Girish Mahajan (Editor)

1778

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1778


1778 (MDCCLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (dominical letter D) of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Monday (dominical letter G) of the Julian calendar, the 1778th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 778th year of the 2nd millennium, the 78th year of the 18th century, and the 9th year of the 1770s decade. As of the start of 1778, the Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

Contents

January–June

  • January 18 – Third voyage of James Cook: Captain James Cook, with ships HMS Resolution and HMS Discovery, first views Oahu then Kauai in the Hawaiian Islands of the Pacific Ocean, which he names the Sandwich Islands.
  • February 5 – South Carolina becomes the first state to ratify the Articles of Confederation.
  • February 6 – American Revolutionary War: In Paris the Treaty of Alliance and the Treaty of Amity and Commerce are signed by the United States and France, signaling official French recognition of the new republic.
  • February 23 – American Revolutionary War: Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben arrives at Valley Forge, Pennsylvania and begins to train the American troops.
  • March 6–October 24 – Captain Cook explores and maps the Pacific Northwest coast of North America from Cape Foulweather (Oregon) to the Bering Strait.
  • March 10 – American Revolutionary War: George Washington approves the dishonorable discharge of Lieut. Frederick Gotthold Enslin for "attempting to commit sodomy, with John Monhort a soldier".
  • May 30 – Benedict Arnold signs US oath of allegiance at Valley Forge
  • June 24 – A total solar eclipse takes place across parts of USA from Texas to Virginia.
  • June 28 – American Revolutionary War – Battle of Monmouth: George Washington's Continental Army battles the British general Sir Henry Clinton's army to a draw near Monmouth County, New Jersey.
  • June The start of the Anglo-French War (1778–83).
  • July–December

  • July 3 – American Revolutionary War: the Wyoming Massacre takes place near Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania, ending in a terrible defeat of the local colonists.
  • July 4 – American Revolutionary War: George Rogers Clark takes Kaskaskia.
  • July 10 – Louis XVI of France declares war on the Kingdom of Great Britain.
  • July 27 – American Revolutionary War – First Battle of Ushant: British and French fleets fight to a standoff.
  • August 3 – La Scala opera house in Milan opens with the première of Antonio Salieri's Europa riconosciuta.
  • August 26 – Triglav, at 2,864 meters above sea level the highest peak of Slovenia, is ascended for the first time by four men: Luka Korošec, Matevž Kos, Štefan Rožič, and Lovrenc Willomitzer on Sigmund Zois' initiative.
  • August 29 – American Revolutionary War: The tactically inconclusive Battle of Rhode Island takes place, after which the Continental Army abandons its position on Aquidneck Island.
  • September – The Massachusetts Banishment Act, providing punishment for Loyalists, is passed.
  • September 7 – American Revolutionary War: French invasion of Dominica captures the British fort there before the latter is aware that France has entered the war in the Franco-American alliance.
  • September 17 – The Treaty of Fort Pitt is signed, the first formal treaty between the United States and a Native American tribe (the Lenape or Delaware).
  • September 19 – The Continental Congress passes the first budget of the United States.
  • November 26 – In the Hawaiian Islands, Captain James Cook becomes the first European to land on Maui.
  • Undated

  • The first settlement is made in the area of what is now Louisville, Kentucky, by 13 families under Colonel George Rogers Clark.
  • Phillips Academy, the most prestigious secondary boarding school in the United States, is founded by Samuel Phillips Jr.
  • The term "thoroughbred" is first used in the United States in an advertisement in a Kentucky gazette to describe a New Jersey stallion called Pilgarlick.
  • Thomas Kitchin's The Present State of the West-Indies: Containing an Accurate Description of What Parts Are Possessed by the Several Powers in Europe is published in London.
  • January–April

