Czechoslovakia becomes the second Eastern European country to abandon its command economy.
The first anti-stalking law, passed in 1990, goes into effect in California.
Dublin begins its year as the European Capital of Culture.
January 2 – In eastern El Salvador, Salvadoran rebels shoot down a United States Army helicopter and execute the 2 surviving members of its 3-man crew.
January 4 – The United Nations Security Council votes unanimously to condemn Israel's treatment of the Palestinians.
January 5 – Georgian troops attack Tskhinvali, the capital of South Ossetia, opening the 1991–92 South Ossetia War.
The runoff for the Guatemalan presidential election is won by Jorge Serrano Elías.
The All India Federation of Anganwadi Workers and Helpers is founded in Udaipur.
January 7 – In Haiti, an attempted coup by an associate of former dictator Jean-Claude Duvalier is thwarted by Loyalist troops.
United States Secretary of State James Baker meets with the Foreign Minister of Iraq Tariq Aziz, but fails to produce a plan for Iraq to withdraw its troops from Kuwait.
In Sebokeng, South Africa, gunmen fire on mourners attending the funeral of a leader of the African National Congress, killing 13 people.
January 12 – Gulf War: The Congress of the United States passes a resolution authorizing the use of military force to expel Iraqi forces from Kuwait.
January 13 – Singing Revolution: Soviet forces storm Vilnius to stop Lithuanian independence. January Events (Lithuania) and the Time of Barricades in Latvia.
The United Nations deadline for the withdrawal of Iraqi forces from occupied Kuwait expires, preparing the way for the start of Operation Desert Storm.
Prime Minister of Cape Verde Pedro Pires resigns following his party's loss in the January 13 Cape Verdean parliamentary election, the first ever multiparty election in an African nation.
U.S. serial killer Aileen Wuornos confesses to the murders of 6 men.
Gulf War: Operation Desert Storm begins with air strikes against Iraq.
Gulf War: Iraq fires 8 Scud missiles into Israel.
Harald V of Norway becomes king on the death of his father, Olav V.
The volcano Hekla erupts on Iceland.
January 18 – Eastern Air Lines shuts down after 62 years, citing financial problems.
An Iraqi Scud attack on Tel Aviv in Israel injures 15 people.
The Party of the Alliance of Youth, Workers and Farmers of Angola is founded in Luanda, Angola.
January 21 – Harald V's investiture ceremony as King of Norway.
Three Iraqi Scuds and one Patriot missile hit Ramat Gan in Israel, injuring 96 people; 3 elderly people die of heart attacks.
The British Army SAS patrol, Bravo Two Zero, is deployed in Iraq during the Gulf War.
January 24 – The government of Papua New Guinea signs a peace agreement with separatist leaders from Bougainville Island, ending fighting that had gone on since 1988.
January 26 – Siad Barre is overthrown; Somalia enters civil war.
Siad Barre is succeeded by Ali Mahdi Muhammad in Somalia.
In South Africa, Nelson Mandela of the African National Congress and Mangosuthu Buthelezi of the Inkatha Freedom Party agree to end the violence that had plagued relations between the two organizations.
Gulf War: the Battle of Khafji occurs, the battle lasts until February 1.
A USAir Boeing 737-300, USAir Flight 1493 collides with a SkyWest Airlines Fairchild Metroliner, 5569 at Los Angeles International Airport, killing 34.
A deadly earthquake kills at least 1,200 people in Pakistan and Afghanistan.
February 5 – A Michigan court bars Dr. Jack Kevorkian from assisting in suicides.
February 6 – Street Fighter II released for arcades.
Haiti's first democratically elected president, Jean-Bertrand Aristide, is sworn in.
The Provisional Irish Republican Army launches a mortar attack on 10 Downing Street during a cabinet meeting.
Gulf War: Ground troops cross the Saudi Arabian border and enter Kuwait, thus starting the ground phase of the war.
February 9 – Singing Revolution: Voters in Lithuania support independence.
February 11 – The Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization (UNPO) forms in The Hague, Netherlands.
February 13 – Gulf War: Two laser-guided "smart bombs" destroy an underground bunker in Baghdad, killing hundreds of Iraqis. United States military intelligence claims it was a military facility but Iraqi officials identify it as a bomb shelter.
February 15 – The Visegrad Agreement, establishing cooperation to move toward free-market systems, is signed by the leaders of Czechoslovakia, Hungary and Poland.
February 17 – The Cape Verdean presidential election, Cape Verde's first multiparty presidential election since 1975, is won by António Mascarenhas Monteiro.
February 18 – The Provisional Irish Republican Army explodes bombs in the early morning, at both Paddington station and Victoria station in London.
February 20 – President of Albania Ramiz Alia dismisses the government headed by Prime Minister of Albania Adil Çarçani in an effort to stem pro-democracy protests. Fatos Nano is sworn in as Prime Minister on February 22.
February 22 – Gulf War: Iraq accepts a Soviet-proposed cease fire agreement. The U.S. rejects the agreement, but says that retreating Iraqi forces will not be attacked if they leave Kuwait within 24 hours.
The One Meridian Plaza fire in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, kills 3 firefighters and destroys 8 floors of the building.
In Thailand, General Sunthorn Kongsompong deposes Prime Minister Chatichai Choonhavan in a bloodless coup d'état.
February 25 – Gulf War: Part of an Iraqi Scud missile hits an American military barracks in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia, killing 29 and injuring 99 U.S. soldiers. It is the single-most devastating attack on U.S. forces during that war.
February 26 – Gulf War: On Baghdad radio, Iraqi leader Saddam Hussein announces the withdrawal of Iraqi troops from Kuwait. Iraqi soldiers set fire to Kuwaiti oil fields as they retreat.
President Bush declares victory over Iraq and orders a cease-fire.
In the Bangladeshi general election, the Bangladesh Nationalist Party wins 139 of 300 seats in the Jatiyo Sangshad. BNP leader Khaleda Zia becomes President of Bangladesh on March 19.
March – Iraqi forces suppress rebellions in the southern and northern parts of the country, creating a humanitarian disaster on the borders of Turkey and Iran.
The ballistic missile submarine USS Sam Houston is deactivated.
Clayton Keith Yeutter ends his term as United States Secretary of Agriculture.
An amateur video captures the beating of motorist Rodney King by Los Angeles police officers.
Singing Revolution: In the Estonian independence referendum and the Latvian independence and democracy poll, voters vote more than 3 to 1 in favor of independence from the Soviet Union.
United Airlines Flight 585 crashes in Colorado Springs, Colorado, killing all 25 people on board.
The São Tomé and Príncipe presidential election, the first contested presidential election in the history of São Tomé and Príncipe, is won by Miguel Trovoada.
March 6 – Prime Minister of India Chandra Shekhar resigns because of a dispute with former Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi, whose support had kept him in power.
March 9 – Massive demonstrations are held against Slobodan Milošević in Belgrade; 2 people are killed and tanks are in the streets.
Gulf War – Operation Phase Echo: 540,000 American troops begin to leave the Persian Gulf.
In the Salvadoran legislative election, the Nationalist Republican Alliance wins 39 of 48 seats in the Legislative Assembly of El Salvador.
March 11 – A curfew is imposed on black townships in South Africa, after fighting between rival political gangs kills 49.
The United States Department of Justice announces that Exxon has agreed to pay $1 billion for the clean-up of the Exxon Valdez oil spill in Alaska.
The Acid Rain Treaty of 1991 is signed between the American and Canadian governments.
The Emir of Kuwait, Jaber Al-Ahmad Al-Sabah, returns to Kuwait after seven months of exile in Saudi Arabia while his country was occupied by Iraq.
After 16 years in prison for allegedly bombing a public house in a Provisional Irish Republican Army attack, the "Birmingham Six" are freed when a court determines that the police fabricated evidence.
Four Los Angeles, California, police officers are indicted for the videotaped March 3 beating of Rodney King during an arrest.
Germany formally regains complete independence after the four post-World War II occupying powers (France, the United Kingdom, the United States and the Soviet Union) relinquish all remaining rights.
The United States and Albania resume diplomatic relations for the first time since 1939.
In a national referendum, the people of the Soviet Union vote in favor of keeping the 15 Soviet republics together, with the pro-unity position gaining 77% of the vote. 6 Union Republics effectively boycott the referendum.
In the Finnish parliamentary election, the Centre Party wins 55 of 200 seats in the Parliament of Finland, ending 25 years of dominance by the Social Democratic Party of Finland.
March 19–26 – President of Poland Lech Wałęsa becomes the first Polish president to ever visit the U.S.
March 23 – The Sierra Leone Civil War begins when the Revolutionary United Front attempts a coup against the Sierra Leone government.
March 24 – The Beninese presidential election, Benin's first presidential election since 1970, is won by Nicéphore Soglo.
In Mali, military officers led by Amadou Toumani Touré arrest President Moussa Traoré and suspend the constitution.
Argentina, Brazil, Uruguay and Paraguay sign the Treaty of Asunción, establishing the South Common Market (Mercosur is its acronym in Spanish).
In Daegu, South Korea, the remains of 5 boys are found 11 years after their disappearance (Korean:개구리소년 실종사건/English:Frog Boys)
Albania holds its first multi-party elections.
Georgian independence referendum, 1991: Georgia votes for independence from the Soviet Union.
April 1 – Comedy Central is launched on cable television in its current format.
