Rahul Sharma (Editor)

Pulitzer Prize

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Covid-19
First awarded  1917
Ceremony date  10 April 2017
Official website  pulitzer.org
Country  United States of America
Pulitzer Prize cdniphoneincanadacawpcontentuploads201304r
Awarded for  Excellence in newspaper journalism, literary achievements, musical composition
Presented by  Columbia Lions men's basketball
Winners  The SympathizerViet Thanh Nguyen, The Sympathizer, Fiction Prize, Fiction Prize, Jessica Rinaldi, Jessica Rinaldi, Feature Photography Prize, Feature Photography Prize, HamiltonLin-Manuel Miranda, Hamilton, Drama Prize, Drama Prize, Sergey Ponomarev, Sergey Ponomarev, Spot News Photography Prize, Spot News Photography Prize, Tyler Hicks, Tyler Hicks, Spot News Photography Prize, Spot News Photography Prize, Daniel Etter, Daniel Etter, Spot News Photography Prize, Spot News Photography Prize, Mauricio Lima, Mauricio Lima, Spot News Photography Prize, Spot News Photography Prize, Ozone JournalPeter Balakian, Ozone Journal, Poetry Prize, Poetry Prize, Associated Press, Associated Press, Public Service Prize, Public Service Prize, Custer's Trials: A Life on the Frontier of a New AmericaT J Stiles, Custer's Trials: A Life on the Frontier of a New America, History Prize, History Prize, In for a Penny - In for a PoundHenry Threadgill, In for a Penny - In for a Pound, Music Prize, Music Prize, T Christian Miller, T Christian Miller, Explanatory Reporting Prize, Explanatory Reporting Prize, Ken Armstrong, Ken Armstrong, Explanatory Reporting Prize, Explanatory Reporting Prize, The Washington Post, The Washington Post, National Reporting, National Reporting, Black Flags: The Rise of ISISJoby Warrick, Black Flags: The Rise of ISIS, General Non-Fiction Prize, General Non-Fiction Prize, Kathryn Schulz, Kathryn Schulz, Feature Writing Prize, Feature Writing Prize, Alissa J Rubin, Alissa J Rubin, International Reporting, International Reporting, Michael Braga, Michael Braga, Investigative Reporting Prize, Investigative Reporting Prize, Leonora LaPeter Anton, Leonora LaPeter Anton, Investigative Reporting Prize, Investigative Reporting Prize, Anthony Cormier, Anthony Cormier, Investigative Reporting Prize, Investigative Reporting Prize, All the Light We Cannot SeeAnthony Doerr, All the Light We Cannot See, Fiction Prize, Fiction Prize, Daniel Berehulak, Daniel Berehulak, Feature Photography Prize, Feature Photography Prize, Between Riverside and CrazyStephen Adly Guirgis, Between Riverside and Crazy, Drama Prize, Drama Prize, St Louis Post-Dispatch, St Louis Post-Dispatch, Spot News Photography Prize, Spot News Photography Prize, DigestGregory Pardlo, Digest, Poetry Prize, Poetry Prize, The Post and Courier, The Post and Courier, Public Service Prize, Public Service Prize, Encounters at the Heart of the World: A History of the Mandan PeopleElizabeth A Fenn, Encounters at the Heart of the World: A History of the Mandan People, History Prize, History Prize, Anthracite FieldsJulia Wolfe, Anthracite Fields, Music Prize, Music Prize, Zachary Mider, Zachary Mider, Explanatory Reporting Prize, Explanatory Reporting Prize, Carol D Leonnig, Carol D Leonnig, National Reporting, National Reporting, The Sixth Extinction: An Unnatural HistoryElizabeth Kolbert, The Sixth Extinction: An Unnatural History, General Non-Fiction Prize, General Non-Fiction Prize, Diana Marcum, Diana Marcum, Feature Writing Prize, Feature Writing Prize, The New York Times, The New York Times, International Reporting, International Reporting, The Wall Street Journal, The Wall Street Journal, Investigative Reporting Prize, Investigative Reporting Prize, Eric Lipton, Eric Lipton, Investigative Reporting Prize, Investigative Reporting Prize, Adam Zyglis, Adam Zyglis, Editorial Cartooning Prize, Editorial Cartooning Prize, Rebecca Kimitch, Rebecca Kimitch, Local Reporting Prize, Local Reporting Prize, Frank Suraci, Frank Suraci, Local Reporting Prize, Local Reporting Prize, Rob Kuznia, Rob Kuznia, Local Reporting Prize, Local Reporting Prize, The Pope and MussoliniDavid Kertzer, The Pope and Mussolini, Biography or Autobiography Prize, Biography or Autobiography Prize, The GoldfinchDonna Tartt, The Goldfinch, Fiction Prize, Fiction Prize, Josh Haner, Josh Haner, Feature Photography Prize, Feature Photography Prize, The FlickAnnie Baker, The Flick, Drama Prize, Drama Prize, Tyler Hicks, Tyler Hicks, Spot News Photography Prize, Spot News Photography Prize, 3 SectionsVijay Seshadri, 3 Sections, Poetry Prize, Poetry Prize, The Washington Post, The Washington Post, Public Service Prize, Public Service Prize, Guardian US, Guardian US, Public Service Prize, Public Service Prize, The Internal Enemy: Slavery and War in Virginia - 1772-1832Alan Taylor, The Internal Enemy: Slavery