Girish Mahajan (Editor)

Actinopterygii

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Kingdom  Animalia
Superclass  Osteichthyes
Higher classification  bony fishes
Phylum  Chordata
Scientific name  Actinopterygii
Rank  class
Actinopterygii httpsuploadwikimediaorgwikipediacommonsaa
Lower classifications  Teleost, Catfish, Cyprinidae, Neopterygii, Eel

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Actinopterygii /ˌæKTNˌɒPtəˈrɪDʒi./, or the ray-finned fishes, constitute a class or subclass of the bony fishes.

Contents

The ray-finned fishes are so called because they possess lepidotrichia or "fin rays", their fins being webs of skin supported by bony or horny spines ("rays"), as opposed to the fleshy, lobed fins that characterize the class Sarcopterygii which also, however, possess lepidotrichia. These actinopterygian fin rays attach directly to the proximal or basal skeletal elements, the radials, which represent the link or connection between these fins and the internal skeleton (e.g., pelvic and pectoral girdles).

Actinopterygii Fish list in Mayotte

Numerically, actinopterygians are the dominant class of vertebrates, comprising nearly 99% of the over 30,000 species of fish. They are ubiquitous throughout freshwater and marine environments from the deep sea to the highest mountain streams. Extant species can range in size from Paedocypris, at 8 mm (0.3 in), to the massive ocean sunfish, at 2,300 kg (5,070 lb), and the long-bodied oarfish, at 11 m (36 ft).

Actinopterygii Class Actinopterygii Animals Aquatic Pinterest

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Characteristics

Actinopterygii More on Morphology

Ray-finned fishes occur in many variant forms. The main features of a typical ray-finned fish are shown in the diagram at the left.

Reproduction

Actinopterygii Fish list in Fiji

In nearly all ray-finned fish, the sexes are separate, and in most species the females spawn eggs that are fertilized externally, typically with the male inseminating the eggs after they are laid. Development then proceeds with a free-swimming larval stage. However other patterns of ontogeny exist, with one of the commonest being sequential hermaphroditism. In most cases this involves protogyny, fish starting life as females and converting to males at some stage, triggered by some internal or external factor. This may be advantageous as females become less prolific as they age while male fecundity increases with age. Protandry, where a fish converts from male to female, is much less common than protogyny. Most families use external rather than internal fertilization. Of the oviparous teleosts, most (79%) do not provide parental care. Viviparity, ovoviviparity, or some form of parental care for eggs, whether by the male, the female, or both parents is seen in a significant fraction (21%) of the 422 teleost families; no care is likely the ancestral condition. Viviparity is relatively rare and is found in about 6% of teleost species; male care is far more common than female care. Male territoriality "preadapts" a species for evolving male parental care.

Actinopterygii Introduction to the Actinopterygii

There are a few examples of fish that self-fertilise. The mangrove rivulus is an amphibious, simultaneous hermaphrodite, producing both eggs and spawn and having internal fertilisation. This mode of reproduction may be related to the fish'S habit of spending long periods out of water in the mangrove forests it inhabits. Males are occasionally produced at temperatures below 19 °C (66 °F) and can fertilise eggs that are then spawned by the female. This maintains genetic variability in a species that is otherwise highly inbred.

Fossil record

Actinopterygii Actinopterygii

The earliest known fossil actinopterygiian is Andreolepis hedei, dating back 420 million years (Late Silurian). Remains have been found in Russia, Sweden, and Estonia.

Classification

Actinopterygians are divided into the subclasses Chondrostei and Neopterygii. The Neopterygii, in turn, are divided into the infraclasses Holostei and Teleostei. During the Mesozoic and Cenozoic the teleosts in particular diversified widely, and as a result, 96% of all known fish species are teleosts. The cladogram shows the major groups of actinopterygians and their relationship to the terrestrial vertebrates (Tetrapods) that evolved from a related group of fish. Approximate dates are from Near et al., 2012.