  • January 1
  • James Grant, Major-General C.B. (d. 1852)
  • Tredwell Scudder, American politician (d. 1834)
  • Charles Alexandre Lesueur, French naturalist (d. 1846)
  • January 3 – Antoni Melchior Fijałkowski, Catholic bishop (d. 1861)
  • January 4
  • Billy J. Clark, American politician (d. 1866)
  • Paolo Polidori, Catholic cardinal (d. 1847)
  • John Manners, 5th Duke of Rutland, English Duke (d. 1857)
  • Jean-Antoine Alavoine, French architect (d. 1834)
  • January 5 – Charles-Guillaume Étienne, French writer (d. 1845)
  • January 6 – Thomas Lincoln, Farmer, Carpenter (d. 1851)
  • January 7 – Anthony Todd Thomson, British dermatologist (d. 1849)
  • January 9 – Thomas Brown, Scottish metaphysician (d. 1820)
  • January 10 – Teodoro Sánchez de Bustamante, Argentine politician (d. 1851)
  • January 11 – Agathon Jean François Fain, French historian (d. 1837)
  • January 12 – William Herbert, British politician (d. 1847)
  • January 13 – Sir Isaac Goldsmid, 1st Baronet, financier and one of the leading figures in the Jewish emancipation in the United Kingdom (d. 1859)
  • January 15 – Joseph Adamy, Nassauian politician (d. 1849)
  • January 16
  • Teodoro Lechi, Italian general (d. 1866)
  • John Arbuthnott, 8th Viscount of Arbuthnott, Scottish peer and soldier (d. 1860)
  • January 17
  • Donald Macdonell, Canadian politician (d. 1861)
  • George Black, Canadian politician and businessman and an important shipbuilder in Quebec during the earlier part of the 19th century (d. 1854)
  • January 18 – George Bellas Greenough, British geologist (d. 1855)
  • January 20 – Louis Antoine François Baillon, French naturalist and collector (d. 1855)
  • January 21 – Jeremiah O'Brien, American politician (d. 1858)
  • January 23 – Alire Raffeneau Delile, French botanist (d. 1850)
  • January 24 – Charles Ferdinand, Duke of Berry (d. 1820)
  • January 25 – Matsudaira Norihiro, daimyo who ruled the Nishio Domain (d. 1839)
  • January 26
  • Jakob von Washington, Bavarian general (d. 1848)
  • Johann Georg Stauffer, Austrian luthier (d. 1853)
  • January 27
  • Christian Mathias Schröder, German politician (d. 1860)
  • Andrew Sterett, United States Navy officer (d. 1807)
  • January 28 – James Tallmadge, Jr., American politician (d. 1853)
  • January 29 – John Williams, Tennessee politician (d. 1837)
  • January 31 – Franz Anton von Kolowrat-Liebsteinsky (d. 1861)
  • February 1 – Joseph Richardson, American politician (d. 1871)
  • February 2 – Mary Anne Talbot, British wartime cross-dresser (d. 1808)
  • February 3
  • Cornelis Vollenhoven, Dutch politician (d. 1849)
  • John Ritchie, British newspaper founder (d. 1870)
  • February 4 – Augustin Pyramus de Candolle, Swiss botanist (d. 1841)
  • February 5 – Jan Nepomucen Umiński, Polish general (d. 1851)
  • February 6 – Ugo Foscolo, Italian writer, revolutionary and poet (d. 1827)
  • February 13 – William P. Van Ness, United States federal judge (d. 1826)
  • February 14 – Fernando Sor, Spanish musician (d. 1839)
  • February 16
  • John Colborne, 1st Baron Seaton, British Baron (d. 1863)
  • Rosalie Stier Calvert, plantation owner and correspondent in nineteenth century Maryland (d. 1821)
  • February 17 – Vincenzo Pucitta, Italian composer (d. 1861)
  • February 19
  • Friedrich Karl von Tettenborn, Russian military commander (d. 1845)
  • Henry Ashley, American politician (d. 1829)
  • Daniel Williams Harmon, fur trader and diarist (d. 1843)
  • February 20 – Margaret Bayard Smith, American writer (d. 1844)
  • February 22
  • Sir Roger Martin, 5th Baronet (d. 1854)
  • Franz Ludwig Catel, German artist (d. 1856)
  • Rembrandt Peale, American painter (d. 1860)
  • Gottfried Wilhelm Becker, German physician and writer (d. 1854)