and War in Virginia - 1772-1832, History Prize, History Prize, Become OceanJohn Luther Adams, Become Ocean, Music Prize, Music Prize, Eli Saslow, Eli Saslow, Explanatory Reporting Prize, Explanatory Reporting Prize, David Philipps, David Philipps, National Reporting, National Reporting, Toms River: A Story of Science and SalvationDan Fagin, Toms River: A Story of Science and Salvation, General Non-Fiction Prize, General Non-Fiction Prize, Andrew Marshall, Andrew Marshall, International Reporting, International Reporting, Jason Szep, Jason Szep, International Reporting, International Reporting, Chris Hamby, Chris Hamby, Investigative Reporting Prize, Investigative Reporting Prize, Kevin Siers, Kevin Siers, Editorial Cartooning Prize, Editorial Cartooning Prize, Will Hobson, Will Hobson, Local Reporting Prize, Local Reporting Prize, Michael LaForgia, Michael LaForgia, Local Reporting Prize, Local Reporting Prize, Margaret Fuller: A New American LifeMegan Marshall, Margaret Fuller: A New American Life, Biography or Autobiography Prize, Biography or Autobiography Prize, The Boston Globe, The Boston Globe, Breaking News Reporting Prize, Breaking News Reporting Prize, The Orphan Master's SonAdam Johnson, The Orphan Master's Son, Fiction Prize, Fiction Prize, Javier Manzano, Javier Manzano, Feature Photography Prize, Feature Photography Prize, DisgracedAyad Akhtar, Disgraced, Drama Prize, Drama Prize, Narciso Contreras, Narciso Contreras, Spot News Photography Prize, Spot News Photography Prize, Manu Brabo, Manu Brabo, Spot News Photography Prize, Spot News Photography Prize, Khalil Hamra, Khalil Hamra, Spot News Photography Prize, Spot News Photography Prize, Muhammed Muheisen, Muhammed Muheisen, Spot News Photography Prize, Spot News Photography Prize, Rodrigo Abd, Rodrigo Abd, Spot News Photography Prize, Spot News Photography Prize, Stag's LeapSharon Olds, Stag's Leap, Poetry Prize, Poetry Prize, Sun-Sentinel, Sun-Sentinel, Public Service Prize, Public Service Prize, Embers of War: The Fall of an Empire and the Making of America's VietnamFredrik Logevall, Embers of War: The Fall of an Empire and the Making of America's Vietnam, History Prize, History Prize, Partita for 8 VoicesCaroline Shaw, Partita for 8 Voices, Music Prize, Music Prize, Hiroko TabuchiNYT, Hiroko Tabuchi, Explanatory Reporting Prize, Explanatory Reporting Prize, Bill VlasicNYT, Bill Vlasic, Explanatory Reporting Prize, Explanatory Reporting Prize, John MarkoffNYT, John Markoff, Explanatory Reporting Prize, Explanatory Reporting Prize, David KocieniewskiNYT, David Kocieniewski, Explanatory Reporting Prize, Explanatory Reporting Prize, David SegalNYT, David Segal, Explanatory Reporting Prize, Explanatory Reporting Prize, David BarbozaNYT, David Barboza, Explanatory Reporting Prize, Explanatory Reporting Prize, Charles DuhiggNYT, Charles Duhigg, Explanatory Reporting Prize, Explanatory Reporting Prize, Steve LohrNYT, Steve Lohr, Explanatory Reporting Prize, Explanatory Reporting Prize, Craig F Walker, Craig F Walker, Feature Photography Prize, Feature Photography Prize, Water by the SpoonfulQuiara Alegría Hudes, Water by the Spoonful, Drama Prize, Drama Prize, Massoud Hossaini, Massoud Hossaini, Spot News Photography Prize, Spot News Photography Prize, Life on MarsTracy K Smith, Life on Mars, Poetry Prize, Poetry Prize, The Philadelphia Inquirer, The Philadelphia Inquirer, Public Service Prize, Public Service Prize, Malcolm X: A Life of ReinventionManning Marable, Malcolm X: A Life of Reinvention, History Prize, History Prize, Silent NightKevin Puts, Silent Night, Music Prize, Music Prize, David Kocieniewski, David Kocieniewski, Explanatory Reporting Prize, Explanatory Reporting Prize, David Wood, David Wood, National Reporting, National Reporting, The Swerve: How the World Became ModernStephen Greenblatt, The Swerve: How the World Became Modern, General Non-Fiction Prize, General Non-Fiction Prize, Eli Sanders, Eli Sanders, Feature Writing Prize, Feature Writing Prize, Jeffrey Gettleman, Jeffrey Gettleman, International Reporting, International Reporting, Adam Goldman, Adam Goldman, Investigative Reporting Prize, Investigative Reporting Prize, Michael J Berens, Michael J Berens, Investigative Reporting Prize, Investigative Reporting Prize, Matt Apuzzo, Matt Apuzzo, Investigative Reporting Prize, Investigative Reporting Prize, Eileen Sullivan, Eileen Sullivan, Investigative Reporting Prize, Investigative Reporting Prize, Ken Armstrong, Ken Armstrong, Investigative Reporting Prize, Investigative Reporting Prize, Chris Hawley, Chris Hawley, Investigative Reporting Prize, Investigative Reporting Prize, Matt Wuerker, Matt Wuerker, Editorial Cartooning Prize, Editorial Cartooning Prize, Sara GanimThe Patriot-News, Sara Ganim, Local Reporting Prize, Local Reporting Prize

