, such as law, engineering and medicine. These schools are governed by either of the following boards: Maharashtra State Board of Secondary and Higher Secondary Education, Central Board for Secondary Education (CBSE), Indian Certificate of Secondary Education (ICSE) and The International Baccalaureate (IB)
Admission to professional graduation colleges in Nagpur is through MHT-CET which is conducted by Government of Maharashtra.
Vasantrao Naik Government Institute of Arts and Social Sciences (established in 1885 as Morris college) is an old college in the city. College of Agriculture is another old college in the city, founded in 1906 by the then British Government. It is one of the first five agriculture colleges in the country.
Nagpur has four government medical colleges: Government Medical College, Indira Gandhi Government Medical College, Nagpur, Government Dental College and Government Ayurvedic College, and also a private MBBS institute, N. K. P. Salve Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Center. Medical colleges in the city are affiliated to Maharashtra University of Health Sciences.
Nagpur has four state universities: Rashtrasant Tukadoji Maharaj Nagpur University (founded in 1923 as Nagpur University, one of the oldest in the country and having more than 600 affiliated colleges), Maharashtra Animal and Fishery Sciences University, Kavikulaguru Kalidas Sanskrit University and Maharashtra National Law University.
Most engineering colleges in the city are affiliated with Rashtrasant Tukadoji Maharaj Nagpur University. Laxminarayan Institute of Technology (established 1942) is a chemical engineering and technology institute located in Nagpur and managed directly by Rashtrasant Tukadoji Maharaj Nagpur University. Government Polytechnic, Nagpur (established 1914) is one of the oldest polytechnic in India. Visvesvaraya National Institute of Technology, is the only NIT in Maharashtra.
Nagpur has two major management institutes, Indian Institute of Management and Institute of Management Technology.
Nagpur also has other centrally funded institutes like National Power Training Institute, Central Institute for Cotton Research, Central Institute of Mining and Fuel Research, Central Power Research Institute, National Academy of Direct Taxes, National Civil Defence College, National Research Centre for Citrus, Petroleum and Explosives Safety Organisation, and National Environmental Engineering Research Institute.
Government Chitrakala Mahavidyalaya is also a premier institute in the city. Nagpur also has a IGNOU and YCMOU regional centre.
Nagpur is a big centre for cricket in Vidarbha because of Vidarbha Cricket Association. Vidarbha Cricket Association (VCA) is the governing body of the Cricket activities in the Vidarbha region in Maharashtra state of India and the Vidarbha cricket team and is involved in the conduct of the game from the grass root level to the International level. It is affiliated to the Board of Control for Cricket in India. Nagpur is one of the few citiesIndian having more than one international cricket stadium. Old one being the Vidarbha Cricket Association Ground situated in Civil Lines and new one is the Vidarbha Cricket Association Stadium situated in Jamtha, Wardha Road in outskirts of the city. Vidarbha Cricket Association Stadium has been built on Wardha road with a seating capacity of 45,000 people at a cost of ₹75 crore (US$12 million). It is one of the fifteen test venues in the country Test Match, One Day International, T20 International and Domestic Matches are played in this venue. Vidarbha Cricket Association Ground has been the venue for the 1987 Reliance World Cup and 1996 Wills World Cup. Vidarbha Cricket Association Stadium has been the venue for the 2011 Cricket World Cup and 2016 ICC World Twenty20. The stadium also hosts certain matches of the Indian Premier League and has been a home city for the now defunct Deccan Chargers in the 2010 season and will be a home city for Kings XI Punjab apart from Mohali in the 2016 season. Vidarbha Cricket Association also has a residential cricket academy at the main centre in Vidarbha Cricket Association Ground and other three centres at Hanuman Vyayam Prasarak Mandal at Amravati, Sant Gajanan Maharaj College of Engineering at Shegaon and Radhikabai Meghe Education Trust ground at Wardha. In this residential academy, the selected boys play cricket as their chosen career and stay in hostel accommodation provided by Academy. The entire facilities for cricket including academies i.e. schooling in city schools for boys are provided by VCA. VCA has also started its own T20 Corporate Cup from 2015.