April 2 – Government-imposed price increases double or triple the prices of consumer goods in the Soviet Union.
April 3 – Iraq disarmament crisis: The U.N. Security Council passes the Cease Fire Agreement, Resolution 687. The Resolution calls for the destruction or removal of all of Iraq's chemical and biological weapons, all stocks of agents and components, and all research, development, support and manufacturing facilities for ballistic missiles with a range greater than 150 km and production facilities; and for an end to its support for international terrorism. Iraq accepts the terms of the resolution on April 6.
Senator John Heinz of Pennsylvania and 6 other people are killed when a helicopter collides with their plane over Merion, Pennsylvania.
William Kennedy Smith, a nephew of U.S. Senator Edward Kennedy, is identified as a suspect in an alleged Palm Beach, Florida, sexual assault.
Forty people are taken hostage in the 1991 Sacramento hostage crisis
Former Senator John Tower and 22 others are killed in an airplane crash in Brunswick, Georgia, United States.
STS-37: Space Shuttle Atlantis is launched from Cape Canaveral, Florida. The shuttle launches an observatory to study gamma rays before returning to Earth on April 11.
The Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia declares independence from the Soviet Union.
The first Soviet troops leave Poland.
A South Atlantic tropical cyclone develops in the Southern Hemisphere off the coast of Angola (the first of its kind to be documented by weather satellites).
The Italian ferry Moby Prince collides with an oil tanker in dense fog off Livorno, Italy killing 140.
April 12 – Globalization – The Warsaw Stock Exchange opens in Poland.
April 14 – In the Netherlands, thieves steal 20 paintings worth $500 million from the Van Gogh Museum in Amsterdam. Less than an hour later they are found in an abandoned car near the museum.
The EBRD is inaugurated.
The European Economic Community lifts economic sanctions on South Africa in response to moves to end the apartheid system.
April 16–18 – Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev begins the first ever visit of a Soviet leader to Japan, but fails to resolve the two countries' dispute over ownership of the Kuril Islands.
April 17 – The Dow Jones Industrial Average closes above 3,000 for the first time ever, at 3,004.46.
April 18 – Iraq disarmament crisis: Iraq declares some of its chemical weapons and materials to the UN, as required by Resolution 687, and claims that it does not have a biological weapons program.
April 19 – George Carey is enthroned as Archbishop of Canterbury, the spiritual leader of the worldwide Anglican Communion.
April 21 – French underwater archaeologist Franck Goddio discovers the wreckage of the Spanish Galleon San Diego (ship) off the coast of Fortune Island (Philippines).
The Social Democratic Party of Albania is founded.
A 7.6 earthquake kills 82 in Costa Rica and Panama.
April 23 – Prime Minister of Iceland Steingrímur Hermannsson resigns following an inconclusive parliamentary election on April 20. On April 30, he is succeeded as prime minister by Davíð Oddsson.
70 tornadoes break out in the central United States, killing 17. The most notable tornado of the day strikes Andover, Kansas.
Esko Aho, age 36, becomes the youngest-ever Prime Minister of Finland.
A tropical cyclone hits Bangladesh, killing an estimated 138,000 people.
STS-39: Space Shuttle Discovery lifts off from Cape Canaveral to study instruments related to the Strategic Defense Initiative. The mission ends on May 6.
The 7.0 Mw Racha earthquake affects Georgia with a maximum MSK intensity of IX (Destructive), killing 270 people.
April 29–30 – In Lesotho, a bloodless coup ousts military ruler Justin Lekhanya. On May 2, he is replaced as Chairman of the Military Council by Elias Phisoana Ramaema.
May – The first Starbucks Coffee outlet is opened in California.
May 1 – Angolan Civil War: The MPLA and UNITA agree to the Bicesse Accords, which are formally signed on May 31 in Lisbon.
Carola Søgaard's song Fångad av en stormvind wins the Eurovision Song Contest in Rome, Italy for Sweden.
U.S. President Bush is hospitalized after experiencing irregular heartbeat. He is released from the hospital the next day.
May 12 – Nepal holds its first multiparty legislative election since 1959.
May 13 – Winnie Mandela is convicted of kidnapping. On May 14, she is sentenced to 6 years in prison.
May 14 – Elizabeth II arrives in Washington, D.C. for a 13-day royal visit to the U.S.
May 15 – Édith Cresson becomes France's first female premier.
May 18 – Somaliland withdraws from Somalia.
May 19 – In the Croatian independence referendum, voters in the Socialist Republic of Croatia vote to secede from Yugoslavia.
In Sriperumbudur, India, former Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi is assassinated at a public meeting in Sriperumbudur, by suicide bomber Thenmozhi Rajaratnam; many others are killed in the explosion.
Mengistu Haile Mariam, president of the People's Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, flees Ethiopia to Zimbabwe, effectively bringing the Ethiopian Civil War to an end.
May 22 – Acting Prime Minister of South Korea Ro Jai-bong resigns in the wake of rioting following a beating death of a student by police on April 26. On May 24, he is succeeded by Chung Won-shik.
May 24 – Authorised by Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Shamir, Operation Solomon commences.
May 25 – The Surinamese general election is won by the military-backed New Front for Democracy and Development.
May 26 – In Thailand, a Lauda Air Boeing 767 crashes near Bangkok, killing all 223 people on board.
May 28 – In the Ethiopian Civil War, the forces of the Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front seize Addis Ababa.
May 31 – The Dwyer decision in the Cascadian part of the United States about logging in old-growth forests with spotted owls protects large areas of forest and changes the economy of the region.
Mount Unzen erupts, killing 43 people as a result of pyroclastic flow.
Ethiopian Civil War: Derg insurgents explode an ammunition dump in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia held by the new pro-US anti-communist Ethiopian government.
Fatos Nano resigns as Prime Minister of Albania following a nationwide strike. President of Albania Ramiz Alia appoints Ylli Bufi as his successor.
The largest solar flare ever recorded triggers an anomalously large aurora as far south as Pennsylvania.
President of Algeria Chadli Bendjedid dismisses Prime Minister of Algeria Mouloud Hamrouche following 11 days of antigovernment demonstrations, replacing him with Sid Ahmed Ghozali.
South Africa repeals the last legal foundations of apartheid, the laws that segregated places of residence and employment.
STS-40: Space Shuttle Columbia carries the Spacelab into orbit.
June 7 – About 200,000 people attend a parade of 8,800 returning Persian Gulf War troops in Washington, D.C.
June 9 – A major collapse of ground at the Emaswati Colliery in Swaziland traps 26 miners 65 m below the surface. The men have access to a safe refuge chamber and are all rescued by a drill hole 30 hours after the rescue unit is first alerted.
June 10 – 11-year-old Jaycee Dugard of California, is kidnapped and held captive.
Boris Yeltsin is elected President of Russia, the largest and most populous of the 15 Soviet republics.
Sri Lankan Civil War: Sri Lankan Army soldiers kill 152 civilians in Kokkadichcholai.
June 13 – A spectator is killed by lightning at the U.S. Open.
In the Philippines, Mount Pinatubo erupts in the second largest terrestrial eruption of the 20th century; the final death toll tops 800.
End of voting in the Indian general election. The Indian National Congress wins the most seats but fails to secure a majority. On June 21, Congress leader P. V. Narasimha Rao becomes Prime Minister of India
Apartheid: The South African Parliament repeals the Population Registration Act, which had required racial classification of all South Africans at birth.
U.S. President Zachary Taylor is exhumed to discover whether or not his death was caused by arsenic poisoning, instead of acute gastrointestinal illness; no trace of arsenic is found.
In Northern Ireland, the four main political parties begins talks on restoring self-government.
President of Turkey Turgut Özal appoints Mesut Yılmaz as Prime Minister of Turkey, replacing Yıldırım Akbulut, who had resigned.
Supreme Court Justice Thurgood Marshall announced plans to retire.
June 20 – In Germany, the Bundestag votes to move the capital from Bonn to Berlin.
June 21 – P. V. Narasimha Rao sworn in as the Prime Minister of India in a Congress party-led coalition government.
Mesut Yılmaz, of ANAP forms the new government of Turkey (48th government).
The first Sonic the Hedgehog game is published by Sega. The series will soon become extremely popular, and (as of 2016) is still being produced.
June 23–28 – Iraq disarmament crisis: U.N. inspection teams attempt to intercept Iraqi vehicles carrying nuclear related equipment. Iraqi soldiers fire warning shots in the air to prevent inspectors from approaching the vehicles.
June 25 – Collapse of Yugoslavia: Croatia and Slovenia declare their independence from Yugoslavia.
June 28 – Comecon is dissolved in Moscow.
The Warsaw Pact is officially dissolved at a meeting in Prague.
Telephone service goes down in the cities of Washington DC, Pittsburgh, Los Angeles and San Francisco due to a software bug. About twelve million customers are affected.
Clarence Thomas is nominated to replace Thurgood Marshall as the Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court.
July 2 – Ten-Day War: Fighting breaks out when the Yugoslav People's Army attacks secessionists in Slovenia.
July 4 – President of Colombia César Gaviria lifts a 7-year-long state of siege.
July 6–7 – Steffi Graf and Michael Stich win the 1991 Wimbledon Championships.
July 7 – The Brioni Agreement ends the Ten-Day War in Slovenia.
In response to the end of apartheid, the International Olympic Committee readmits South Africa to the Olympics.