Pulitzer prize winners


The Pulitzer Prize /ˈpʊltsər/ is an award for achievements in newspaper, magazine and online journalism, literature, and musical composition in the United States. It was established in 1917 by provisions in the will of American (Hungarian-born) Joseph Pulitzer who had made his fortune as a newspaper publisher, and is administered by Columbia University in New York City. Prizes are awarded yearly in twenty-one categories. In twenty of the categories, each winner receives a certificate and a US$15,000 cash award (raised from $10,000 in 2017). The winner in the public service category of the journalism competition is awarded a gold medal.

Contents

2016 pulitzer prize announcement


Entry and prize consideration

The Pulitzer Prize does not automatically consider all applicable works in the media, but only those that have specifically entered. (There is a $50 entry fee, paid for each desired entry category.) Entries must fit in at least one of the specific prize categories, and cannot simply gain entrance for being literary or musical. Works can also only be entered in a maximum of two categories, regardless of their properties.

Each year, 102 jurors are selected by the Pulitzer Prize Board to serve on 20 separate juries for the 21 award categories; one jury makes recommendations for both photography awards. Most juries consist of five members, except for those for Public Service, Investigative Reporting, Explanatory Reporting, Feature writing and Commentary categories, which have seven members; all book juries have three members. For each award category, a jury makes three nominations. The board selects the winner by majority vote from the nominations or bypasses the nominations and selects a different entry following a 75% majority vote. The board can also vote to issue no award. The board and journalism jurors are not paid for their work; however, the jurors in letters, music, and drama receive a $2,000 honorarium for the year, and each chair receives $2,500.