Actinopterygii Actinopterygii


The polypterids (bichirs and ropefish) are the sister lineage of all other actinopterygians, The Acipenseriformes (sturgeons and paddlefishes) are the sister lineage of Neopterygii, and Holostei (bowfin and gars) are the sister lineage of teleosts. The Elopomorpha (eels and tarpons) appears to be the most basic teleosts.

The listing below follows Phylogenetic Classification of Bony Fishes with notes when this differs from Nelson, ITIS and FishBase and extinct groups from Van der Laan 2016.

  • Order †?Asarotiformes Schaeffer 1968
  • Order †?Discordichthyiformes Minikh 1998
  • Order †?Paphosisciformes
  • Order †?Scanilepiformes Selezneya 1985
  • Order †Cheirolepidiformes Kazantseva-Selezneva 1977
  • Order †Paramblypteriformes Heyler 1969
  • Order †Rhadinichthyiformes
  • Order †Palaeonisciformes Hay 1902
  • Order †Tarrasiiformes sensu Lund & Poplin 2002
  • Order †Ptycholepiformes Andrews et al. 1967
  • Order †Redfieldiiformes Berg 1940
  • Order †Haplolepidiformes Westoll 1944
  • Order †Aeduelliformes Heyler 1969
  • Order †Platysomiformes
  • Order †Dorypteriformes Cope 1871
  • Order †Eurynotiformes Sallan & Coates 2013
  • Subclass Cladistii Pander 1860
  • Order †Guildayichthyiformes Lund 2000
  • Order Polypteriformes (bichirs and reedfishes)
  • Subclass Actinopteri Cope 1972 s.s.
  • Order †Elonichthyiformes Kazantseva-Selezneva 1977
  • Order †Phanerorhynchiformes
  • Order †Saurichthyiformes
  • Infraclass Chondrostei
  • Order †Birgeriiformes
  • Order †Chondrosteiformes
  • Order Acipenseriformes (sturgeons and paddlefishes)
  • Infraclass Neopterygii Regan 1923 sensu Xu & Wu 2012
  • Order †Pholidopleuriformes Berg 1937
  • Order †Peltopleuriformes Lehman 1966
  • Order †Perleidiformes Berg 1937
  • Order †Luganoiiformes Lehman 1958
  • Order †Pycnodontiformes Berg 1937
  • Clade Holostei
  • Division Halecomorpha Cope 1872 sensu Grande & Bemis 1998
  • Order †Parasemionotiformes Lehman 1966
  • Order †Ionoscopiformes Grande & Bemis 1998
  • Order Amiiformes (bowfins)
  • Division Ginglymodi Cope 1871
  • Order †Dapediiformes
  • Order †Semionotiformes Arambourg & Bertin 1958
  • Order Lepisosteiformes (gars)
  • Clade Teleosteomorpha Arratia 2000 sensu Arratia 2013
  • Division Aspidorhynchei
  • Order †Aspidorhynchiformes Bleeker 1859
  • Order †Pachycormiformes Berg 1937
  • Division Teleostei Müller 1844 sensu Arratia 2013
  • Order †?Araripichthyiformes
  • Order †?Ligulelliiformes Taverne 2011
  • Order †?Tselfatiiformes Nelson 1994
  • Order †Pholidophoriformes
  • Order †Dorsetichthyiformes
  • Order †Leptolepidiformes
  • Order †Crossognathiformes Taverne 1989
  • Order †Ichthyodectiformes Bardeck & Sprinkle 1969
  • Teleocephala de Pinna 1996 s.s.
  • Megacohort Elopocephalai Patterson 1977 sensu Arratia 1999 (Elopomorpha Greenwood et al. 1966)
  • Order Elopiformes Gosline 1960 (ladyfishes and tarpon)
  • Order Albuliformes Greenwood et al. 1966 sensu Forey et al. 1996 (bonefishes)
