Entomology (from Greek ἔντομον, entomon "insect"; and -λογία, -logia) is the scientific study of insects, a branch of zoology. In the past the term "insect" was more vague, and historically the definition of entomology included the study of terrestrial animals in other arthropod groups or other phyla, such as arachnids, myriapods, earthworms, land snails, and slugs. This wider meaning may still be encountered in informal use.
Like several of the other fields that are categorized within zoology, entomology is a taxon-based category; any form of scientific study in which there is a focus on insect-related inquiries is, by definition, entomology. Entomology therefore overlaps with a cross-section of topics as diverse as molecular genetics, behavior, biomechanics, biochemistry, systematics, physiology, developmental biology, ecology, morphology, and paleontology.
At some 1.3 million described species, insects account for more than two-thirds of all known organisms, date back some 400 million years, and have many kinds of interactions with humans and other forms of life on earth.
Entomology is rooted in nearly all human cultures from prehistoric times, primarily in the context of agriculture (especially biological control and beekeeping), but scientific study began only as recently as the 16th century.
William Kirby is widely considered as the father of Entomology. In collaboration with William Spence, he published a definitive entomological encyclopedia, Introduction to Entomology, regarded as the subject's foundational text. He also helped to found the Royal Entomological Society in London in 1833, one of the earliest such societies in the world; earlier antecedents, such as the Aurelian society date back to the 1740s.
Entomology developed rapidly in the 19th and 20th centuries, and was studied by large numbers of people, including such notable figures as Charles Darwin, Jean-Henri Fabre, Vladimir Nabokov, Karl von Frisch (winner of the 1973 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine), and two-time Pulitzer Prize winner E. O. Wilson.
Most insects can easily be recognized to order such as Hymenoptera (bees, wasps, and ants) or Coleoptera (beetles). However, insects other than Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths) are typically identifiable to genus or species only through the use of Identification keys and Monographs. Because the class Insecta contains a very large number of species (over 330,000 species of beetles alone) and the characteristics separating them are unfamiliar, and often subtle (or invisible without a microscope), this is often very difficult even for a specialist. This has led to the development of automated species identification systems targeted on insects, for example, Daisy, ABIS, SPIDA and Draw-wing
Insect identification is an increasingly common hobby, with butterflies and dragonflies being the most popular.
In 1994 the Entomological Society of America launched a new professional certification program for the pest control industry called The Associate Certified Entomologist (ACE). To qualify as a "true entomologist" an individual would normally require an advanced degree, with most entomologists pursuing their PhD. While not true entomologists in the traditional sense, individuals who attain the ACE certification may be referred to as ACEs, Amateur entomologists, Associate entomologists or –more commonly– Associate-Certified Entomologists.
Many entomologists specialize in a single order or even a family of insects, and a number of these subspecialties are given their own informal names, typically (but not always) derived from the scientific name of the group:Coleopterology - beetles
Dipterology - flies
Odonatology - dragonflies and damselflies
Hemipterology - true bugs
Isopterology - termites
Lepidopterology - moths and butterflies
Melittology (or Apiology) - bees
Myrmecology - ants
Orthopterology - grasshoppers, crickets, etc.
Trichopterology - caddis flies
Vespology - Social wasps
Like other scientific specialties, entomologists have a number of local, national, and international organizations. There are also many organizations specializing in specific subareas.Amateur Entomologists' Society
Deutsches Entomologisches Institut
Entomological Society of America
Entomological Society of Canada
Entomological Society of Japan
International Union for the Study of Social Insects
Netherlands Entomological Society
Royal Belgian Entomological Society
Royal Entomological Society of London
Société entomologique de France
Here is a list of selected museums which contain very large insect collections.Natal Museum, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa
Muséum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris, France
Museum für Naturkunde, Berlin, Germany
Natural History Museum, Budapest Hungarian Natural History Museum
Natural History Museum, Geneva
Natural History Museum, Leiden, the Netherlands
Natural History Museum, London, United Kingdom
Natural History Museum, Oslo Norway
Natural History Museum, St. Petersburg Zoological Collection of the Russian Academy of Science
Naturhistorisches Museum, Vienna, Austria
Oxford University Museum of Natural History, Oxford
Royal Museum for Central Africa, Brussels, Belgium
Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm, Sweden
The Bavarian State Collection of Zoology Zoologische Staatssammlung München
World Museum Liverpool, the Bug House
Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia
American Museum of Natural History, New York City
Auburn University Museum of Natural History, Auburn, Alabama
Audubon Insectarium, New Orleans
Bohart Museum of Entomology, Davis, California
California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco
Carnegie Museum of Natural History, Pittsburgh
Essig Museum, Berkeley, California
Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago
Florida Museum of Natural History, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida
Illinois Natural History Survey, Champaign, Illinois
J. Gordon Edwards Museum, San Jose, California
Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Massachusetts
Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, Los Angeles
National Museum of Natural History, Washington, D.C.
New Mexico State University Arthropod Museum
North Carolina State University Insect Museum, Raleigh, North Carolina
Peabody Museum of Natural History, New Haven, Connecticut
The National Museum of Play, Rochester, N.Y.
Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas
University of Minnesota, St. Paul campus (UMSP), Minnesota
University of Kansas Natural History Museum, Lawrence, Kansas
University of Nebraska State Museum, Lincoln, Nebraska
University of Missouri Enns Entomology Museum, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri
Canadian Museum of Nature, Ottawa
Canadian National Collection of Insects, Arachnids and Nematodes, Ottawa, Ontario
E.H. Strickland Entomological Museum, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta
Lyman Entomological Museum, Macdonald Campus of McGill University, Sainte-Anne-de-Bellevue, Quebec
Montreal Insectarium, Montreal, Quebec
Newfoundland Insectarium, Reidville, Newfoundland and Labrador
Royal Alberta Museum, Edmonton, Alberta
Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto
University of Guelph Insect Collection, Guelph, Ontario
Victoria Bug Zoo, Victoria, British Columbia