  • February 25 – José de San Martín, Argentine general (d. 1850)
  • March 1
  • Chrétien Géofroy Nestler, French botanist (d. 1832)
  • Amos Lane, American politician (d. 1849)
  • March 2
  • William Austin, American politician (d. 1841)
  • Vincent Moulac, French naval officer (d. 1836)
  • March 3
  • Frederica of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (d. 1841)
  • Peter Laurie, British politician (d. 1861)
  • March 4
  • Sir Henry Bunbury, 7th Baronet, British Army general (d. 1860)
  • Robert Emmet, Irish rebel (d. 1803)
  • Florestano Pepe, Italian general (d. 1851)
  • March 6
  • Francis Ogilvy-Grant, 6th Earl of Seafield, British politician (d. 1853)
  • Carl Bernhard von Trinius, German botanist (d. 1844)
  • March 8
  • Friedrich August Kanne, Composer and music critic from Vienna (d. 1833)
  • Jean-Toussaint Arrighi de Casanova, French soldier and diplomat (d. 1853)
  • March 10
  • Hugh Hornby Birley, leading Manchester Tory who is reputed to have led the fatal charge of the Manchester and Salford Yeomanry at the Peterloo Massacre (d. 1845)
  • Anthony Van Egmond, Canadian rebel (d. 1838)
  • March 19 – Edward Pakenham, Irish-born British general (d. 1815)
  • March 22
  • Thomas de Trafford, British Baronet (d. 1852)
  • Aleksey Merzlyakov, Russian poet, critic, and professor (d. 1830)
  • March 23 – Paul Traugott Meissner, Austrian chemist (d. 1864)
  • March 24
  • Robert Fleming Gourlay, British statistician and activist (d. 1863)
  • Anton Edler von Gapp, Austrian lawyer (d. 1862)
  • March 25 – Sophie Blanchard, aeronaut (d. 1819)
  • March 26 – Edward Blakeney (d. 1868)
  • March 28 – Ludvig Stoud Platou, Norwegian politician (d. 1833)
  • March 30 – Robert Moore, American politician (d. 1831)
  • March 31 – Coenraad Jacob Temminck, Zoologist (d. 1858)
  • April 1 – Benjamin Jacob, British musician (d. 1829)
  • April 3 – Pierre Bretonneau, French physician (d. 1862)
  • April 6 – Joseph Funk, American music teacher, publisher, and composer (d. 1862)
  • April 7 – John J. Ely, Member of the New Jersey General Assembly (d. 1852)
  • April 9
  • John Sparks, English cricketer (d. 1854)
  • Louis de Beaupoil de Saint-Aulaire, French diplomat (d. 1854)
  • April 10
  • Heinrich Luden, German historian (d. 1847)
  • William Hazlitt, English writer (d. 1830)
  • Johann Arzberger, Austrian technologist (d. 1835)
  • April 11 – John Johnson, early leader in the Latter Day Saint movement in Ohio (d. 1843)
  • April 12 – John Strachan, Bishop of Toronto (d. 1867)
  • April 14 – George Philipp Ludolf von Beckedorff, prominent Prussian Roman Catholic convert and parliamentarian (d. 1858)
  • April 15
  • William Congreve Russell, British politician (d. 1850)
  • James Crooks, Canadian politician (d. 1860)
  • April 18
  • Mary Bruce, Countess of Elgin, Scottish countess (d. 1855)
  • Christian Friedrich Nasse, German physician and psychiatrist born in Bielefeld (d. 1851)
  • Sir Matthew White Ridley, 3rd Baronet, British politician (d. 1836)
  • April 19 – Elizabeth Wynne Fremantle, main author of the extensive Wynne Diaries and wife of the Royal Navy officer Thomas Fremantle (1765–1819) (d. 1857)
  • April 23 – John Harvey, British Army general (d. 1852)
  • April 24 – John Graham, soldier notable for founding Grahamstown (d. 1821)
  • April 27
  • Henry Drury, English educator (d. 1841)
  • Gideon Lee, American politician (d. 1841)
  • April 28 – Adriaan van der Hoop, Dutch banker and politician (d. 1854)
  • April 29 – Thomas Bateman, British physician and a pioneer in the field of dermatology who was a native of Whitby (d. 1821)
  • April 30 – Arvid David Hummel, Swedish entomologist (d. 1836)
  • May–August