Vidarbha Hockey Association is a body governing Hockey in the Vidarbha Region and is affiliated to Hockey India as an associate member. Vidarbha Hockey Association Stadium is the hockey ground owned and managed by Vidarbha Hockey Association. Western India Football Association is the state governing body for football in Maharashtra, India and is affiliated with the All India Football Federation, the sports national governing body. The Nagpur District Football Association is a District level football body and conducts various matches among the schools and clubs. It has its own league. Lokmat NPL (Nagpur Premier League), another football tournament, is held at Nagpur annually and was started in 2010 by Lokmat Group in Yeshwant Stadium. Nagpur FC and YMFC are renowned football clubs in the city. Other Clubs include, Rabbani Club, Rahul Club, City Police, South East Central Railway, Qidwai Club, SRPF, New Globe and City Club. Nagpur FC has its own Football Academy in Dhanwate National College, Congress Nagar. Slum Soccer is a social initiative started by Vijay Barse for young runaways and former drug addicts to rehabilitate them through football.
The city contains people from other Indian states as well as people belonging to the world's major faiths, and yet is known for staying calm during communal conflicts in India. Nagpur plays host to cultural events throughout the year. Cultural and literary societies in Nagpur include Vidarbha Sahitya Sangh (for development of Marathi), Vidarbha Rashtrabhasha Prachar Samiti (promotion and spreading Hindi) and Vidarbha Hindi Sahitya Sammelan (for promoting Hindi). Marathi Sahitya Sammelan, the conference on Marathi Literature were held twice in Nagpur city. Nagpur is the head office of Aadim Samvidhan Sanrakshan Samiti(working for the rights of scheduled tribes)
The South Central Cultural Centre also sponsors cultural events in Nagpur city, such as the Orange City Craft Mela and Folk Dance Festival, Vidarbha which is noted for its numerous folk-dances. Newspapers are published from Nagpur in Marathi, English and Hindi. In addition, the Government of Maharashtra organises a week-long Kalidas Festival, a series of music and dance performances, by national level artists. Nagpur Municipal Corporation in partnership with Maharashtra Tourism Development Corporation organises Nagpur Mohotsav at Yeshwant Stadium, in which many distinguish artists participate.
The Nagpur Central Museum (est. 1863) maintains collections are mainly for Vidarbha region. Three brothers Ghulam Ali (Kotwal), Mohammad Saaduddin (Subedar) and Mohammad Saladuddin (Minister and Kotwal) from Jhajjar are remembered as great scholars of Urdu and Persian during the reign of Maharaja Senasaheb Subha Chhatrapati Raghuji Bapusaheb Bhonsle III. They founded 'Jhajjar Bagh' at Hansapuri (Now Mominpura). In this location, they built their residence 'Aina-e Mahal', a well and a Masjid (now Masjid Ahle Hadith). 'Jhajjar Bagh' also known as 'Subedar ka Bada' was located where nowadays Mohammad Ali Road at Mominpura, Jamia Masjid, Mohammad Ali Sarai and Furqania Madrasa are located.
The state government has approved a new safari park of international standards besides Gorewada Lake. In 2013 NMC erected the gigantic Namantar Shahid Smarak in memory of Namantar Andolan martyrs.
Deekshabhoomi, the largest hollow stupa or the largest dome shaped monument and an important place of the Buddhist movement, is located in Nagpur. Every year on the day of Vijayadashami, i.e. Dussehra, followers of Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar visit Deekshabhoomi to mark the conversion ceremony of Ambedkar and his followers in Nagpur into Buddhism that took place on 14 October 1956. It has been given 'A' grade tourist place status by Maharashtra Government in March 2016. 14 April, which is the birthdate of Dr. Ambedkar, is celebrated as Ambedkar Jayanti.
Jainism has a good presence in Nagpur. There are nearly 30 Jain temples. The old ones are Sengan jain temple ladpura, parwarpura jain temple, kirana oli jain temple, and juna oli jain temple. In west Nagpur LAXMINAGAR Jain temple is more famous. The main idol is SHANTINATH bhagwan. The maanstambh, bahubali idol and small ratn idols are worth to watch. The paryushan is celebrated widely in jain temples. Paryushan activities are managed by young groups like JIYO GROUP.
The most famous temple in Nagpur is Tekdi Ganesh Mandir, and is said to be one of the Swayambhu ("self-manifested") temples in the city. Sri Poddareshwar Ram Mandir and Shri Mahalaxmi Devi temple of Koradi are important Hindu temples.
Religious events are observed in the city throughout the year. Ram Navami is celebrated in Nagpur with shobha yatra with a procession of floats depicting events from the Ramayana. Processions are also held on important festivals of other religions such as Dhamma Chakra Pravartan Din, Vijayadashami, Eid E Milad, Guru Nanak Jayanti, Mahavir Jayanti, Durga puja, Ganesh Chaturthi and Moharram. Like the rest of India, Nagpurkars celebrate major Hindu festivals like Diwali, Holi and Dussera with enthusiasm. Celebrations lasting for several days are held on Ganesh Chaturthi and Durga Puja festivals in virtually every small locality in the city.