Difference between entrants and nominated finalists

Anyone whose work has been submitted is called an entrant. The jury selects a group of nominated finalists and announces them, together with the winner for each category. However, some journalists who were only submitted, but not nominated as finalists, still claim to be Pulitzer nominees in promotional material.

For example, Bill Dedman of msnbc.com (the recipient of the 1989 Investigative Reporting Prize) pointed out in 2012 that financial journalist Betty Liu was described as "Pulitzer Prize-Nominated" in her Bloomberg Television advertising and the jacket of her book, while National Review writer Jonah Goldberg made similar claims of "Pulitzer nomination" to promote his books. Dedman wrote, "To call that submission a Pulitzer 'nomination' is like saying that Adam Sandler is an Oscar nominee if Columbia Pictures enters That's My Boy in the Academy Awards. Many readers realize that the Oscars don't work that way—the studios don't pick the nominees. It's just a way of slipping 'Academy Awards' into a bio. The Pulitzers also don't work that way, but fewer people know that."

History

Newspaper publisher Joseph Pulitzer gave money in his will to Columbia University to launch a journalism school and establish the Prize. It allocated $250,000 to the prize and scholarships. He specified "four awards in journalism, four in letters and drama, one in education, and four traveling scholarships." After his death, the first Pulitzer Prizes were awarded June 4, 1917; they are now announced each April. The Chicago Tribune under the control of Colonel McCormick felt that the Pulitzer Prize was nothing more than a 'mutual admiration society' and not to be taken seriously; the paper refused to compete for the prize during McCormick's tenure up until 1961.

Individuals

Many people have won more than one Pulitzer Prize. Nelson Harding is the only person to have won a Prize in two consecutive years, the Pulitzer Prize for Editorial Cartooning in 1927 and 1928.

Arts & Letters

Four prizes
  • Robert Frost, Poetry
  • Eugene O'Neill, Drama
  • Robert E. Sherwood, Drama (3) and Biography
  • Three prizes
  • Edward Albee, Drama
  • Archibald MacLeish, Poetry (2) and Drama
  • Edwin Arlington Robinson, Poetry
  • Carl Sandburg, Poetry (2) and History
  • Robert Penn Warren, Poetry (2) and Fiction
  • Thornton Wilder, Drama (2) and the Novel
  • Two prizes

    Arts & Letters and Journalism

    Three prizes
  • William Allen White, Editorial Writing, Special Citation (presented to Sallie Lindsay White; posthumous), Autobiography (posthumous)
  • Two prizes
  • Russell Baker, Commentary and Biography
  • Steve Coll, Explanatory Journalism and Nonfiction
  • J. Anthony Lukas, Local Investigative Specialized Reporting and Nonfiction
  • Joby Warrick, Public Service (named contributor) and Nonfiction
  • Michael Williamson, Feature Photography and Nonfiction
  • Journalism

    Four prizes
  • Carol Guzy, Breaking News Photography, Feature Photography, Spot News Photography (2)
  • William Snyder, Explanatory Journalism, Feature Photography, Spot News Photography
  • Three prizes
  • David Barstow, Public Service (named contributor) and Investigative Reporting (2)
  • Paul Conrad, Editorial Cartooning
  • Edmund Duffy, Editorial Cartooning
  • Thomas Friedman, International Reporting (2) and Commentary
  • Herblock, Editorial Cartooning
  • Rollin Kirby, Editorial Cartooning
  • Jeff MacNelly, Editorial Cartooning
  • Two prizes

    Newspapers

    Nominally, the Pulitzer Prize for Public Service is awarded only to news organizations, not individuals. In rare instances, contributors to the entry are singled out in the citation in a manner analogous to individual winners. Journalism awards may be awarded to individuals or newspapers or newspaper staffs; infrequently, staff Prize citations also distinguish the work of prominent contributors.

    Categories

    Awards are made in categories relating to journalism, arts, letters and fiction. Reports and photographs by United States-based newspapers, magazines and news organizations (including news websites) that "[publish] regularly" are eligible for the journalism prize. Beginning in 2007, "an assortment of online elements will be permitted in all journalism categories except for the competition's two photography categories, which will continue to restrict entries to still images." In December 2008 it was announced that for the first time content published in online-only news sources would be considered.