Iran–Contra affair: Alan Fiers agrees to plead guilty to two charges of having lied to the U.S. Congress.
Boris Yeltsin begins his 5-year term as the first elected president of Russia.
President Bush announces the U.S. is ending its 1986-enacted sanctions on South Africa.
A solar eclipse of record totality occurs, seen first in Hawaii, then enters Mexico where the path directly crosses Cabo San Lucas and Mexico City, seen by 20 million inhabitants, and finally ends in Colombia in South America.
Nigeria Airways Flight 2120, a Douglas DC-8 operated by Canadian airline Nolisair, catches fire and crashes soon after takeoff from Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, killing all 261 people on board.
July 15 – Chemical Bank and Manufacturers Hanover Corporation announce that they are merging, the largest bank merger in history.
President Gorbachev arrives in London to ask for western aid from the leaders of the G7.
Ukraine celebrates its first Independence Day.
July 17 – President Bush and President Gorbachev reach an agreement on START II, which is formally signed on July 31.
In Israel, a judge investigating a 1990 incident outside a mosque in Jerusalem in which at least 17 Palestinians were killed rules that Israeli police provoked the incident.
The governments of Mauritania and Senegal sign a treaty to stop the Mauritania–Senegal Border War which had been going on since 1989.
July 21 – Ian Baker-Finch wins the 1991 Open Championship in golf.
Boxer Mike Tyson is arrested and charged with the rape of Miss Black America contestant Desiree Washington 3 days earlier, in Indianapolis, Indiana.
Serial killer Jeffrey Dahmer is arrested after the remains of 11 men and boys are found in his Milwaukee, Wisconsin, apartment. Police soon find out that he is involved in 6 more murders.
July 24 – Finance Minister of India Manmohan Singh announces a New Industrial Policy, marking the start of economic liberalisation in India.
July 25 – British astronomers announce they have found what appears to be an extrasolar planet.
July 27 – An oil spill begins fouling beaches in Olympic National Park.
July 29 – In New York City, a grand jury indicts Bank of Credit and Commerce International of the largest bank fraud in history, accusing the bank of defrauding depositors of $5 billion.
July 30 – In Haiti, a jury convicts the Tonton Macoute of attempting to overthrow Haiti's first democratically-elected government.
The Warsaw Treaty Organization is officially dissolved in accordance with a protocol calling for a “transition to all-European structures."
The United States and the Soviet Union sign the START I treaty limiting strategic nuclear weapons.
Singing Revolution: Soviet Special Purpose Police Unit (OMON) forces kill 7 Lithuanian customs officials in Medininkai in the most serious of the Soviet OMON assaults on Lithuanian border posts.
August 1 – Israel agrees to participate in the Madrid Conference of 1991, which is held in October.
August 4 – The cruise liner MTS Oceanos sinks off the coast of South Africa; all 571 passengers on board are safely evacuated.
August 5 – Sergey Bubka breaks the world record for men's pole vault.
August 6 – Tim Berners-Lee announces the World Wide Web project and software on the alt.hypertext newsgroup. The first website, "info.cern.ch" is created.
August 7 – Shapour Bakhtiar, former prime minister of Iran, is assassinated.
August 8 – The Warsaw radio mast, the tallest construction ever built at the time, collapses.
August 13 – The Super Nintendo Entertainment System (or "Super Nintendo") is released in the United States.
Strathfield massacre: In Sydney, Australia, taxi driver Wade Frankum shoots 7 people and injures 6 others before turning the gun on himself.
The remains of the Prussian King Frederick ( II ) the Great is re-interred in Potsdam.
August 19 – Dissolution of the Soviet Union: Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev is put under house arrest while vacationing in the Crimea during a coup. The attempted coup, led by Vice President Gennady Yanayev and 7 hard-liners attempting to usurp control, collapses in less than 72 hours.
Dissolution of the Soviet Union: Estonia restores its independence from the Soviet Union.
Dissolution of the Soviet Union: More than 100,000 people rally outside the Soviet Union's parliament building protesting the coup that deposed President Mikhail Gorbachev.
August 21 – Dissolution of the Soviet Union: Latvia restores its independence from the Soviet Union.
August 22 – Iceland is the first nation in the world to recognize the independence of the Baltic states.
August 24 – Dissolution of the Soviet Union: Ukraine declares independence from Soviet Union.
Serbian aggression (Yugoslav People's Army and Chetniks) starts on Croatian town Vukovar.
Student Linus Torvalds posts messages to Usenet newsgroup comp.os.minix about the new operating system kernel he has been developing.
Dissolution of the Soviet Union: Belarus declares independence from Soviet Union.
August 27 – Dissolution of the Soviet Union: Moldova declares independence from the Soviet Union.
Maronite general Michel Aoun leaves Lebanon via a French ship into exile.
Boris Yeltsin bans and dissolves the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.
August 30 – Dissolution of the Soviet Union: Azerbaijan declares independence from Soviet Union.
August 31 – Dissolution of the Soviet Union: Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan declare independence from the Soviet Union.
September 2 – The United States re-recognizes the independence of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania and the US government reopens the embassies there.
September 3 – In Hamlet, North Carolina, a grease fire breaks out at the Imperial Foods chicken processing plant, killing 25 people.
September 4 – The Russian city Yekaterinburg regains its name from the communist–era name of Sverdlovsk, Russia (former Soviet Union).
September 5–7 – At the 35th Annual Tailhook Symposium in Las Vegas, 83 women and 7 men are assaulted.
September 5 – The Congress of People's Deputies of the Soviet Union self-dissolves, replaced by Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union and State Council of the Soviet Union
Singing Revolution: The Soviet Union recognizes the independence of the Baltic states.
The name Saint Petersburg is restored to Russia's second-largest city, which had been renamed Leningrad in 1924.
September 8 – The Republic of Macedonia becomes independent. A naming dispute with Greece immediately erupts.
September 9 – Tajikistan declares its independence from the Soviet Union.
Israel releases 51 Arab prisoners and the bodies of 9 guerillas, raising hopes that the last Western hostages in Lebanon will soon be released.
The Soviet Union announces plans to withdraw Soviet military and economic aid to Cuba.
September 15 – In the Swedish general election, the Social Democrats suffer their worst election results in 60 years, leading to the resignation of Prime Minister Ingvar Carlsson.
September 16 – Judge Gerhard Gesell of the United States District Court for the District of Columbia issues a ruling clearing Col. Oliver North of all charges brought against him in the Iran–Contra affair.
September 17 – North Korea, South Korea, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, the Marshall Islands and Micronesia join the United Nations.
September 19 – Ötzi the Iceman is found in the Alps.
September 20–21 – In Sandy, Utah, several patients are held hostage and a nurse is killed in the Alta View Hospital hostage incident.
Armenia declares independence from the Soviet Union.
The Order of the Sisters of Perpetual Indulgence of German tongue (Orden der Schwestern der Perpetuellen Indulgenz deutscher Zunge, "O.S.P.I.") is founded in Heidelberg by Erzmutter (Archmother) Johanna Indulgentia Tara Maria Benedicta O.S.P.I.
AFL Grand Final: Hawthorn Hawks defeat West Coast Eagles by 53 points at Waverley Park, the final score 20.19.139 – 13.8.86.
September 21–30 – Iraq disarmament crisis: IAEA inspectors discover files on Iraq's hidden nuclear weapons program. Iraqi officials confiscate documents from U.N. weapons inspectors, refusing to allow them to leave the site without turning over other documents. A 4-day standoff ensues. Iraq permits the team to leave with the documents after the U.N. Security Council threatens enforcement actions.
September 22 – The Huntington Library makes the Dead Sea Scrolls available to the public for the first time.
September 23 – United Nations Special Commission inspectors discover secret Iraqi documents in Baghdad detailing plans to make nuclear weapons, but the Iraqi Army forcibly remove the documents from the inspectors.
September 24 – Lebanese kidnappers release Jackie Mann, 77, after more than 2 years of captivity.
September 25 – In the Salvadoran Civil War, representatives of the Farabundo Martí National Liberation Front reach an agreement with President of El Salvador Alfredo Cristiani, setting the stage for ending over 11 years of civil war.
September 27 – President Bush announces unilateral reductions in short-range nuclear weapons and calls off 24-hour alerts for long-range bombers. The Soviet Union responds with similar unilateral reductions on October 5.
September 29 – In El Salvador, an army colonel of the Atlacatl Battalion is found guilty of the 1989 murder of six Jesuit priests and their housekeepers.
Haitian President Jean-Bertrand Aristide is removed from power. He is reinstated in 1994.
A tornado destroys parts of Itu, a city in southeastern Brazil, killing 16 and leaving 176 injured.
October 1 – Croatian War of Independence: Yugoslav People's Army forces invade the area surrounding Dubrovnik in Croatia, beginning the Siege of Dubrovnik which lasts until May 31, 1992.
Arkansas Governor Bill Clinton announces he will seek the 1992 Democratic nomination for President of the United States.
Nadine Gordimer, whose work was once suppressed because of its scathing criticism of Apartheid in South Africa, is awarded the 1991 Nobel Prize in Literature.
House banking scandal: Tom Foley, Speaker of the United States House of Representatives, announces closure of the House Bank by the end of the year after revelations that House members have written numerous bad checks.
October 4 – Carl Bildt becomes the new Prime Minister of Sweden, replacing Ingvar Carlsson .