  • May 2 – Nathan Bangs, theologian (d. 1862)
  • May 3
  • Samuel Freeze, Canadian politician (d. 1844)
  • David Wilder, Jr., American politician (d. 1866)
  • May 6 – Henry Phillpotts, English bishop (d. 1869)
  • May 8
  • Johann Baptist Gänsbacher, Austrian composer (d. 1844)
  • Marie-Louise Coidavid, Queen of the Kingdom of Haiti 1811-20 as the spouse of Henri I of Haiti (d. 1851)
  • May 9 – Eli Ayers, Liberian politician (d. 1822)
  • May 10 – William Ladd, American activist (d. 1841)
  • May 12
  • August Zeune, German educator (d. 1853)
  • – José de la Mar, Military leader, President of Peru (d. 1830)
  • May 13 – Honoré V, Prince of Monaco (d. 1841)
  • May 17 – Benjamin Bowring, English watchmaker (d. 1846)
  • May 18
  • Andrew Ure, Scottish doctor and chemist (d. 1857)
  • Samuel Hoar, American politician (d. 1856)
  • Charles Vane, 3rd Marquess of Londonderry, British politician (d. 1854)
  • May 19
  • Ruggero Settimo, Italian politician (d. 1863)
  • Ludwik Michał Pac, Polish general (d. 1835)
  • May 25 – Claus Harms, German clergyman and theologian (d. 1855)
  • May 29 – Charles Kemeys Kemeys Tynte, British politician (d. 1860)
  • May 30 – Richard Skinner, American politician (d. 1833)
  • May 31
  • John Peter Pruden, Pioneer of western Canada, fur trader, and writer. (d. 1868)
  • John Jackson, British artist (d. 1831)
  • Horatio Seymour, American politician (d. 1857)
  • June 2 – Jean Julien Angot des Rotours, French colonial governor (d. 1844)
  • June 4 – Martin Parmer, American politician (d. 1850)
  • June 6 – Edmund Varney, American politician (d. 1847)
  • June 7 – David Willson, Canadian quaker minister (d. 1866)
  • June 11 – John Robison, British inventor (d. 1843)
  • June 13 – Frederick Louis, Hereditary Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, hereditary prince of the Grand Duchy of Mecklenburg-Schwerin (d. 1819)
  • June 14 – John Cushing Aylwin, Officer:United States Navy (War of 1812) (d. 1813)
  • June 15 – Henri Jean-Baptiste Victoire Fradelle, Franco-English painter (d. 1865)
  • June 16
  • Charles F. Mercer, American politician (d. 1858)
  • Harry Croswell, crusading political journalist (d. 1858)
  • June 17
  • Philip Willem van Heusde, Dutch philosopher (d. 1839)
  • Gregory Blaxland, English pioneer farmer and explorer in Australia (d. 1852)
  • June 19 – Robert Allen, Tennessee politician (d. 1844)
  • June 20 – Jean Baptiste Gay, vicomte de Martignac, moderate royalist French statesman during the Bourbon Restoration 1814–30 under King Charles X (d. 1832)
  • June 22 – George Percy, 5th Duke of Northumberland, British politician (d. 1867)
  • June 26 – Mariya Svistunova, Lady-in-waiting at the Russian Court (d. 1866)
  • June 27 – Sir John Astley, 1st Baronet, British politician (d. 1842)
  • June 28
  • John Macbride, British historian (d. 1868)
  • William Dietz, American politician (d. 1848)
  • Mariano Velazquez de la Cadena, Mexican writer (d. 1860)
  • July 2 – Daniel Wilson, Bishop of Calcutta (d. 1858)
  • July 3 – Carl Ludvig Engel, German architect (d. 1840)
  • July 6 – Jean Baptiste Bory de Saint-Vincent, French scientist (d. 1846)