    Although certain winners with magazine affiliations (most notably Moneta Sleet, Jr. and Sheri Fink) were allowed to enter the competition due to eligible partnerships or concurrent publication of their work in newspapers, the Pulitzer Prize Advisory Board and the Pulitzer Prize Board historically resisted the admission of magazines into the competition, resulting in the formation of the National Magazine Awards at the Columbia Journalism School in 1966.

    In 2015, magazines were allowed to enter for the first time in two categories (Investigative Reporting and Feature Writing). By 2016, this provision had expanded to three additional categories (International Reporting, Criticism and Editorial Cartooning). That year, Kathryn Schulz (Feature Writing) and Emily Nussbaum (Criticism) of The New Yorker became the first magazine affiliates to receive the Prize under the expanded eligibility criterion.

    In October 2016, magazine eligibility was extended to all journalism categories.

    Definitions of Pulitzer Prize categories as presented in the 2008 competition:

  • Public Service – for a distinguished example of meritorious public service by a newspaper or news site through the use of its journalistic resources which, as well as reporting, may include editorials, cartoons, photographs, graphics, videos, databases, multimedia or interactive presentations or other visual material, presented in print or online or both. Often thought of as the grand prize, and mentioned first in listings of the journalism prizes, the Public Service award is given to the newspaper (see above). Alone among the Pulitzer Prizes, it is awarded in the form of the Joseph Pulitzer Gold Medal.
  • Breaking News Reporting – for a distinguished example of local reporting of breaking news.
  • Investigative Reporting – for a distinguished example of investigative reporting by an individual or team, presented as a single newspaper article or series.
  • Explanatory Reporting – for a distinguished example of explanatory newspaper reporting that illuminates a significant and complex subject, demonstrating mastery of the subject, lucid writing, and clear presentation.
  • Local Reporting – for a distinguished example of local newspaper reporting that illuminates significant issues or concerns.
  • National Reporting – for a distinguished example of newspaper reporting on national affairs.
  • International Reporting – for a distinguished example of newspaper reporting on international affairs, including United Nations correspondence.
  • Feature Writing – for a distinguished example of newspaper feature writing giving prime consideration to high literary quality and originality.
  • Commentary – for distinguished commentary.
  • Criticism – for distinguished criticism.
  • Editorial Writing – for distinguished editorial writing, the test of excellence being clarity of style, moral purpose, sound reasoning, and power to influence public opinion in what the writer perceives to be the right direction.
  • Editorial Cartooning – for a distinguished cartoon or portfolio of cartoons published during the year, characterized by originality, editorial effectiveness, quality of drawing, and pictorial effect.
  • Breaking News Photography, previously called Spot News Photography – for a distinguished example of breaking news photography in black and white or color, which may consist of a photograph or photographs, a sequence, or an album.
  • Feature Photography – for a distinguished example of feature photography in black and white or color, which may consist of a photograph or photographs, a sequence, or an album.
  • There are six categories in letters and drama:

  • Fiction – for distinguished fiction by an American author, preferably dealing with American life.
  • Drama – for a distinguished play by an American playwright, preferably original in its source and dealing with American life.
  • History – for a distinguished book on the history of the United States.
  • Biography or Autobiography – for a distinguished biography or autobiography by an American author.
  • Poetry – for a distinguished volume of original verse by an American poet.
  • General Non-Fiction – for a distinguished book of non-fiction by an American author that is not eligible for consideration in any other category.
  • There is one prize given for music:

  • Pulitzer Prize for Music – for a distinguished musical contribution by an American that had its first performance or recording in the United States during the year.
  • There have been dozens of Special Citations and Awards: more than ten each in Arts, Journalism, and Letters, and five for Pulitzer Prize service, most recently to Joseph Pulitzer, Jr. in 1987.

    In addition to the prizes, Pulitzer Travelling Fellowships are awarded to four outstanding students of the Graduate School of Journalism as selected by the faculty.

    Changes to categories

    Over the years, awards have been discontinued either because the field of the award has been expanded to encompass other areas, the award been renamed because the common terminology changed, or the award has become obsolete, such as the prizes for telegraphic reporting, which was based on the old technology of the telegram.

    An example of a writing field that has been expanded was the former Pulitzer Prize for the Novel (awarded 1918–1947), which has been changed to the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction, which also includes short stories, novellas, novelettes, and fictional poetry, as well as novels.

