The population of Western Uttar Pradesh is composed of a varied set of communities and tribes, including Ahirs, Brahmins, Dalits, Gujjars, Jats, Jatavs, Kurmis, Rajputs, Rohilla Pashtuns, Chamars and Tyagis. According to Hindustan Times, Jats make up around 17% of the population of western Uttar Pradesh. These various castes are concentrated in this region and "comprise nearly 40 per cent of the population in Meerut, Muzaffarnagar, Saharanpur, and Bijnor districts" of Western Uttar Pradesh.
As per 2001 Census, the total population of Western Uttar Pradesh is 55,717,132, out of which 72.69% is Hindu and 25.89% is Muslim. Although Hindus are in a large majority, the percentage of Muslims in Western Uttar Pradesh (~26%) is higher than in Uttar Pradesh as a whole (where it is 17%). Out of 77 assembly seats in this region, Muslim candidates won 26 seats in the 2012 assembly elections."Several communities are bi-religious, with both Hindu and Muslim components, e.g. the Tyagis who have a Muslim Tyagi subcommunity although they are largely Hindu.
The region's Rohillas are descended from immigrant groups from centuries ago, and a large subregion of Western Uttar Pradesh, Rohilkhand, takes its name from that Pashtun tribe.
Sikhs from West Punjab, which came from Pakistan after partition, also migrated to the area in large numbers.
Western Uttar Pradesh has gained notoriety for accounting for 30 per cent of the total honor killings in the country, according to a survey done by AIDWA.
Western Uttar Pradesh has a history of religious riots happening frequently. Many Hindu and Muslim riots happened in Meerut and Muzaffarnagar. Beginning on 27 August 2013, clashes between the Hindu and Muslim communities of the Muzaffarnagar district have claimed 43 lives and injured 93.
A girl from the Hindu Jat community was stalked by a Muslim youth in Kawal village. In retaliation, a Muslim youth named Shahnawaz Qureshi was killed by two brothers of the girl, Sachin Singh and Gaurav Singh. The two brothers were lynched by a Muslim mob when they were trying to escape.
Another major riot in Meerut took place on 22 May 1987, during the Hindu-Muslim riots in Meerut city in Uttar Pradesh state, India, when 19 personnel of the Provincial Armed Constabulary (PAC) allegedly rounded up 42 Muslim youth from the Hashimpura mohalla (locality) of the city, took them in truck to the outskirts, near Murad Nagar, in Ghaziabad district, where they were shot and their bodies were dumped in water canals. A few days later dead bodies were found floating in the canals. In May 2000, 16 of the 19 accused surrendered, and were later released on bail, while 3 were already dead. The trial of the case was transferred by the Supreme Court of India in 2002 from Ghaziabad to a Sessions Court at the Tis Hazari complex in Delhi, where it is the oldest pending case.
A Riot broke out in Kanth Village of Moradabad on 27 June 2014, over installation of loud speakers at a religious place, which was objected by another community. The tension prevailed for over a week accompanied by frequent clashes. Another riot occurred between the Sikh and Muslim communities in Saharanpur over a land dispute, killing three and injuring many people. As much as 13 companies of the Rapid Action Force, the PAC and CRPF were conveyed by the government to take control of the situation after imposing curfew in riot-hit areas of Saharanpur.
Western Uttar Pradesh shares borders with the states of Uttarakhand, Haryana, Delhi, Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh, as well as a brief international border with Nepal in Pilibhit district. Major cities and towns include Bareilly, Agra, Mathura, Noida, Greater Noida, Moradabad, Amroha, Ghaziabad, Bulandshahr, Meerut, Hapur, Saharanpur, Aligarh, Muzaffarnagar, Rampur, Shahjahanpur, Etah, Firozabad, Mainpuri, Shamli and Etawah.
Western Uttar Pradesh's soil and relief has marked differences from that of the eastern part of the state. The soil tends to be lighter-textured loam, with some occurrences of sandy soil. Some loess soil is continuously deposited by winds blowing eastwards from Rajasthan's Thar Desert.
Western Uttar Pradesh receives rain through the Indian Monsoon and the Western Disturbances. The Monsoon carries moisture northwards from the Indian Ocean, occurs in late summer and is important to the Kharif or autumn harvest. Western Disturbances, on the other hand, are an extratropical weather phenomenon that carry moisture eastwards from the Mediterranean Sea, the Caspian Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. They primarily occur during the winter season and are critically important for the main staple of the region, wheat, which is part of the Rabi or spring harvest.
Western Uttar Pradesh includes 26 districts in six divisions:
- Meerut division
- Saharanpur division
- Moradabad division
- Bareilly division
- Agra division
- Aligarh division
Districts : Meerut, Bulandshahr, Gautam Buddha Nagar, Ghaziabad, Hapur, Baghpat, Saharanpur, Muzaffarnagar, Shamli, Moradabad, Bijnor, Rampur, Amroha, Sambhal, Bareilly, Badaun, Pilibhit, Shahjahanpur, Agra, Firozabad, Mainpuri, Mathura, Aligarh, Etah, Hathras, Kasganj, Baghpat
In Uttar Pradesh, "the cultural divide between the east and the west is considerable, with the purabiyas (easterners) often being clubbed with Biharis." Also, while the green revolution resulted in a rapidly rising standard of living in Western Uttar Pradesh, Eastern Uttar Pradesh (like Bihar) did not benefit to the same extent. These cultural and economic disparities are believed to have fueled the demand for separate statehood in Western Uttar Pradesh. A separate entity would likely become a prosperous smaller state similar to Haryana and Punjab, under greater political control of local ethnic groups.
Some politicians and parties have demanded that Western Uttar Pradesh be granted statehood under the name Harit Pradesh. Braj Pradesh and Pashchim Pradesh are alternative names that have been proposed, because the region incorporates the historic region of Braj and is the western (pashchim in Hindi) part of Uttar Pradesh respectively.
Major highways running through the region include NH 2, NH 3, NH 11, NH 24, NH 58, NH 73, NH 74, NH 87, NH 91, NH 93, NH 119, NH 235
Noida Greater Noida Expressway
The Upper Ganges Canal Expressway is an eight-lane access-controlled expressway proposed for the right bank of the upper Ganges Canal, from Sanauta Bridge (Bulandshahr district) to near Purkazi (Muzaffarnagar district) on the Uttar Pradesh-Uttarakhand border.