October 6 – President Gorbachev condemns Antisemitism in the Soviet Union in a statement read on the 50th anniversary of the Babi Yar massacres, which saw the death of 35,000 Jews in Ukraine.
October 7 – The Yugoslav Air Force bombs the office of President of Croatia Franjo Tuđman, who narrowly escapes with his life.
October 8 – The Croatian Parliament cuts all remaining ties with Yugoslavia.
In Russia, the KGB is replaced by the SVR.
Iraq disarmament crisis: The U.N. Security Council passes Resolution 715, which demands that Iraq "accept unconditionally the inspectors and all other personnel designated by the Special Commission". Iraq rejects the resolution, calling it "unlawful."
October 11–13 – The U.S. Senate Judiciary Committee interviews both Supreme Court candidate Clarence Thomas and former aide Anita Hill, who alleges that Thomas sexually harassed her while she worked for him.
October 12 – Askar Akayev, previously chosen President of Kyrgyzstan by its Supreme Soviet, is confirmed president in an uncontested poll.
October 13 – In the Bulgarian parliamentary election, the Union of Democratic Forces defeats the Bulgarian Socialist Party, leaving no remaining Communist governments in Eastern Europe.
October 14 – Aung San Suu Kyi, a Burmese opposition politician, won the Nobel Peace prize.
October 15 – The United States Senate votes 52–48 to confirm Judge Clarence Thomas to the Supreme Court of the United States.
October 16 – George Hennard murders 23 people in Killeen, Texas, before killing himself.
October 18 – The Soviet Union restores diplomatic relations with Israel, which had been suspended since the 1967 Six-Day War.
The Oakland Hills firestorm kills 25 and destroys 3,469 homes and apartments.
The Harare Declaration lays down the membership criteria for the Commonwealth of Nations.
Former Ku Klux Klan Grand Wizard David Duke wins a spot in the runoff election for governor of Louisiana, ultimately losing to Edwin Edwards.
October 21 – Lebanese kidnappers release Jesse Turner, a mathematics professor who had been held hostage for more than 4 years.
October 23 – In Paris, the Vietnam-backed government of the state of Cambodia signs an agreement with the Khmer Rouge to end the civil war and bring the Khmer Rouge into government in spite of its role in the Cambodian genocide which ends the Cambodian–Vietnamese War. The deal results in the creation of the United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia.
The first free parliamentary elections are held in Poland.
Turkmenistan declares its independence from the Soviet Union.
October 28 – November 4 – The 1991 Perfect Storm strikes the northeastern United States and Atlantic Canada, causing over $200 million of damage and resulting in 12 direct fatalities.
The American Galileo spacecraft makes its closest approach to 951 Gaspra, becoming the first probe to visit an asteroid.
The U.S. expands trade sanctions on Haiti to include all goods except food and medicine, in an effort to encourage the leaders of the 1991 Haitian coup d'état to restore democracy.
October 30 – In Madrid, the Middle East Peace Conference opens, the first direct negotiations between Israel and nearly all its Arab adversaries.
October 31 – November 3 – The Halloween Blizzard hits the Upper Midwest of the United States, causing around $100 million of damage and killing 22.
November 4–5 – In South Africa, the African National Congress leads a general strike, demanding a role in governing and an end to a value-added tax.
The body of publishing tycoon Robert Maxwell is found floating in the Atlantic Ocean near the Canary Islands.
In a special election for the U.S. Senate, Harris Wofford scores an electoral upset against Dick Thornburgh, who had led him by 44 points in an August opinion poll.
The United States Senate confirms Robert Gates as Director of Central Intelligence.
China–Vietnam relations: China and Vietnam restore diplomatic relations after a 13-year rift which followed the 1979 Sino-Vietnamese War.
The KGB officially stops operations.
The CPSU and its republic-level division, the Communist Party of the Russian SFSR, are banned in the Russian SFSR by Presidential decree N 169.
Los Angeles Lakers point guard Magic Johnson announces he has HIV, effectively ending his NBA career.
The last oil well fire in Kuwait is extinguished.
The first report on carbon nanotubes is published by Sumio Iijima in the journal Nature.
November 8 – Hong Kong begins the forcible repatriation of Vietnamese boat people, starting with a group of 59 who were flown to Hanoi.
The British JET fusion reactor generates 1.5 MW output power.
On the anniversary of Kristallnacht, tens of thousands of protestors demonstrate against attacks on immigrant workers.
November 12 – June Rowlands is elected the first female Mayor of Toronto.
American and British authorities announce indictments against two Libyan intelligence officials, in connection with the downing of the Pan Am Flight 103.
Cambodian Prince Norodom Sihanouk returns to Phnom Penh after 13 years of exile.
Kidnappers in Lebanon set Anglican Church envoys Terry Waite and Thomas Sutherland free.
The forces of the Yugoslav People's Army (JNA) and Serb paramilitaries take the Croatian town of Vukovar after an 87-day siege, and kill more than 260 Croatian prisoners of war.
An Azerbaijani MI-8 helicopter carrying a 19-member peacekeeping mission team with officials and journalists from Russia, Kazakhstan and Azerbaijan is shot down by Armenian military forces in Khojavend district of Azerbaijan.
Süleyman Demirel of DYP forms the new government of Turkey (49th government, coalition partner CHP).
The United Nations Security Council recommends Egypt's deputy prime minister Boutros Boutros-Ghali to be the next Secretary-General of the United Nations.
Nintendo releases The Legend of Zelda: A Link to the Past. This was the initial release in Japan, with international releases of the game the following year.
November 23 – Members of the Communist Party of Great Britain vote to dissolve the party and found the think-tank Democratic Left in its place.
November 24 – Queen lead singer Freddie Mercury dies from pneumonia induced by AIDS.
November 26 – The National Assembly of Azerbaijan abolishes the autonomous status of Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast of Azerbaijan and renames several cities according to their Azeri names.
November 27 – The United Nations Security Council unanimously adopts a resolution opening the way to the establishment of peacekeeping operations in Yugoslavia.
December 1 – Dissolution of the Soviet Union: Ukrainians vote overwhelmingly for independence from the Soviet Union in a referendum.
Journalist Terry A. Anderson is released after 7 years' captivity as a hostage in Beirut (the last and longest-held American hostage in Lebanon).
Pan American World Airways ends operations.
John Leonard Orr, one of the most prolific serial arsonists of the 20th century, is arrested in California. In the ensuing years, Orr is convicted in both Federal and state court.
Leaders of Russia, Belarus, and Ukraine meet and sign an agreement ending the Soviet Union and establishing the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), in the Białowieża Forest Nature Reserve in Belarus.
A referendum on the constitution of Romania is accepted as valid.
December 11 – Croatian forces kill 18 Serbs and one Hungarian in the village of Paulin Dvor, Croatia.
The Supreme Soviet of the Russian SFSR denounces the Union Treaty of 1922 and ratifies the Belavezha Accords instead.
The government of Nigeria changes the capital of the nation from Lagos to Abuja.
Ukraine becomes the first post-Soviet republic to decriminalize homosexuality.
December 15 – The Egyptian ferry Salem Express sinks in the Red Sea, killing more than 450.
Kazakhstan declares its independence from the Soviet Union.
United Nations General Assembly Resolution 3379: The United Nations General Assembly adopts United Nations General Assembly Resolution 46/86 which states that Zionism is not racism, repealing United Nations General Assembly Resolution 3379 (adopted 1975). The resolution is favoured by 111 nations and opposed by 25 nations.
December 19 – Paul Keating replaces Bob Hawke as the prime minister of Australia.
December 20 – A Missouri court passes the death sentence on Palestinian militant Zein Isa and his wife Maria, for the honor killing of their daughter Palestina.
The North Atlantic Cooperation Council (NAC-C) meets for the first time, the day on which the Soviet Union ceases to exist. source
Charilaos Florakis is elected honorary president of the Communist Party of Greece. source
December 22 – Armed opposition groups launch a military coup against President of Georgia Zviad Gamsakhurdia.
December 24 – Russian SFSR President Boris Yeltsin sends a letter to UN Secretary-General Javier Pérez de Cuéllar, stating that Russia should be a successor to the collapsing Soviet Union within the United Nations Organization.
Dissolution of the Soviet Union: Mikhail Gorbachev resigns as president of the Soviet Union, from which most republics have already seceded, anticipating the dissolution of the 74-year-old state.
The Russian SFSR officially renames itself the Russian Federation.
December 26 – The Supreme Soviet meets for a final time, formally dissolves the Soviet Union, and adjourns sine die. All remaining Soviet institutions eventually cease operation on December 31.
The University of South Australia is founded.
Impostor James Hogue is exposed at Princeton University.
Ames crater astrobleme discovered in Major County, Oklahoma.