  • Order Notacanthiformes Goodrich 1909 (halosaurs and spiny eels)
  • Order Anguilliformes Jarocki 1822 sensu Goodrich 1909 (true eels)
  • Megacohort Osteoglossocephalai sensu Arratia 1999
  • Supercohort Osteoglossocephala sensu Arratia 1999 (Osteoglossomorpha Greenwood et al. 1966)
  • Order †Lycopteriformes
  • Order Hiodontiformes (mooneye and goldeye)
  • Order Osteoglossiformes (bony-tongued fishes)
  • Supercohort Clupeocephala Patterson & Rosen 1977 sensu Arratia 2010
  • Cohort Otomorpha Wiley & Johnson 2010 (Otocephala; Ostarioclupeomorpha)
  • Subcohort Clupei Wiley & Johnson 2010 (Clupeomorpha Greenwood et al. 1966)
  • Order †Ellimmichthyiformes Grande 1982
  • Order Clupeiformes Bleeker 1859 (herrings and anchovies)
  • Subcohort Alepocephali
  • Order Alepocephaliformes
  • Subcohort Ostariophysi Sagemehl 1885
  • Section Anotophysa (Rosen & Greenwood 1970) Sagemehl 1885
  • Order †Sorbininardiformes Taverne 1999
  • Order Gonorynchiformes Regan 1909 (milkfishes)
  • Section Otophysa Garstang 1931
  • Order Cypriniformes (barbs, carp, danios, goldfishes, loaches, minnows, rasboras)
  • Order Characiformes (characins, pencilfishes, hatchetfishes, piranhas, tetras, dourado / golden (genus Salminus) and pacu)
  • Order Gymnotiformes (electric eels and knifefishes)
  • Order Siluriformes (catfishes)
  • Cohort Euteleosteomorpha (Euteleostei Greenwood 1967 sensu Johnson & Patterson 1996)
  • Subcohort Lepidogalaxii
  • Lepidogalaxiiformes Betancur-Rodriguez et al. 2013 (salamanderfish)
  • Subcohort Protacanthopterygii Greenwood et al. 1966 sensu Johnson & Patterson 1996
  • Order Argentiniformes (barreleyes and slickheads) (formerly in Osmeriformes)
  • Order Galaxiiformes
  • Order Salmoniformes (Salmon and trout)
  • Order Esociformes (pike)
  • Subcohort Stomiati
  • Order Osmeriformes (smelts)
  • Order Stomiatiformes (bristlemouths and marine hatchetfishes)
  • Subcohort Neoteleostei Nelson 1969
  • Infracohort Ateleopodia
  • Order Ateleopodiformes (jellynose fish)
  • Infracohort Eurypterygia Rosen 1973
  • Section Aulopa [Cyclosquamata]
  • Order Aulopiformes Rosen 1973 (Bombay duck and lancetfishes)
  • Section Ctenosquamata Rosen 1973
  • Subsection Myctophata [Scopelomorpha]
  • Order Myctophiformes Regan 1911 (lanternfishes)
  • Subsection Acanthomorphata Betancur-Rodriguez et al. 2013
  • Division Lampridacea Betancur-Rodriguez et al. 2013 [Lampridomorpha; Lampripterygii]
  • Order Lampriformes Regan 1909 (oarfish, opah and ribbonfishes)
  • Division Paracanthomorphacea sensu Grande et al. 2013 (Paracanthopterygii Greenwood 1937)
  • Order Percopsiformes Berg 1937 (cavefishes and trout-perches)
  • Order †Sphenocephaliformes Rosen & Patterson 1969
  • Order Zeiformes Regan 1909 (dories)
  • Order Stylephoriformes Miya et al. 2007
  • Order Gadiformes Goodrich 1909 (cods)
  • Division Polymixiacea Betancur-Rodriguez et al. 2013 (Polymyxiomorpha; Polymixiipterygii)
  • Order †Pattersonichthyiformes Gaudant 1976