  • July 7 – Beau Brummell, English man of fashion (d. 1840)
  • July 10
  • William Brockenbrough, American politician (d. 1838)
  • Laurent Cunin-Gridaine, French businessman and politician (d. 1859)
  • Sigismund von Neukomm, Austrian composer and pianist (d. 1858)
  • July 11 – Timothy Fuller, American politician (d. 1835)
  • July 12 – Maria Dalle Donne, Bolognese physician (d. 1842)
  • July 13 – Samuel Stevens, Jr., American politician (d. 1860)
  • July 15
  • Thomas James Maling, British Royal Navy officer (d. 1849)
  • Henry Joseph Monck Mason, Irish writer (d. 1858)
  • Jasper Nicolls, British general (d. 1849)
  • July 17 – Benjamin Isaacs, Connecticut politician (d. 1846)
  • July 19
  • Thomas Foley, British politician (d. 1822)
  • Samuel Bent, American Mormon leader (d. 1846)
  • July 20 – Joshua Tetley, British brewer (d. 1859)
  • July 28 – Charles Stewart, American naval commander (d. 1869)
  • July 30
  • David Pattee, Canadian politician (d. 1851)
  • Henry, Duke of Anhalt-Köthen (d. 1847)
  • August 1
  • John Collins Warren, American magazine founder (d. 1856)
  • Mary Jefferson Eppes, Thomas Jefferson's younger child (d. 1804)
  • August 2
  • Jabez Delano Hammond, American politician (d. 1855)
  • Robert Richford Roberts, American bishop (d. 1843)
  • Georg Anton Rollett, Austrian naturalist (d. 1842)
  • August 3 – Jessup Nash Couch, American politician (d. 1821)
  • August 4
  • Christian Friedrich Traugott Duttenhofer, German engraver (d. 1846)
  • John Hunter, American politician (d. 1852)
  • August 5 – Otto Christian Blandow, German bryologist (d. 1810)
  • August 8 – John Bonfoy Rooper, British landowner and MP (d. 1855)
  • August 11
  • Marcus Pløen, Businessperson (d. 1836)
  • Charles Pierrepont, 2nd Earl Manvers, British naval officer and politician (d. 1860)
  • Friedrich Ludwig Jahn, German Prussian gymnastics educator and nationalist (d. 1852)
  • John Christian Schetky, British artist (d. 1874)
  • August 12
  • Francis Horner, British politician (d. 1817)
  • Joshua Vanneck, 2nd Baron Huntingfield, British politician (d. 1844)
  • August 15 – John Tanner, Early Mormon (d. 1850)
  • August 17
  • Johannes Hermanus Koekkoek, Dutch painter (d. 1851)
  • John Varley, British artist (d. 1842)
  • August 18 – Silas Condit, American politician (d. 1861)
  • August 19
  • Princess Sophie of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, German princess (d. 1835)
  • James Harris, 2nd Earl of Malmesbury, British politician (d. 1841)
  • August 20 – Bernardo O'Higgins, Supree Director of Chile (d. 1842)
  • August 21 – Lewis Weston Dillwyn, British politician (d. 1855)
  • August 22 – James Kirke Paulding, American writer and (d. 1860)
  • August 23 – William Burt, English writer and solicitor (d. 1826)
  • August 25 – Joseph Batten (d. 1837)
  • August 26 – John Adams, United States House of Representatives member (d. 1854)
  • August 27 – Mary Whitmer, Book of Mormon witness (d. 1856)
  • August 31
  • Friedrich August von Klinkowström, German artist (d. 1835)
  • William Wilkins, English architect (d. 1839)
  • September–December