January 1 – Hamse Abdouh, Palestinian swimmer
Ben Hardy, English actor
Danny Miller, English actor
Davide Santon, Italian footballer
Steele Sidebottom, Australian Rules footballer
January 3 – Sébastien Faure, French footballer
Pascal Bodmer, German ski jumper
Olivia Tennet, New Zealand actress and dancer
January 5 – Rahel Kiwic, Swiss footballer
January 6 – Anabel Barnston, English actress
January 7 – Eden Hazard, Belgian football player
January 8 – Asuka Hinoi, Japanese singer
January 9 – 3LAU, American DJ and musician
January 11 – Hyolyn, South Korean singer and actress
January 12 – Pixie Lott, British singer
Kyle Clifford, Canadian hockey player
Goo Ha-ra, South Korean singer and actress
January 14 – Jeanine Mason, American actress and dancer
Darya Klishina, Russian athlete and model
Rubab Raza, Pakistani swimmer
January 16 – Julie Dubela, American singer
January 18 – Matthew Kane, British actor
Erin Sanders, American actress
Yu Takahashi, Japanese actress and model
January 20 – Ciara Hanna, American actress and model
Craig Roberts, Welsh actor
Brittany Tiplady, Canadian actress
Marcus Canty, American singer and dancer
Anais Mali, French model
January 24 – Ali Kireş, Turkish footballer
January 28 – Calum Worthy, Canadian actor and musician
January 31 – Amy Jackson, English model and actress
February 1 – Jasmine Tookes, American model
February 3 – Glenn McCuen, American actor, model and gymnast
February 5 – Alba Riquelme, Paraguayan model
February 8 – Nam Woo-hyun, South Korean singer, dancer, and actor
Emma Roberts, American actress
C.J. Anderson, American football player
Christofer Drew, American singer
Georgia May Foote, British actress
Shanina Shaik, Australian model
February 12 – Casey Abrams, American singer
February 14 – Charlie G. Hawkins, English actor
Princess Alexandra of Luxembourg
Micah Stephen Williams, American actor
Sergio Canales, Spanish football player
Ed Sheeran, British singer
Bonnie Wright, British actress
Vadhir Derbez, Mexican actor
Jeremy Allen White, American actor
Malese Jow, American actress, singer and songwriter
Henry Surtees, British racing driver (d. 2009)
Trevor Bayne, American race car driver
Ariel Alexandria Davis, American actress
Robin Stjernberg, Swedish pop singer
Khalil Mack, American football player
Emily DiDonato, American model
O'Shea Jackson Jr., American rapper and actor
Kristie Mewis, American soccer player
Tony Oller, American actor and singer
February 26 – CL, South Korean singer and dancer
February 28 – Sarah Bolger, Irish actress
March 3 – Park Cho-rong, South Korean singer
Aoi Nakamura, Japanese actor
Diandra Newlin, American actress, singer, and fashion model
March 5 – Hanna Mangan-Lawrence, Australian actress
Nicole Fox, American fashion model and actress
Tyler, The Creator, American rapper and graphic artist
Lex Luger, American record producer
March 8 – Devon Werkheiser, American actor and musician
March 9 – Domo Genesis, American rapper
Bang Mir, Korean pop rapper
Jung So-ra, Korean beauty pageant titleholder
Qian Lin, Chinese singer
Drew Osborne, American actor
Jack Rodwell, English footballer
March 13 - Tristan Thompson, Canadian basketball player
Jake Ball, English cricketer
Rhiannon Fish, Australian actress
March 15 – Kie Kitano, Japanese actress
March 16 – Wolfgang Van Halen, American musician
March 18 – Travis Frederick, American football player
March 19 – Garrett Clayton, American actor and singer
March 21 – Antoine Griezmann, French footballer
Colton Harris-Moore, American criminal, known as the "Barefoot Bandit"
Ashley Eastham, English footballer
Seychelle Gabriel, American actress
Dina Garipova, Russian singer of Tatar origin
Jack Watts, Australian rules footballer
Brittney Wilson, Canadian actress
March 27 – Chloe Marshall, English model
Rin Asuka, Japanese actress
Amy Bruckner, American actress and singer
Derek Carr, American quarterback
Hoya, South Korean singer and actor
March 29 – Hayley McFarland, American actress
March 30 – Mia Carruthers, American singer and songwriter
Anna Gurji, Georgian actress
SpaceGhostPurrp, American rapper and producer
April 3 – Hayley Kiyoko, American singer and actress
April 4 – Jamie Lynn Spears, American singer and actress
April 7 – Michelle Monkhouse, Canadian fashion model (d. 2011)
April 8 – Minami Takahashi, Japanese singer
April 9 – Sancler Frantz, Brazilian model and journalist
AJ Michalka, American singer and actress
Conor Leslie, American actress and model
Thiago Alcântara, Spanish footballer
Niall Canavan, English-born Irish footballer
Daiki Arioka, Japanese idol
Anastasia Vinnikova, Belarusian singer
Tessa James, Australian actress
April 19 – Kelly Olynyk, Canadian basketball player
Ondřej Kraják, Czech footballer
Luke Kuechly, American football player
Yuko Shintake, Japanese artistic gymnast
Ann Ward, American model
Frank Dillane, English actor
Kenza Zouiten, Swedish fashion model
April 23 – Caleb Johnson, American singer
Sigrid Agren, French model
Carter Cruise, American pornographic actress
April 27 – Rebecca Ryan, English actress
April 28 – Patricia Ashley, American actress
May 1 – Creagen Dow, American actor
May 7 – Rueben Randle, American football player
May 9 – Christy Mack, American pornographic actress and model
May 10 – Ray Dalton, American singer-songwriter
May 12 – Jennifer Damiano, American actress and singer
May 15 – Jennifer Hof, German fashion model
May 16 – Grigor Dimitrov, Bulgarian tennis player
Johanna Konta, Australian-born tennis player
Daniel Curtis Lee, American actor and rapper
Moran Mazor, Israeli singer
Brittani Kline, American model
Jordan Pruitt, American recording artist
May 21 – Sarah Ramos, American actress
Sophia Abrahão, Brazilian actress
Bárbara Evans, Brazilian model and television personality
Olivia Paige, American playboy model
Suho, South Korean singer
Nadine Ames, Indonesian beauty pageant titleholder
Lena Meyer-Landrut, German singer
Aaron Donald, American football player
Sam Masters, Australian Speedway Rider
May 24 – Erika Umeda, Japanese singer
Claire Sinclair, American playboy model
Derrick Williams, American basketball player
Takumi Abe, Japanese football player
Amber Bondin, Maltese singer
Marie-Sophie Hindermann, German artistic gymnast
Kristen Alderson, American actress and singer
Saori Hayami, Japanese voice actress and singer
Tom Ljungman, Swedish television and film actor
June 3 – Natasha Dupeyrón, Mexican actress and singer
Jordan Hinson, American actress
Lorenzo Insigne, Italian footballer
June 6 – Son Dong-woon, Korean pop singer
Emily Ratajkowski, British model and actress
Fetty Wap, American rapper
June 10 – Pol Espargaró, Spanish motorcycle racer
Dan Howell, English video blogger and radio personality
Kärt Tammjärv, Estonian actress
June 12 – Louisa Gummer, American model
June 15 – Rina Takeda, Japanese actress and black belt
June 16 – Joe McElderry, British singer and model
June 18 – Willa Holland, American model and actress
June 19 – Pontus Ekhem, Swedish hockey player
June 20 – Alexis Neiers, American television personality and model
Georgina Hagen, English actress and singer
Min, South Korean singer, actress and model
June 22 – Katie Jarvis, English actress
June 23 – Katie Armiger, American singer
June 24 – Max Ehrich, American actor, singer and dancer
Chloe Nørgaard, American model and DJ
Christa Theret, French actress
Victor Wanyama, Kenyan footballer
June 27 – Madylin Sweeten, American actress
Kang Min-hyuk, South Korean drummer, actor and singer
Seohyun, South Korean singer
Addison Timlin, American actress
Kawhi Leonard, American basketball player
Kaho, Japanese actress
David Witts, British actor
Michael Wacha, American baseball player
Kev Adams, French humorist
Tomomi Itano, Japanese singer and actress
Anastasia Pavlyuchenkova, Russian tennis player
Grant Rosenmeyer, American film and television actor
July 5 – Jason Dolley, American actor
July 6 – Victoire Thivisol, French actress
Alesso, Swedish DJ and music producer
Eve Hewson, Irish actress
Gioia Barbieri, Italian tennis player
Clara Hagman, Swedish singer
Mitchel Musso, American actor, singer
Riley Reid, American pornographic actress
María Chacón, Mexican actress and singer
Atsuko Maeda, Japanese singer and actress
July 11 – Natalie Evans, American actress
Dexter Roberts, American Idol contestant
James Rodríguez, Colombian football player
Erik Per Sullivan, American actor
Daniel Zovatto, American actor
July 13 – Seppe Smits, Belgian snowboarder
Emily Roeske, American actress
Erik J. Berg, Canadian actor
Derrick Favors, American basketball player
Yuki Kashiwagi, Japanese singer and actress
Alexandra Shipp, American actress
Andros Townsend, English footballer
July 18 – Karina Pasian, American singer and pianist
July 20 – Alec Burks, American basketball player
July 21 – Sara Sampaio, Portuguese model
Bibi Jones, American pornographic actress