  • Order †Ctenothrissiformes Berg 1937
  • Order Polymixiiformes Lowe 1838 (beardfishes)
  • Division Euacanthomorphacea Betancur-Rodriguez et al. 2013 (Euacanthomorpha sensu Johnson & Patterson 1993; Acanthopterygii Gouan 1770 sensu])
  • Subdivision Berycimorphaceae Betancur-Rodriguez et al. 2013
  • Order Beryciformes (fangtooths and pineconefishes) (incl. Stephanoberyciformes; Cetomimiformes)
  • Subdivision Holocentrimorphaceae Betancur-Rodriguez et al. 2013
  • Order Holocentriformes
  • Subdivision Percomorphaceae Betancur-Rodriguez et al. 2013 (Percomorpha sensu Miya et al. 2003; Acanthopteri)
  • Series Ophidiimopharia Betancur-Rodriguez et al. 2013
  • Order Ophidiiformes (pearlfishes)
  • Series Batrachoidimopharia Betancur-Rodriguez et al. 2013
  • Order Batrachoidiformes (toadfishes)
  • Series Gobiomopharia Betancur-Rodriguez et al. 2013
  • Order Kurtiformes
  • Order Gobiiformes
  • Series Scombrimopharia Betancur-Rodriguez et al. 2013
  • Order Syngnathiformes (Seahorses and pipefishes)
  • Order Scombriformes
  • Series Carangimopharia Betancur-Rodriguez et al. 2013
  • Sub Series Anabantaria
  • Order Synbranchiformes (swamp eels)
  • Order Anabantiformes (Labyrinthici) (gouramies, snakeheads, )
  • Sub Series Carangaria
  • Carangaria incertae sedis
  • Order Istiophoriformes (Marlins, swordfishes, billfishes)
  • Order Carangiformes (Jack mackerels, pompanos)
  • Order Pleuronectiformes (flatfishes)
  • Sub Series Ovalentaria sensu Smith & Near 2012 (Stiassnyiformes sensu Li et al. 2009)
  • Ovalentaria incertae sedis
  • Order Cichliformes (Cichlids, Convict blenny, leaf fishes)
  • Order Atheriniformes (silversides and rainbowfishes)
  • Order Cyprinodontiformes (livebearers, killifishes)
  • Order Beloniformes (flyingfishes)
  • Order Mugiliformes (mullets)
  • Order Blenniiformes
  • Order Gobiesociformes
  • Series Eupercaria (Percomorpharia Betancur-Rodriguez et al. 2013)
  • Eupercaria incertae sedis
  • Order Gerreiformes (Mojarras)
  • Order Uranoscopiformes (Paratrachinoidei sensu Li et al. 2009) (Stargazers, sandperches)
  • Order Labriformes (Wrasses)
  • Order Moroniformes (temperate sea basses)
  • Order Ephippiformes (Sicklefishes, Spadefishes)
  • Order Chaetodontiformes (butterflyfishes, ponyfishes)
  • Order Acanthuriformes Jordan 1923 (Louvars, Moorish Idols, surgeonfishes)
  • Order Lutjaniformes (Snappers, grunts)
  • Order Lobotiformes (Tiger perches, Atlantic tripletail)
  • Order Spariformes Bleeker 1876 sensu Akazaki 1962 (sea breams, porgy)
  • Order Scatophagiformes Bleeker 1876 (Scats)
  • Order Priacanthiformes (Bigeyes, Bandfishes)
  • Order Caproiformes (Boarfishes)
  • Order Lophiiformes (Anglerfishes)
  • Order Tetraodontiformes (Filefishes and pufferfish)
  • Order Pempheriformes
  • Order Centrarchiformes Bleeker 1859
  • Order Perciformes Bleeker 1859 (incl. Gasterosteiformes; Scorpaeniformes)
  • References

    Actinopterygii Wikipedia


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