  • September 1 – John Thomson of Duddingston, British artist (d. 1840)
  • September 2
  • Louis Bonaparte, Sibling of Napoleon Bonaparte I, French army general, King of Holland (d. 1846)
  • Michał Józef Römer, Polish writer and politician (d. 1853)
  • September 7 – José Bernardo Sánchez, Spanish missionary (d. 1833)
  • September 8 – George Heneage Lawrence Dundas, Royal Navy admiral (d. 1834)
  • September 9 – Clemens Brentano, German poet, novelist (d. 1842)
  • September 10 – Joshua Lawrence (d. 1843)
  • September 12 – William Davidson, American politician (d. 1857)
  • September 14
  • John Varnum, American politician (d. 1836)
  • John Barss, Canadian politician (d. 1851)
  • September 15 – Augustin Caron, Canadian politician (d. 1862)
  • September 19
  • Henry Brougham, 1st Baron Brougham and Vaux, British politician (d. 1868)
  • William Gaston, American politician (d. 1844)
  • September 20
  • James Mann, 5th Earl Cornwallis (d. 1852)
  • Fabian Gottlieb von Bellingshausen, Russian admiral (d. 1852)
  • September 21 – Carl Ludwig Koch, German entomologist (d. 1857)
  • September 24 – Michał Gedeon Radziwiłł, Polish-Lithuanian noble (d. 1850)
  • September 25
  • Sir Charles Oakeley, 2nd Baronet, 2nd Baronet in the Oakeley Baronets (d. 1829)
  • Prince Louis of Anhalt-Köthen, Duke of Anhalt-Köthen (d. 1802)
  • September 26 – Jonathan Fisk, American politician (d. 1832)
  • September 27
  • Carl Friedrich Rungenhagen, composer and music teacher (d. 1851)
  • Damião Barbosa de Araújo, Brazilian composer (d. 1856)
  • September 28
  • Luther Lawrence, American politician (d. 1839)
  • Suzanne Douvillier, Ballerina, mime & choreographer (d. 1826)
  • Catherine McAuley, Irish nun and saint (d. 1841)
  • September 29
  • Benjamin Hall, British politician (d. 1817)
  • Thomas Warsop, English cricketer (d. 1845)
  • October 5
  • Ernst Ludwig von Aster, Prussian and Russian Army general (d. 1855)
  • John James Masquerier, British artist (d. 1855)
  • Jacques Joseph Champollion-Figeac, French archaeologist (d. 1867)
  • October 7
  • Charles Paget, Royal Navy admiral (d. 1839)
  • Joseph Knight, horticulturist (d. 1855)
  • Thomas Cranley Onslow, British politician (d. 1861)
  • October 8 – Hyacinthe-Louis de Quélen, Catholic bishop (d. 1839)
  • October 9
  • Pierre-Denis, Comte de Peyronnet, President of the Bordeaux Court in France in 1815 (d. 1854)
  • John FitzMaurice, Viscount Kirkwall, British politician (d. 1820)
  • Sir Lionel Smith, 1st Baronet, British Army general (d. 1842)
  • October 13 – William Marks, American politician (d. 1858)
  • October 14 – Francis Fane, British Royal Navy admiral (d. 1844)
  • October 19 – Valentine Blacker (d. 1826)
  • October 22 – Javier de Burgos, Spanish writer, politician and jurist (d. 1849)
  • October 23 – Kittur Chennamma, Indian queen regnant (d. 1829)
  • October 26 – Charles Grant, 1st Baron Glenelg, British politician (d. 1866)
  • October 28 – Ezekiel Blomfield, British minister (d. 1818)
  • October 29 – William Creighton, Jr., United States federal judge (d. 1851)
  • October 30 – Benjamin Ames, American politician (d. 1835)
  • October 31
  • Jacob Shibley, Canadian politician (d. 1862)
  • Charles Abraham Elton, author (d. 1853)
  • John Black, Australian sailor (d. 1802)
  • November 1
  • James R. Caldwell, United States Navy officer (d. 1804)
  • Mary Brunton, British writer (d. 1818)
  • Gustav IV Adolf of Sweden, King of Sweden (d. 1837)
  • November 3 – Karlo Lanza, Dalmatian politician (d. 1834)
  • November 5
  • Giovanni Battista Belzoni, Italian explorer (d. 1823)
  • Thomas Ritchie, American journalist (d. 1854)
  • November 8 – Joseph Signay, Catholic bishop (d. 1850)
  • November 11 – Nils Astrup, Norwegian politician (d. 1835)
  • November 14
  • Heinrich Gottlieb Tzschirner, German theologian (d. 1828)
  • Johann Nepomuk Hummel, composer and virtuoso pianist (d. 1837)