The city also contains a sizable Muslim population, and famous places of worship for Muslims include the Jama Masjid-Mominpura and Bohri Jamatkhana-Itwari. The most famous shrine (dargah) of Hazrat Baba Tajuddin is at TajAbad. Annual Urs is celebrated in great enthusiasm and unity on 26th of Muharram.
The St. Francis De Sales Cathedral is located in Sadar as well as the All Saints Cathedral church. There are many south Indian temples in Nagpur like Sarveshwara Devalayam, where all south Indian festivals are celebrated like Sitarama Kalyanam, Radha Kalyanam Dhanurmasa celebration with Andal Kalyanam, Balaji temple in seminary hills where every year Bramhotsavam to lord Balaji and lord Kartikeya is celebrated here. There are 2 Ayyapa temples, one at Ayyapa Nagar and the other at Harihara Nagar, Raghvendraswami Mutt, Murugananda Swami Temple at Mohan Nagar, Nimishamba Devi temple Subramanyiam devastanam at Sitabuldi and many more such south Indian temples are here in Nagpur as there is quite a good populations of south Indians in Nagpur.
Marbat Festival is a unique festival for Nagpur and is organised every year a day after the bullock festival of 'Pola'. The tradition of taking out the Marbat processions of 'kali' (black) and 'pivli' (yellow) Marbats (idols), started in 1880 in the eastern part of the city. A number of 'badgyas' (mascots), representing contemporary symbols of evil, comprise another feature of the annual processions. This festival dates back to the 19th century when the Bhonsla dynasty ruled.
There is a Parsi Zoroastrian Agiary (Dar-e-Meher) in Nagpur, where the Parsi New Year is celebrated by the Parsi community in Nagpur.
The tradition of painting in Nagpur was patronised by the royal house of the Bhonsales as well as common people. Illustrated manuscripts of the Bhagavat, Jnaaneshwari, Shakuntala, Geetaetc and the folk patachitras related to some festivals are available besides murals. The community of artists was called chitaris (painters), and this community has today turned to sculpting.
Textile was once an important industry in Nagpur. Good quality cotton was produced in abundant quantities thanks to a suitable soil and climate. With the introduction of the railways, cotton sales and goods transport flourished. Besides cotton textiles, silk and wool weaving was also practised in the district. Silk sarees and pagota, patka, dhoti, and borders were woven with the silk thread.
The Vidharbha region has its own distinctive cuisine known as the Varhadi cuisine or Saoji cuisine. Saoji or Savji cuisine was the main cuisine of the Savji community. This traditional food is famous for its spicy taste. The special spices used in the gravy include black pepper, dry coriander, bay leaves, grey cardamom, cinnamon, cloves, and ample use of poppy seeds (khus-khus). Non-vegetarian food especially chicken and mutton are commonly eaten in Saoji joints at Nagpur. There are numerous Savji bhojanalays in Nagpur which are so popular in Maharashtra that the renowned Indian chef Sanjeev Kapoor once featured Savji mutton on one of his TV shows and the recipe is listed on his website. Nagpur is also famous for its oranges, which have some typical qualities have recently begun to attract international attention. Numerous beverages are made out of the oranges and the orange burfi is a very famous preparation.
Nagpur is also world-famous for tarri poha and has many food joints, each having their own way of preparing and serving it. The most famous food joint serving tarri poha is Rupam Pohewala who has a makeshift arrangement in a footpath beside Kasturchand Park in Kingsway. Samosas are also famous in Nagpur and is available at many restaurants and food spots, among which Priti Corner and Samosawala near Shankar Nagar is very famous among the youth population. Another famous food Patodi & Kadhi, which is served by Patodiwala's joint, near the collectors office, beside district court is loved by many people in Nagpur and is famous among the office goers.
Nagpur also has a prominent "dhaba" culture due to the various important highways crossing through the city. Most of these dhabas are situated on the city outskirts along the highway and are mostly open 24/7. The dhabas cater to all the demographics from families to young professionals to students to truck drivers. The food served is mostly spicy vegetable and non-vegetable preparations along with alcohol.
One more thing that the orange city is famous for is "orange barfi" from Haldiram Sweets, Nagpur's most famous sweets store. Haldiram's sweets and namkeens are extensively given on all festival occasions such as Diwali, Holi, Rakshabandhan and Ganesh festival.