    Board

    The 19-member board convenes semiannually in the World Room at Columbia University's Pulitzer Hall. It comprises major editors, columnists and media executives in addition to six members drawn from academia and the arts, including the president of Columbia University, the dean of the Columbia University Graduate School of Journalism (since 1976) and the administrator of the Prizes, who serves as the board's secretary. The administrator and the dean participate in the deliberations as ex officio members but cannot vote. Aside from the president and dean (who serve for the duration of their respective appointments) and the administrator (who is reelected annually), the board elects its own members for a three-year term; members may serve a maximum of three terms. Members of the board and the juries are selected with close attention "given to professional excellence and affiliation, as well as diversity in terms of gender, ethnic background, geographical distribution and size of newspaper."

    Following the retirement of Joseph Pulitzer, Jr. (a grandson of the endower who served as permanent chair of the board for 31 years) in 1986, the chair has typically rotated to the most senior member (or members, in the case of concurrent elections) on an annual basis.

    Since 1975, the board has made all prize decisions; prior to this point, the board's recommendations were ratified by a majority vote of the trustees of Columbia University. Although the administrator's office is housed alongside the Graduate School of Journalism at Pulitzer Hall and several administrators have held faculty appointments at the School of Journalism, the board and administration have been operationally separate from the School since 1950.

    Controversies

  • Call for revocation of journalist Walter Duranty's 1932 Pulitzer Prize.
  • Call for revocation of journalist William L. Laurence's 1946 Pulitzer Prize.
  • 1941 Novel Prize: The Advisory Board elected to overrule the jury and recommended For Whom the Bell Tolls by Ernest Hemingway. However, Columbia University president Nicholas Murray Butler implored the committee to reconsider, citing the potential association between the University and the novel's frank sexual content; instead, no award was given. Twelve years later, Hemingway was awarded the 1953 Fiction Prize for The Old Man and the Sea.
  • 1962 Biography Prize: Citizen Hearst: A Biography of William Randolph Hearst by W. A. Swanberg was recommended by the jury and Advisory Board but overturned by the trustees of Columbia University (then charged with final ratification of the Prizes) because its subject, Hearst, was not an "eminent example of the biographer's art as specified in the prize definition."
  • 1974 Fiction Prize: Gravity's Rainbow by Thomas Pynchon was recommended by the three-member fiction jury but the Advisory Board overturned that decision and no award was given.
  • In the spring of 1977, Alex Haley (who received a special Pulitzer Prize that year for Roots: The Saga of an American Family) was charged with plagiarism in separate lawsuits by Harold Courlander and Margaret Walker Alexander. Courlander, an anthropologist, charged that Roots was copied largely from his novel The African (1967). Walker claimed that Haley had plagiarized from her Civil War-era novel, Jubilee (1966). Legal proceedings in each case were concluded late in 1978. Courlander's suit was settled out of court for $650,000 (equivalent to $2.4 million in 2016) and an acknowledgment from Haley that certain passages within Roots were copied from The African. Walker's case was dismissed by the court, which, in comparing the content of Roots with that of Jubilee, found that "no actionable similarities exist between the works."
  • Forfeiture of Janet Cooke's 1981 Pulitzer Prize for Feature Writing for fabricating the story.
  • Criticism and studies

    Some critics of the Pulitzer Prize have accused the organization of favoring those who support liberal causes or oppose conservative causes. Syndicated columnist L. Brent Bozell said that the Pulitzer Prize has a "liberal legacy", particularly in its prize for commentary. He pointed to a 31-year period in which only five conservatives won prizes for commentary. The claim is also supported by a statement from the 2010 Pulitzer Prize winner for commentary, Kathleen Parker: "It's only because I'm a conservative basher that I'm now recognized."

    A 2012 academic study by journalism professor Yong Volz and Chinese University journalism professor Francis Lee found "that only 27% of Pulitzer winners since 1991 were females, while newsrooms are about 33% female." The study concluded that the majority of female "winners enjoyed access to greater resources than the average male winner," resources including such things as attendance at Ivy League schools, metropolitan upbringing, or employment with an elite publication such as the New York Times.

    References

    Pulitzer Prize Wikipedia


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