Terron Armstead, American football player
Lauren Mitchell, Australian artistic gymnast
July 24 – Emily Bett Rickards, Canadian actress
Rena Matsui, Japanese singer and idol
Madylin Sweeten, American actress and comedian
July 28 – Rina Aizawa, Japanese actress and gravure idol
Maestro Harrell, American actor
Miki Ishikawa, American actress and singer
David Carreira, Portuguese singer, model and actor
Diana Vickers, English singer-songwriter, stage actress and fashion designer
Filipa Azevedo, Portuguese singer
Abhay Jodhpurkar, Indian singer
Skyler Day, American actress and singer
Zuleyka Silver, American fashion model and actress
August 5 – Brooke Marie Bridges, American actress
Irina Kulikova, Russian fashion model
Jiao Liuyang, Chinese swimmer
August 7 – Mike Trout, American baseball player
Alice Barlow, English actress and singer
Hansika Motwani, Indian actress
Candela Vetrano, Argentine actress, singer and model
August 12 – Jesinta Campbell, Australian beauty pageant titleholder
Evanna Lynch, Irish actress
Kwon Ri-se, South Korean singer (d. 2014)
Austin Butler, American actor, singer, and model
Qory Sandioriva, Indonesian beauty pageant titleholder
August 18 – Richard Harmon, Canadian actor
August 20 – Cory Joseph, Canadian basketball player
August 21 – Tess Gaerthé, Dutch singer and actress
August 22 – Brayden Schenn, Canadian ice hockey player
August 23 – Jennifer Abel, Canadian diver
August 25 – Gershon Koffie, Ghanaian soccer player
Tommy Bastow, English actor and musician
Dylan O'Brien, American actor
August 27 – Lee Sung-yeol, South Korean singer, dancer and actor
Kyle Massey, American actor
Samuel Larsen, American actor and singer
Farid Mammadov, Azerbaijani singer
Gaia Weiss, French model and actress
September 1 – Rhys Bennett, English footballer
September 4 – Carter Jenkins, American actor
September 5 – Skandar Keynes, British actor
Joe Harris, American basketball player
Jennifer Veal, English actress
Kelsey Chow, American actress
Hunter Hayes, American country musician
Oscar dos Santos Emboaba Júnior, Brazilian footballer
Hannah Hodson, American actress
Adam Nichols, British musician
September 11 – Kygo, Norwegian DJ and record producer
Ksenia Afanasyeva, Russian artistic gymnast
Taylor Gildersleeve, American actress
September 14 – Nana, South Korean singer, actress and model
September 16 – Marlon Teixeira, Brazilian model
An Byeong-hun, Korean golfer
Ryo Ishikawa, Japanese golfer
Jordan McCoy, American singer and guitarist
Sanne Wevers, Dutch gymnast
September 18 – Scharllette Allen Moses, Nicaraguan beauty pageant titleholder
September 20 – Spencer Locke, American actress
September 21 – Zoe Weizenbaum, American former actress
Khairul Anuar Mohamad, Malaysian archer
Chelsea Tavares, American actress and singer
Key, Korean singer
Melanie Oudin, American tennis player
September 25 – Emmy Clarke, American actress
September 27 – Simona Halep, Romanian tennis player
October 2 – Roberto Firmino, Brazilian footballer
Cole Hawkins, American actor
Nicolai Kielstrup, Danish singer
Brett Murphy, American actor
October 5 – Jackson Rogow, American actor
October 6 – Roshon Fegan, American actor and musician
Nicole Jung, Korean-American singer
Lay, Chinese singer
Gabriella Cilmi, Australian singer-songwriter
Mariana Espósito, Argentine actress, singer, dancer and model
Mariana Pajón, Colombian cyclist
Xherdan Shaqiri, Swiss footballer
October 14 – Shona McGarty, English actress
Phan Thi Ha Thanh, Vietnamese artistic gymnast
Miori Takimoto, Japanese actress
Jedward, Irish pop duo
October 17 – Brenda Asnicar, Argentine actress and singer
October 18 – Tyler Posey, American actor and musician
October 19 – Christopher Gerse, American actor
Kirsten Olson, American figure skater and actress
Zulfahmi Khairuddin, Malaysian motocycle racer
October 22 – Arianna Afsar, American pageant titleholder and singer
Sophie Oda, Japanese American actress
Princess Mako of Akishino, Japanese princess
October 24 – Torstein Andersen Aase, Norwegian football striker
October 25 – Isabella Shinikova, Bulgarian tennis player
October 26 – Amala Paul, Indian film actress
October 27 – Bryan Craig, American actor
October 29 – Marcus Lattimore, American football player
Paulina Olszynski, American actress
Aliza Vellani, Canadian television actress
October 31 – Jordan-Claire Green, American actress musician and singer
Jiang Yuyuan, Chinese gymnast
Anthony Ramos, American actor
Olta Boka, Albanian singer
Bee Vang, American actor
Adriana Chechik, American pornographic actress
Camila Finn, Brazilian model
Pierson Fodé, American actor and model
Riker Lynch, American actor, singer and bassist
Dan Middleton, YouTube Personality
November 10 – Genevieve Buechner, Canadian actress
Emma Blackery, British singer
Christa B. Allen, American actress
Tanvi Hegde, Indian film actress
Takatoshi Abe, Japanese track and field athlete
Gijs Van Hoecke, Belgian cyclist
Matt Bennett, American actor, singer and screenwriter
Devon Bostick, Canadian actor
Taylor Hall, Canadian ice hockey player
Graham Patrick Martin, American film and television actor
November 15 – Shailene Woodley, American actress
November 16 – Tomomi Kasai, Japanese singer
November 20 – Irene Esser, Venezuelan beauty pageant titleholder
November 21 – Dmitriy Martynov, Russian actor
Diana Danielle, American actress
Saki Shimizu, Japanese singer
November 24 – Lacey Baker, American skateboader
Jamie Grace, American musician and actress
Martin del Rosario, Filipino actor
November 28 – Ian Beharry, Canadian pair skater
December 1 – Sun Yang, Chinese Olympic swimmer
Brandon Knight, American basketball player
Charlie Puth, American singer
Dominique Jackson, British actress
Masahiro Usui, Japanese actor
December 4 – Aiden Grimshaw, English singer
Prince Joachim of Belgium, Archduke of Austria-Este, Belgian prince
Choi Minho, South Korean rapper and TV host
December 10 – Kiki Bertens, Dutch tennis player
Dyllan Christopher, American actor
Daniel Magder, Canadian actor
December 11 – Anna Bergendahl, Swedish singer
December 13 – Jay Greenberg, American music composer
December 15 – Eunice Cho, Korean-American actress
Nadech Kugimiya, Thai model and actor
Daniel Tay, American actor and voice actor
December 19 – Declan Galbraith, English singer
Hunter Gomez, American actor
Jillian Rose Reed, American actress
Vincent Caso, American actor and entrepreneur
Louis Tomlinson, British singer
December 26 – Eden Sher, American actress
December 27 – Chloe Bridges, American actress
December 28 – Belime, Lebanon singer-songwriter, pop musician and music producer
December 31 – Camila Giorgi, Italian tennis player
January 2 – Renato Rascel, Italian actor and singer (b. 1912)
Luke Appling, American baseball player (Chicago White Sox) and member of the MLB Hall of Fame (b. 1907)
Doris Zinkeisen, Scottish theatrical stage and costume designer, painter, commercial artist and writer (b. 1898)
January 5 – Vasko Popa, Yugoslavian poet (b. 1922)
Everett Bidwell, Wisconsin politician (b. 1899)
Stephen Winsten, one of the 'Whitechapel Boys' group (b. 1893)
Maurice Deloraine, French engineer, executive and technical director of International Telephone and Telegraph (b. 1898)
January 8 – Steve Clark, English guitarist (b. 1960)
Carl David Anderson, American physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1905)
Charles Mozley, British artist (b. 1914)
Keye Luke, Chinese-born actor (b. 1904)
Vasco Pratolini, Italian writer (b. 1913)
Mary Francis Shura, American writer (b. 1923)
January 14 – Salah Khalaf (a.k.a. Abu Iyad), Palestinian officer (b. 1933)
Ralph Tambs-Lyche, Norwegian mathematician (b. 1890)
Frederick J. Pohl, prolific playwright, literary critic, editor, and book writer (b. 1889)
January 17 – King Olav V of Norway (b. 1903)
January 18 – Hamilton Fish III, soldier and politician from New York State (b. 1888)
January 19 – John Russell, American actor (b. 1921)
January 22 – Kenas Aroi, Nauruan politician (b. 1942)
January 23 – Darrell Lunsford, American policeman (b. 1943)
January 25 – Frank Soo, English footballer and manager (b. 1914)
January 28 – Red Grange, American football player (Chicago Bears) and member of the Pro Football Hall of Fame (b. 1903)
Yasushi Inoue, Japanese historian (b. 1907)
John McIntire, American actor (b. 1907)
John Bardeen, American physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1908)
Clifton C. Edom, American photojournalism educator (b. 1907)
Carol Dempster, American actress (b. 1901)
Jimmy MacDonald, Scottish-American sound effects artist, voice actor (b. 1906)
February 2 – Pete Axthelm, sportswriter (b. 1943)
Arnold Armitage, British-born artist and illustrator, (b. 1899)
Ed Russenholt, first weather person (b. 1890)
Nancy Kulp, American actress (b. 1921)
Dean Jagger, American actor (b. 1903)