The Hitavada is the largest selling broadsheet English daily newspaper of Central India. It was founded in 1911 by freedom fighter Gopal Krishna Gokhale in Nagpur. Other English dailies circulated in the city include The Times of India, The Indian Express, The Economic Times and Lokmat Times. Lokmat is one of the oldest Marathi newspapers in Nagpur, and has its administrative office in the city. Tarun Bharat, Deshonatti, Maharashtra Times, Punya Nagari, Lokshahi Varta, Sakal, Divya Marathi and Loksatta are other Marathi dailies available. Hindi newspapers such as Yugdharma, Nava Bharat, Dainik Bhaskar and Lokmat Samachar are also circulated. Employment News, which is published weekly, is also circulated in Hindi, English and Urdu. Nagpur has also an e-newspaper called Nagpur Today.
All India Radio is the oldest radio broadcaster in the city and has its office in the Civil Lines area. Vividh Bharati, the entertainment radio station, and Gyan Vani, the educational radio station, are the FM radio stations of All India Radio and are available in the frequency 100.6 FM & 107.8 FM respectively. Other private FM broadcasting channels with their frequencies include Radio City at 91.1 FM, Red FM at 93.5 FM, My FM at 94.3 FM, Radio Mirchi at 98.3 FM, Mirchi Love FM at 91.9 FM and Big FM at 92.7 FM.
Television broadcasting in Nagpur began in 1972 with the launch of Doordarshan, the Government of India's public service broadcaster. It transmits DD National and DD News, which are free-to-air terrestrial television channels and one regional satellite channel called DD Sahyadri. Private satellite channels started in the 1990s. There is also a television channel based in the city called Lord Buddha TV, which was started in 2010 and mainly follows the Buddhist teachings and the Dalit movement in India. Satellite TV channels are accessible via cable subscription, direct-broadcast satellite services or internet-based television. Cable TV operators or multi system operators in the city include UCN cable network, GTPL, In cable, BCN and Diamond cable network. All the DTH operators in the country are available in the city viz. Airtel digital TV, DD Free Dish, Dish TV, Sun Direct, Reliance Digital TV, Videocon d2h, and Tata Sky. Broadband Internet service is available in the city and is provided by various Internet service providers. Wifi is available in certain educational institutes and certain areas in the city. Currently 3G services in the city are provided by BSNL, Airtel, Tata Docomo, Vodafone & Idea Cellular, and 4G services in the city are provided by Airtel, Jio, Idea Cellular and Vodafone.
Railways started in Nagpur way back in 1867 when portion of Bombay-Bhusaval-Nagpur line was opened for traffic and train service from Nagpur to Calcutta was started in 1881. Today, a total of 260 trains stop at Nagpur railway station. These include passenger, express, mail, Duronto, Rajdhani, Garib Rath trains. Of these 65 are daily trains and 26 terminate/originate from Nagpur. Almost 1.6 lakh passengers board/leave Nagpur Railway Station Nagpur railway station, one of the oldest and busiest Stations of India was inaugurated in its present from on Jan 15th 1925 by the then Governor Sir Frank. Apart from the Nagpur railway station, Ajni Railway Station and Itwari Railway Station are the important stations of the city. Other railway stations in the city include Motibagh, Kalamna and Godhani. Nagpur-Ajni rail route which is just 3 km long, is the shortest train run in Indian Railways primarily meant for crew to travel from Nagpur station to the workshop at Ajni.
The city is the Divisional Headquarters for the Central Railway and South East Central Railway Zone of Indian Railways. Nagpur is a city with two divisional headquarters, a rare distinction it shares with Lucknow, which has headquarters for two different divisions in Northern Railway zone and North Eastern Railway zone.
The Nagpur Metro Rail project is announced by the state government of Maharashtra for the city with the expenses of 4,400 Cr and 3,800 Cr Rupees for its first phase which consists of two corridors that is North South corridor and East West corridor of 39.4 km respectively from Khapri to Automotive chowk via international airport and Prajapati Nagar to Lokmanya Nagar respectively.
The site inspection beganin March 2012 with the initiatives from Nagpur Improvement Trust. The project will be executed by a new company called Nagpur Metro Rail Co Ltd (NMRCL) formed under the trust. In July 2015, the project has been approved by Government of Maharashtra and has been given "In Principle" nod by MoUD of Government of India. The Bhoomipujan for Metro rail work has been performed on 21 August 2014 at the hands of Prime Minister Narendra Modi. The work of metro in Nagpur is in full swing and is expected to be complete by mid-2018.
Nagpur is a major junction for roadways as India's two major national highways, Kanyakumari-Varanasi (National Highway 7) and Hajira-Kolkata (National Highway 6) pass through the city. One more highway number 69 connects Nagpur to Obaidullaganj near Bhopal. Nagpur is at the junction of two Asian Highways namely AH43 Agra to Matara, Sri Lanka and AH46 connecting Kharagpur, India to Dhule, India.