  • November 15
  • George Canning, 1st Baron Garvagh, British politician (d. 1840)
  • Giovanni Battista Belzoni, Italian antiquarian (d. 1823)
  • November 16 – Johann Joseph von Prechtl, Austrian technologist (d. 1854)
  • November 18 – Lord William Stuart, British politician (d. 1814)
  • November 19 – Charles de Salaberry, Canadian politician (d. 1829)
  • November 21
  • Richard Phillips, British Chemist (d. 1851)
  • Thomas B. Cooke, American politician (d. 1853)
  • Joseph Warren Scott, American army officer (d. 1871)
  • Kunitomo Ikkansai, Gunsmith (d. 1840)
  • November 22 – Aurora Wilhelmina Koskull, Swedish lady-in-waiting and politically active salonist (d. 1852)
  • November 23
  • Mariano Moreno, politician (d. 1811)
  • Samuel Humphreys, noted American naval architect and shipbuilder in the early 19th century (d. 1846)
  • November 24 – Salusbury Pryce Humphreys, Royal Navy officer during the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars and the War of 1812 (d. 1845)
  • November 25
  • Joseph Lancaster, English Quaker and public education innovator (d. 1838)
  • Mary Anne Schimmelpenninck, British abolitionist (d. 1856)
  • November 26
  • Jean-Thomas Taschereau, Canadian politician (d. 1832)
  • Henry Fane, British Army general (d. 1840)
  • November 28
  • Christoph Ernst von Houwald, German writer (d. 1845)
  • Filippo di Colloredo-Mels, leader of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta (d. 1864)
  • Abd al-Rahman of Morocco, Alaouite dynasty member (d. 1859)
  • November 29 – Hryhory Kvitka, Ukrainian writer, journalist, and playwright.
  • November 30 – Andrés Guazurary, Argentine general (d. 1825)
  • December 6 – Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac, French chemist (d. 1850)
  • December 7 – Franz Naegele, German obstetrician (d. 1851)
  • December 8 – George Crabb, British writer (d. 1851)
  • December 9 – Vicente González Moreno, Spanish general (d. 1839)
  • December 10 – Antonio Francesco Orioli, cardinal of the Catholic Church (d. 1852)
  • December 13
  • George Townshend, 3rd Marquess Townshend, British Marquess (d. 1855)
  • Thomas Kendall, New Zealand missionary (d. 1832)
  • December 15
  • Godert van der Capellen, Dutch colonial governor (d. 1848)
  • Christiane Luise Amalie Becker, German actor (d. 1797)
  • John Penrose, Church of England clergyman and theological writer (d. 1859)
  • December 16
  • John Ordronaux, Privateersman (d. 1841)
  • Ludwig Robert, German dramatist (d. 1832)
  • José Colombres, Catholic bishop (d. 1859)
  • December 17
  • Humphry Davy, English physicist and chemist (d. 1829)
  • William Munroe, cabinet maker (d. 1861)
  • Juan Martín de Veramendi, Governor of Mexican Texas (d. 1833)
  • December 18 – Joseph Grimaldi, English actor and comedian (d. 1837)
  • December 19 – Marie Thérèse of France, eldest child of Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette (d. 1851)
  • December 20 – Thomas P. Grosvenor, American politician (d. 1817)
  • December 21 – Anders Sandøe Ørsted, Danish politician (d. 1860)
  • December 22 – James Haldane Stewart, British priest (d. 1854)
  • December 23 – François de Robiano, Belgian politician (d. 1836)
  • December 24
  • Inoue Masamoto, Daimyo (d. 1858)
  • James Guyon, Jr., American politician (d. 1846)
  • Thomas Coventry, English cricketer (d. 1816)
  • December 25 – Caleb Atwater, American politician (d. 1867)
  • December 27 – Antoine François Eugène Merlin (d. 1854)
  • December 28
  • Franz Xaver Heller, German botanist (d. 1840)
  • William Cowper, English-born Anglican cleric in Australia who was the Archdeacon of Cumberland (d. 1858)
  • Charles Hanbury-Tracy, 1st Baron Sudeley, British politician (d. 1858)
  • Matthew Arbuckle, United States soldier (d. 1851)
  • December 29
  • Georg Anton Friedrich Ast, German philosopher (d. 1841)
  • Johann Simon Hermstedt, German musician (d. 1846)
  • Undated