Pedro Arrupe, Spanish Catholic priest, Superior General of the Society of Jesus (b. 1907)
María Zambrano, Spanish essayist and philosopher (b. 1904)
Salvador Luria, Italian-born biologist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (b. 1912)
Danny Thomas, American singer, comedian, and actor (b. 1912)
February 7 – Amos Yarkoni, legendary Israeli soldier (b. 1920)
February 13 – Arno Breker, German sculptor (b. 1900)
John A. McCone, American politician, 6th Director of Central Intelligence (b. 1902)
Neta Snook, pioneer aviator (b. 1896)
February 16 – Enrique Bermúdez, Nicaraguan Contras leader (b. 1932)
John Sherman Cooper, American politician (b. 1901)
Margot Fonteyn, English ballet dancer (b. 1919)
John Charles Daly, South African-born journalist and game show host (b. 1914)
Héctor Rial, Argentinian footballer (b. 1928)
George Gobel, American comedian (b. 1919)
Jean Rogers, American actress (b. 1916)
February 25 – Sverre Hansen, Norwegian long jumper (b. 1899)
February 28 – Koesbini, Indonesian composer (b. 1910)
March 1 – Edwin H. Land, inventor of the Polaroid instant camera (b. 1909)
Serge Gainsbourg, French singer (b. 1928)
Mary Howard a.k.a. Josephine Edgar, British writer (b. 1907)
Arthur Murray, American dancer and dance instructor (b. 1895)
William Penney, Baron Penney, British nuclear physicist (b. 1909)
March 7 – Cool Papa Bell, American baseball player (b. 1903)
March 12 – Ragnar Granit, Finnish neuroscientist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (b. 1900)
Howard Ashman, American lyricist (b. 1950)
Doc Pomus, American composer (b. 1925)
George Sherman, American film director (b. 1908)
Evelyn Boucher, British film actress (b. 1892)
Robin Hill, British plant biochemist (b. 1899)
Rowland Baring, 3rd Earl of Cromer, British central banker and diplomat (b. 1918)
Latasha Harlins, American murder victim (b. 1975)
March 18 – Vilma Bánky, Hungarian-born actress (b. 1901)
March 20 – Conor Clapton, son of guitarist Eric Clapton (b. 1986)
Franjo Benzinger, Croatian pharmacist (b. 1899)
Leo Fender, American instrument maker (b. 1909)
John Kerr, former Governor-General of Australia (b. 1914)
Maudie Edwards, English actress (b. 1906)
March 25 – Archbishop Marcel Lefebvre, Roman Catholic bishop who fought for Catholic Tradition (b. 1905)
March 27 – Aldo Ray, American actor (b. 1926)
March 29 – Lee Atwater, American Presidential advisor (b. 1951)
Paulo Muwanga, Ugandan military officer and statesman, Prime Minister of Uganda and President of Uganda (b. 1921)
Martha Graham, American dancer and choreographer (b. 1894)
Jaime Guzmán, Chilean right-wing senator (assassinated) (b. 1946)
Charles Goren, American bridge player, writer, and columnist (b. 1901)
Graham Greene, English writer (b. 1904)
Max Frisch, Swiss writer (b. 1911)
H. John Heinz III, American politician (b. 1938)
Louis Guglielmi, French composer (b. 1916),
Edmund Adamkiewicz, German footballer (b. 1920)
Sonny Carter, American astronaut (b. 1947)
John Tower, American politician (b. 1925)
William Sidney, former Governor-General of Australia (b. 1909)
April 7 – Ruth Page, American ballerina and choreographer (b. 1899)
April 8 – Per Yngve Ohlin, Swedish singer (b. 1969)
April 9 – Forrest Towns, American Olympic athlete (b. 1914)
Kevin Peter Hall, American actor (b. 1955)
Natalie Schafer, American actress (b. 1900)
April 16 – David Lean, British film director (b. 1908)
April 18 – Austin Bradford Hill, English epidemiologist and statistician (b. 1897)
April 19 – Stanley Hawes, British-born Australian film producer, director and administrator (b. 1905)
Yumjaagiin Tsedenbal, Mongolian Communist leader, former Party General Secretary, Prime Minister of Mongolia (b. 1916)
Steve Marriott, English musician (b. 1947)
Don Siegel, American film director (b. 1912)
April 23 – Johnny Thunders, American musician (b. 1952)
Carmine Coppola, American composer and conductor (b. 1910)
William Andrew Paton, founder of the American Accounting Association in 1916, (b. 1889)
April 27 – Robert Velter, French cartoonist (b. 1909)
Ken Curtis, American motion picture and television actor and singer (b. 1916)
Paul E. Klopsteg, American physicist (b. 1889)
Johnny Eck, American sideshow performer (b. 1911)
Gonzaguinha, Brazilian singer and composer (b. 1945)
Claude Gallimard, French editor (b. 1914)
Cesare Merzagora, Italian politician (b. 1898)
Richard Thorpe, American film director (b. 1896)
Jerzy Kosiński, Polish-American writer (b. 1933)
James C. Tison, Jr., American admiral and civil engineer, sixth Director of the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey, first director of the Environmental Science Services Administration Corps (b. 1908)
May 4 – Mohammed Abdel Wahab, Egyptian singer and composer (b. 1902)
May 6 – Wilfrid Hyde-White, British actor (b. 1903)
May 7 – Dennis Crosby, American singer (b. 1934)
Jean Langlais, French composer and organist (b. 1907)
Rudolf Serkin, Austrian pianist (b. 1903)
May 13 – Myron Brinig, Jewish-American author who wrote twenty-one novels from 1929 to 1958 (b.1896)
May 14 – Jiang Qing, Chinese radical revolutionary, widow of Mao Zedong (b. 1914)
Shintaro Abe, Japanese politician (b. 1924)
Andreas Floer, German mathematician (b. 1956)
Ronald Lacey, English actor (b. 1935)
Gerd Achgelis, German aviator, test pilot, and pioneer in the development of helicopters (b. 1908)
Betty Alberge, English actress (b. 1922)
Edwina Booth, American actress (b. 1904)
May 20 – Lydia Cabrera, Cuban anthropologist and poet (b. 1899)
Lino Brocka, Filipino film director (b. 1939)
Rajiv Gandhi, Prime Minister of India (b. 1944)
May 22 – Derrick Henry Lehmer, American mathematician (b. 1905)
Jean Van Houtte, Belgian politician, former Prime Minister (b. 1907)
Wilhelm Kempff, German pianist (b. 1895)
Will Sinnott, Scottish bassist and keyboardist (The Shamen) (b. 1960)
May 24 – Gene Clark, American singer-songwriter (b. 1944)
May 27 – Leopold Nowak, Austrian musicologist (b. 1904)
May 29 – Coral Browne, Australian actress (b. 1913)
May 30 – Manolo Gómez Bur, Spanish actor (b. 1917)
June 1 – David Ruffin, American singer (b. 1941)
June 2 – Hailu Yimenu, Ethiopian politician, former Prime Minister
June 3 – Eva Le Gallienne, English-born actress (b. 1899)
June 4 – MC Trouble, American rapper (b. 1970)
Larry Kert, American actor (b. 1930)
Evelyn Boucher, British film actress who had a number of leading roles in silent films (b. 1892)
Min Chueh Chang, Chinese-born American reproductive biologist (b. 1908)
June 6 – Stan Getz, American jazz saxophonist (b. 1927)
June 8 – Bertice Reading, American actress and singer (b. 1933)
June 9 – Claudio Arrau, Chilean-born pianist (b. 1903)
June 11 – Cromwell Everson, South African composer (b. 1925)
June 14 – Peggy Ashcroft, British actress (b. 1907)
Happy Chandler, 2nd commissioner of Major League Baseball (b. 1898)
Ricardo Wolf, Jewish-German-Cuban-Israeli inventor, diplomat, philanthropist (b. 1887)
June 16 – Leslie Mahaffy Canadian murder victim (b. 1976)
June 17 – Pierre Jamet, French harpist (b. 1893)
István Schweitzer, Hungarian military officer (b. 1887)
Joan Caulfield, American actress (b. 1922)
June 19 – Jean Arthur, American actress (b. 1900)
Czesław Białas, Polish Olympic weightlifter (b. 1931)
Rufino Tamayo, Mexican painter of Zapotec (b. 1899)
June 25 – Michael Heidelberger, American immunologist (b. 1888)
Henry Pierson Crowe, legendary Marine of the Korean War, World War II, the banana wars, and World War I (b. 1899)
Molly Geertsema, Dutch liberal politician, former leader of the VVD party (b. 1918)
June 28 – Hans Nüsslein, German tennis player (b. 1910)
June 29 – Henri Lefebvre, French sociologist and philosopher (b. 1901)
July 1 – Michael Landon, American actor (b. 1936)
July 2 – Lee Remick, American actress (b. 1935)
Henry Koerner, Austrian-American painter and graphic designer (b. 1915)
Victor Chang, Australian physician (b. 1936)
Mildred Dunnock, American actress (b. 1901)
Howard Nemerov, American poet (b. 1920)
July 6 – Anton Yugov, Bulgarian Communist politician, 35th Prime Minister of Bulgaria (b. 1904)
July 7 - André Busch, French Olympic water polo player (b. 1913)
July 8 – James Franciscus, American actor (b. 1934)
July 11 – Mokhtar Dahari, Malaysian footballer (b. 1953)
Bert Convy, American actor (b. 1933)
Roger Revelle, American scientist and scholar (b. 1909)
July 16 – Robert Motherwell, American painter (b. 1915)
July 18 – André Cools, Belgian Socialist politician (b. 1927)
July 24 – Isaac Bashevis Singer, Polish-born Yiddish writer, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1902)
Lazar Kaganovich, Soviet politician, former member of the CPSU Politburo and Deputy Prime Minister (b. 1893)
Henry Holst, Danish violinist (b. 1899)
July 27 – John Friedrich, German-Australian engineer and conman (b. 1950)
July 29 – Christian de Castries, French general (b. 1902)