The new state highway, Nagpur–Aurangabad–Mumbai express highway, built on the national highway basis is also sanctioned by the state and central government. This highway significantly reduces the distance travelled by NH 6 and NH 3 between two cities. Theis new proposed Mumbai Nagpur Expressway between Nagpur and Mumbai will be 800 km and projected to be cost ₹30,000 crore (US$4.7 billion).
In 2009, NHAI announced the extension of the existing NH 204 to Nagpur via Kolhapur-Sangli- Solapur-Tuljapur-Latur-Nanded-Yavatmal-Wardha and connecting it to the NH-7 at Butibori near Nagpur. The entire NH 204 highway has been included in the national highway mega projects for upgradation to 4-lane.
One more national highway NH-26 B Savner-Chhindwara-Narsinghpur has connected with NH 69 at Savner near Nagpur providing another optional connectivity with the northern part of India.
Maharashtra State road transport Corporation (MSRTC) runs cheaper transport service for intercity, interstate, and intrastate travel. It has two bus stations in Nagpur: Nagpur Bus Sthanak (CBS-1) at Ganeshpeth and MorBhawan (CBS-2) at Jhansi Rani Square, Sitabuldi. It operates 1600 daily services from CBS-1 to long and short distances within state and to places in other surrounding states. It also operates 750 daily services from CBS-2 to short distances within Vidarbha.
Nagpur Mahanagar Parivahan Limited (NMPL) is the company formed with elected municipal corporators on board that caters to the city public transport. It has contracted Vansh Nimay Infraprojects (VNIL) to run city buses. It has a fleet of 470 low-floor StarBuses that serve around 2.5Lakh citizens daily in the urban, suburban, and metro areas. Of the total fleet 88 are low floor MiniBuses, and 382 are low floor 50 seater StarBuses. 240 buses are acquired under JNNURM and 230 are acquired under purchase-run-transfer basis by VNIL. A "Green Bus" project featuring India's first ethanol-powered buses was established in August 2014. Nagpur is also bectheoming first in India to use electric taxi cabs.
Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar International Airport (IATA: NAG, ICAO: VANP) is operated by Mihan India Private Limited (MIPL) and owned by Airports Authority of India.
Nagpur's Air Traffic Control (ATC) is the busiest in India, with more than 300 flights flying over the city every day in 2004. In October 2005, Nagpur's Sonegaon Airport was declared an international airport and was renamed Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar International Airport. The Central government has plans to upgrade the airport by investing ₹1,500 crore (US$230 million). For the upgradation of airport the MADC Board has approved the final tender documents and will invite tender soon.
Nagpur is well connected by daily direct flights to Mumbai, Delhi, Kolkata, Bangalore, Pune, Indore, Raipur and Hyderabad operated by Air India, Jet Airways, JetKonnect, IndiGo, GoAir and TruJet. Air Arabia operates a 4 times a week to and fro flight between Nagpur and Sharjah and Qatar Airways operates a direct flight to Doha.
The Nagpur Airport has received Special Achievement Award 2012–2013 from Airports Authority of India. Nagpur became the first airport in India to commission the INDRA system and also has ADS-B system. No other airport in the country had commissioned INDRA yet.
Nagpur airport became the first airport in the country to receive an ISO 27000 certificate. In fact, Nagpur is not only the first in India but also the first in world to be certified for Air navigation service provider (ANSP). There are seven airports in the world which have ISO 27000, but none of them have it for ANSP.
Nagpur is currently witnessing an economic boom as the Multi-modal International Cargo Hub and Airport at Nagpur (MIHAN) is under development. MIHAN will be used for handling heavy cargo coming from south east Asia and the Middle East. The project will include ₹10,000 crore (US$1.6 billion) Special Economic Zone (SEZ) for information technology (IT) companies.
The Government of India has identified Nagpur airport as one of the safe airports for diverted flights and emergency landing. In fact, many flights have used the airport during emergencies. This is because all international and domestic airlines had already been informed by the government to go to Nagpur during emergencies. The availability of excellent fire fighting equipment, air traffic control equipment and the latest radar, and being a city with good hospitals and hotels, made the airport a good choice during emergencies.
The Maharashtra government has appointed Larsen & Toubro (L&T) as the implementation partner to convert Orange City Nagpur into the country's first large scale, integrated, smart city. The state government has also decided to develop the city complete with five hubs, from textile centres to defence sector.
The prominent persons originating from or related to Nagpur city include: