2.538 million (2001)
| Aga Khan Palace, Raja Dinkar Kelkar Museum, Sinhagad, Dagadusheth Halwai Ganapati Temple, Parvati Hill|
Savitribai Phule Pune University, Symbiosis International University, College of Engineering - Pune, Dr DY Patil College of Engineering - Pune, Bharati Vidyapeeth University
Pune () is the ninth-most populous city in India and the second largest in the state of Maharashtra.
It is situated 560 metres (1,837 feet) above sea level on the Deccan plateau, on the right bank of the Mutha river. Pune city is the administrative headquarters of Pune district and was once the centre of power of the Maratha Empire.
In the 18th century, Pune became the political centre of the Indian subcontinent, as the seat of Peshwas who were the prime ministers of the Maratha Empire.
Pune is considered the cultural capital of Maharashtra. Since the 1950s and 1960s, Pune has had traditional old-economy industries which continue to grow today. Furthermore, the city is also known for manufacturing and automobiles, as well as government and private sector research institutes for information technology (IT) education, management and training, that attract migrants, students, and professionals from India, South East Asia, the Middle East, and Africa. Pune is also one of the fastest growing cities in the Asia-Pacific region. The ‘Mercer 2015 Quality of Living rankings’ evaluated local living conditions in more than 440 cities around the world where Pune ranked at 145, second in India after Hyderabad(138). It also highlights Pune among evolving business centers and emerging 9 cities around the world with citation "Hosts IT and automotive companies"
Copper plates dated 858 AD and 868 AD show that by the 8th century an agricultural settlement known as Punnaka existed where Pune is today. The plates indicate that this region was ruled by the Rashtrakuta dynasty. The Pataleshwar rock-cut temple complex was built during this era.
Pune was part of the Seuna Yadavas of Devagiri from the 9th century to 1327. In 1595, Maloji Raje Bhosale was appointed the jagirdar of Pune by the Mughal Empire. Pune was ruled by the Ahmadnagar Sultanate until it was annexed by the Mughals in the 17th century.
Pune is located 560 m (1,840 ft) above sea level on the western margin of the Deccan plateau. It is situated on the leeward side of the Sahyadri mountain range, which forms a barrier from the Arabian sea. It is a hilly city, with its tallest hill, Vetal Hill, rising to 800 m (2,600 ft) above sea level. Just outside the city, the Sinhagad fort is located at an altitude of 1300 m. It lies between 18° 32"North latitude and 73° 51"East longitude.
Central Pune is located at the confluence of the Mula and Mutha rivers. The Pavana and Indrayani rivers, tributaries of the Bhima river, traverse the northwestern outskirts of metropolitan Pune.
Pune is said to be the cultural capital of the state of Maharashtra. It epitomises Marathi culture, which lays emphasis on education, arts and crafts, music, and theatre. Pune has emerged as a centre of modern architecture in India, with prize-winning buildings. Pune culture reflects a blend of traditions with modernity, along with hosting classical shows.
As one of the largest cities in India, and as a result of its many colleges and universities, Pune is emerging as a prominent location for IT and manufacturing. Pune has the eight largest metropolitan economy and the sixth highest per capita income in the country.
Sorghum and Pearl millet are the main ingredients of traditional Pune food. Specialties include Misal Pav, Puran Poli (a dessert bread), Pithla bhakri, Bhelpuri, and Pav Bhaji. Mastani, a thick milkshake containing dried fruit, is a speciality of the city. Another speciality is Bakarvadi, a crispy snack item. Vada Pav, Misal Pav, Poha, Dabeli, and Bhelpuri are common and famous street foods. Being a Metropolitan city, Pune also boasts a wide variety of restaurants, serving cuisines from all over the world.
Prominent museums in Pune include the Raja Dinkar Kelkar Museum, Mahatma Phule Museum, Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Museum, and the Pune Tribal Museum. The College of Military Engineering has an archive and an equipment museum which has a rail exhibit with a metre-gauge train. A large railway museum is also coming up in Lonavala, about 60 km (37 mi) away from the city, on the Mumbai railway line.
Celebrity WAX Museums exhibits consist of famous faces of India such as freedom fighters, Bollywood stars, social activists, and many more. It is situated about 40 km (25 mi) from Pune on old Pune-Mumbai highway approaching toward Lonawala which already beckon tourist attraction. Adlabs Imagica is another attraction near Khopoli.
Pune has public gardens such as the Kamala Nehru Park, Sambhaji Park Shahu Udyan, Peshwe Park, Saras Baug, Empress Garden, Taljai Hills, and Bund Garden. Pu La Deshpande Udyan(The Pune-Okayama Friendship Garden) is a replica of the Korakuen Garden in Okayama, Japan. The Aga Khan Palace was built by Sultan Muhammed Shah Aga Khan III in Pune, India. Built in 1892, it is one of the biggest landmarks in Indian history. The palace was an act of charity by the Sultan who wanted to help the poor in the neighbouring areas of Pune, who were drastically hit by famine.
Aga Khan Palace is a majestic building and is considered to be one of the greatest marvels of India. The palace is closely linked to the Indian freedom movement as it served as a prison for Mahatma Gandhi, his wife Kasturba Gandhi, his secretary Mahadev Desai, and Sarojini Naidu. It is also the place where Kasturba Gandhi and Mahadev Desai died. In 2003, Archeological Survey of India (ASI) declared the place as a monument of national importance.
The Rajiv Gandhi Zoological Park is located at Katraj, close to the city. The zoo, earlier located at Peshwe Park, was merged with the reptile park at Katraj in 1999. Besides this, certain spots in Pune such as Hanuman Tekdi, Vetaal Tekdi, and Taljai forest are popular haunts for nature lovers.
As the agro-pharmaceutical business has dwindled in recent decades, immigration from erstwhile tribal peoples now accounts for seventy percent of population growth and education syllabi have not adjusted in accordance with other industrialised regions. This has created what has become an exclusive environment in the governments expansion of education infrastructure, and Marathi literati have received a number of grants in areas that were previously ignored. Both experimental (????????? ???????) and professional theatre receive extensive patronage from the Marathi community. The Tilak Smarak Mandir, Bala Gandharva Rangmandir, Bharat Natya Mandir, Yashwantrao Chavan Natyagriha, and Sudarshan Rangmanch are prominent theatres in the city. Ganesh Kala Krida Rangamanch is the largest closed theatre in the city, with a seating capacity of 45,000.