July 31 – Doris Zinkeisen, Scottish theatrical stage and costume designer, painter, commercial artist and writer (b. 1898)
August 1 – Chris Short, American baseball pitcher (b. 1937)
August 3 – Ali Sabri, Prime Minister of Egypt (b. 1920)
August 4 – Yevgeny Dragunov, Russian weapons designer (b. 1920)
Paul Brown, American football coach (Cleveland Browns) and member of the Pro Football Hall of Fame (b. 1908)
Soichiro Honda, Japanese engineer and industrialist (b. 1917)
Sam Goodman, American gospel singer of the Happy Goodman Family
Shapour Bakhtiar, Iranian politician, former Prime Minister (b. 1915)
Arthur Pentelow, English actor (b. 1924)
Harry Reasoner, American journalist and newscaster (b. 1923)
August 7 – Billy T. James New Zealand comedian (b. 1948)
James Irwin, American astronaut (b. 1930)
Julissa Gomez, American gymnast (b. 1972)
August 11 – J. D. McDuffie, American race car driver (b. 1938)
August 13 – James Roosevelt, American businessman and politician (b. 1907)
August 14 – Richard A. Snelling, Governor of Vermont (b. 1927)
August 16 – Luigi Zampa, Italian film-maker (b. 1905)
August 17 – Terence Kilmartin, Irish journalist and translator (b. 1922)
August 21 – Oswald von Nell-Breuning, Roman Catholic theologian and sociologist (b. 1890)
Colleen Dewhurst, Canadian-born actress (b. 1924)
Boris Pugo, Latvian communist politician, Soviet minister of the Interior (b. 1937)
Jane Stafford, American medical writer and chemist (b. 1899)
Mildred Trotter, forensic anthropologist (b. 1899)
Florence B. Seibert, American biochemist (b. 1897)
August 24 – Sergey Akhromeyev, Russian marshall, former Chief of the General Staff of the Soviet Armed Forces (b. 1923)
August 25 – Niven Busch, American novelist and screenwriter (b. 1903)
August 28 – Alekos Sakellarios, Greek writer and director (b. 1913)
Jean Tinguely, Swiss painter and sculptor (b. 1925)
Cyril Knowles, English footballer and manager (b. 1944)
September 2 – Alfonso García Robles, Mexican diplomat and politician, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize (b. 1911)
September 3 – Frank Capra, Italian-born film director (b. 1897)
Charlie Barnet, American jazz saxophonist (b. 1913)
Tom Tryon, American actor and writer (b. 1926)
Dottie West, American singer (b. 1932)
September 7 – Edwin McMillan, American chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1907)
Brad Davis, American actor (b. 1949)
Alex North, American film composer (b. 1910)
Nell Donnelly Reed, American fashion designer and businesswoman, (b. 1889)
Jack Crawford, Australian tennis champion (b. 1908)
Jan Józef Lipski, Polish critic, historian and politician (b. 1926)
September 12 – Bruce Matthews, Canadian Army officer and businessman (b. 1909)
September 13 – Joe Pasternak, Hungarian-born film director (b. 1901)
September 14– Russell Lynes, American art historian, photographer, author (b. 1910)
September 15 – John Hoyt, American actor (b. 1905)
Zino Francescatti, French violinist (b. 1902)
Henry Angus, Canadian lawyer and academic (b. 1891)
Frank H. Netter, American artist, physician, and medical illustrator (b. 1906)
September 19 – Lydia Cabrera, Cuban anthropologist and poet (b. 1899)
September 22 – Tino Casal, Spanish pop singer (b. 1950)
Dr. Seuss (Theodor Seuss Geisel), American author (b. 1904)
Robert Donati, American mobster (b. 1940), body discovered this date
Klaus Barbie, German Gestapo leader in Lyon (b. 1913)
Viviane Romance, French actress (b. 1912)
Miles Davis, American jazz trumpeter (b. 1926)
Ellic Howe, British writer (b. 1910)
September 29 – Grace Zaring Stone, American novelist and short story writer (b. 1891)
October 2 – Patriarch Demetrios I of Constantinople (b. 1914)
October 5 – Martin Ennals, British human rights activist (b. 1927)
Igor Talkov, Russian singer, poet and composer (b. 1956)
Florence B. Seibert, American biochemist (b. 1897)
October 9 – Roy Black, German singer (b. 1943)
October 11 – Redd Foxx, American comedian and actor (b. 1922)
Aline MacMahon, American actress (b. 1899)
Regis Toomey, American actor (b. 1898)
Arkady Strugatsky, Russian writer (b. 1925)
Agustín Rodríguez Sahagún, Spanish politician, former Defense Minister and mayor of Madrid (b. 1932)
Daniel Oduber Quirós, Costa Rican politician, former president of the Republic (b. 1921)
October 17 – Tennessee Ernie Ford, American singer (b. 1919)
October 24 – Gene Roddenberry, American television producer (b. 1921)
John Stratton, English actor (b. 1925)
Bill Graham, American promoter (b. 1931)
Howard Kingsbury, American Olympic rower - Men's eights (b. 1904)
Pyke Koch, Dutch painter (b. 1901)
Andrzej Panufnik, Polish musician and composer (b. 1914)
October 28 – Sylvia Fine, American lyricist (b. 1913)
October 29 – Mario Scelba, Italian politician, 33rd Prime Minister of Italy and President of the European Parliament (b. 1901)
October 31 – Joseph Papp, American theater producer (b. 1921)
November 2 – Irwin Allen, American film and television producer (b. 1916)
November 3 – Chris Bender, American musician (b. 1972)
Fred MacMurray, American actor (b. 1908)
Robert Maxwell, Slovakian-born media entrepreneur (b. 1923)
November 6 – Gene Tierney, American actress (b. 1920)
November 9 – Yves Montand, French actor and singer (b. 1921)
November 10 – Curt Weibull, Swedish historian, educator and author (b. 1886)
November 12 – Keizō Hayashi, Japanese civil servant and military official (b. 1907)
November 14 – Tony Richardson, English film and theater director (b. 1928)
November 18 – Gustáv Husák, Czechoslovak politician, 9th President of Czechoslovakia (b. 1913)
November 21 – Daniel Mann, American film director (b. 1912)
November 23 – Klaus Kinski, German actor (b. 1926)
Eric Carr, American drummer (Kiss) (b. 1950)
Anton Furst, American art director (b. 1944)
Freddie Mercury, lead singer and pianist of British rock group Queen (b. 1946)
Eleanor Audley, American actress (b. 1905)
Nimeño II, French bullfighter (b. 1954)
Ed Heinemann, American aircraft designer (b. 1908)
Bob Johnson, American ice hockey coach (b. 1931)
Ralph Bellamy, American actor (b. 1904)
Frank Yerby, American novelist (b. 1916)
December 1 – George Stigler, American economist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1911)
December 6 – Richard Stone, British economist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1913)
December 9 – Berenice Abbott, American photographer (b. 1898)
Franco Maria Malfatti, Italian politician (b. 1927)
Greta Kempton, American artist (b. 1901)
Robert Q. Lewis, American radio and television personality (b. 1920)
Artur Lundkvist, Swedish author (b. 1906)
Eleanor Boardman, American actress (b. 1898)
Olli Ungvere, Estonian actress (b. 1906)
John Arlott, British journalist, author and cricket commentator (b. 1914)
Charles Osborne, hiccupped continuously for 68 years (1922–1990) (b. 1892)
Vasily Zaytsev, Russian World War II hero (b. 1915)
Aad Mansveld, Dutch footballer (b. 1944)
December 18 – George Abecassis, English race car driver (b. 1913)
December 19 – Paul Maxwell, Canadian actor (b. 1921)
December 24 – Marguerite Williams, African American geologist (b. 1895)
December 27 – Hervé Guibert, French writer and photographer (b. 1955)
December 28 – Cassandra Harris, Australian actress (b. 1941)
Yvonne Hutton, British comic artist (b. 1941)
Physics – Pierre-Gilles de Gennes
Chemistry – Richard R. Ernst
Medicine – Erwin Neher, Bert Sakmann
Literature – Nadine Gordimer
Peace – Aung San Suu Kyi
Bank of Sweden Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel – Ronald Coase
1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (dominical letter F) of the Gregorian calendar, the 1991st year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 991st year of the 2nd millennium, the 91st year of the 20th century, and the 2nd year of the 1990s decade.
It was the year that is usually considered the final year of the Cold War that had begun in the late 1940s. During the year, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics collapsed into fifteen sovereign republics. India also abandoned its policies of socialism and autarky and began extensive neoliberal changes to its economy in July 1991 which would increase the GDP but also economic inequality over the next two decades. A U.N.-authorized coalition force from thirty-four nations fought against Iraq, which had invaded Kuwait in the previous year, 1990. The conflict would be called the Gulf War and would mark the beginning of a since-constant American military presence in the Middle East. The clash between Serbia and the other Yugoslav republics would lead into the beginning of the Yugoslav Wars, which ran through the rest of the decade.
The Japanese asset price bubble collapsed this year, leading to the Lost Years and a permanently stagnated (though still prosperous) Japanese economy.