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Operation Solomon

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Location  Ethiopia-Israel
Start date  1991
Operation Solomon wwwtabletmagcomwpcontentfilesmfshamirairli
Planned by  Israeli government and Israeli Defense Forces
Objective  To airlift Ethiopian Jews to Israel
Outcome  Transported 14,325 Ethiopian Jews to Israel in 36 hours
Result  Transported 14,325 Ethiopian Jews to Israel in 36 hours

journey to the promised land 1991 operation solomon

Operation Solomon (Hebrew: מבצע שלמה‎‎, Mivtza Shlomo) was a covert Israeli military operation to airlift Ethiopian Jews to Israel in 1991. Non-stop flights of 35 Israeli aircraft, including Israeli Air Force C-130s and El Al Boeing 747s, transported 14,325 Ethiopian Jews to Israel in 36 hours.


Operation Solomon Boeing 747 carried 1088 passenger in 1991 Jetline Marvel

Operation solomon to rescue 14 325 ethiopian jews


Operation Solomon Today in History IDF Airlifts 14500 Ethiopian Jews to Israel

In 1991, the sitting Ethiopian government of Mengistu Haile Mariam was close to being toppled with the military successes of Eritrean and Tigrean rebels, threatening Ethiopia with dangerous political destabilization. World Jewish organizations and Israel were concerned about the well-being of the Ethiopian Jews, known as Beta Israel, residing in Ethiopia. Also, the Mengistu regime had made mass emigration difficult for Beta Israel and the regime's dwindling power presented an opportunity for those wanting to immigrate to Israel. In 1990, the Israeli government and Israeli Defense Forces, aware of Mengistu's worsening political situation, made covert plans to airlift the Jews to Israel. The American government was involved in the organization of the airlift. The decision of the Ethiopian government to allow all the Jews to leave the country at once was largely motivated by a letter from President George H. W. Bush. Previous to this, Mengistu intended to allow emigration only in exchange for weaponry.

Operation Solomon Boeing 747 carried 1088 passenger in 1991 Jetline Marvel

Also involved in the Israeli and Ethiopian governments’ attempts to facilitate the operation was a group of American diplomats led by Senator Rudy Boschwitz, including Irvin Hicks, a Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for African Affairs; Robert Frasure, the Director of the African Affairs at the White House National Security Council; and Robert Houdek the Chargé d'Affaires of the United States Embassy in Addis Ababa. Boschwitz had been sent as a special emissary of President Bush, and he and his team met with the government of Ethiopia to aid Israel in the arranging of the airlift. In addition, Assistant Secretary of State for African Affairs Hank Cohen also played an important role, as he was the international mediator of the civil war in Ethiopia. In response to the efforts of the diplomats, acting President of Ethiopia Tesfaye Gebre-Kidan made the ultimate decision to allow the airlift. The negotiations surrounding the operation led to the eventual London roundtable discussions, which established a joint declaration by the Ethiopian combatants who then agreed to organize a conference to select a transitional government.


Operation Solomon OperationSolomonjpg

The operation was kept secret by military censorship. In order to accommodate as many people as possible, airplanes were stripped of their seats and up to 1,122 passengers were boarded on a single plane. Many of the immigrants came with nothing except their clothes and cooking instruments, and were met by ambulances, with 140 frail passengers receiving medical care on the tarmac. Several pregnant women gave birth on the plane, and they and their babies were rushed to the hospital.

Operation Solomon operation quotsolomonquot airlifting thousands of ethiopian jews to israel

Upon arrival, the passengers cheered and rejoiced. Twenty-nine-year-old Mukat Abag said, "We didn't bring any of our clothes, we didn't bring any of our things, but we are very glad to be here."

Operation Solomon airlifted almost twice as many Ethiopian Jews to Israel as Operation Moses. The operation set a world record for single-flight passenger load on May 24, 1991, when an El Al 747 carried 1,122 passengers to Israel (1,087 passengers were registered, but dozens of children hid in their mothers' robes). "Planners expected to fill the aircraft with 760 passengers. Because the passengers were so light, many more were squeezed in." Five babies were born aboard the planes.


Operation Solomon Wikipedia

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