  • Sardar Fath 'Ali Khan, Wazir-i-azam of Kabul (d. 1818)
  • Anna Maria Walker, Scottish botanist (d. 1852)
  • Sara Oust, Norwegian lay minister (d. 1822)
  • Marie-Madeleine Lachenais, Haitian de facto politician (d. 1843)
  • Deaths

  • January 10 – Carl Linnaeus, Swedish botanist (b. 1707)
  • February 18 – Joseph Marie Terray, French statesman (b. 1715)
  • February 20 – Laura Bassi, Italian scholar (b. 1711)
  • March 5 – Thomas Arne, English composer of Rule, Britannia! (b. 1710)
  • March 7 – Charles De Geer, Swedish industrialist and entomologist (b. 1720)
  • March 13 – Charles le Beau, French historian (b. 1701)
  • April 22 – James Hargreaves, English weaver, carpenter, and inventor (b. 1720)
  • May 11 – William Pitt, 1st Earl of Chatham, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (b. 1708)
  • May 16 – Robert Darcy, 4th Earl of Holderness, English diplomat and politician (b. 1718)
  • May 30 – Voltaire, French philosopher (b. 1694)
  • June 12 – Philip Livingston, American signer of the Declaration of Independence (b. 1716)
  • June 16 – Konrad Ekhof, German actor (b. 1720)
  • June 24 – Pieter Burman the Younger, Dutch philologist (b. 1714)
  • July 2
  • Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Swiss philosopher (b. 1712)
  • Bathsheba Spooner, American murderer (b. c. 1746)
  • July 3 – Anna Maria Mozart, Austrian mother to the Mozarts (b. 1720)
  • July 5 – James Townley, English dramatist (b. 1714)
  • August 5 – Charles Clémencet, French historian (b. 1703)
  • August 12 – Peregrine Bertie, 3rd Duke of Ancaster and Kesteven, British general and politician (b. 1714)
  • November 9 – Giovanni Battista Piranesi, Italian artist (b. 1720)
  • November 20 – Francesco Cetti, Italian Jesuit scientist (b. 1726)
  • date unknown – Tomas Johnson, furniture maker (b. 1714)
  • References

    1778 Wikipedia


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