Tyumen was the first Russian settlement in Siberia. Founded in 1586 to support Russia's eastward expansion, the city has remained one of the most important industrial and economic centers east of the Ural Mountains. Located at the junction of several important trade routes and with easy access to navigable waterways, Tyumen rapidly developed from a small military settlement to a large commercial and industrial city. The central part of Old Tyumen retains many historic buildings from throughout the city's history.
Today Tyumen is an important business center. Tyumen is the transport hub and industrial center of Tyumen Oblast— an oil-rich region bordering Kazakhstan —as well as the home of many companies active in Russia's oil and gas industry.
Tyumen covers an area of 235 square kilometers (91 sq mi). Its primary geographical feature is the Tura River, which crosses the city from northwest to southeast. The river is navigable downstream of the city. The left bank of the Tura is a floodplain surrounded by gently rolling hills. The Tura is a shallow river with extensive marshlands.
The river floods during the snow melting season in the spring. The spring flood usually peaks in the second half of May, when the river becomes 8–10 times wider than during the late-summer low water season. The city is protected from flooding by a dike which can withstand floods up to 8 meters (26 ft) high. The highest ever flood water level in Tyumen was 9.15 meters (30.0 ft), recorded in 1979. More recently, in 2007, a water level of 7.76 was recorded. In the spring 2005, a flood higher than the critical 8 meters (26 ft) mark was expected, but did not appear.
Tyumen has a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dfb) with warm, somewhat humid summers and long, cold winters. The weather in town is very changeable, and the temperature in town is always higher than in the surrounding area by a few degrees. The town area also attracts more precipitation. The average temperature in January is −16.7 °C (1.9 °F), with a record low of −50 °C (−58 °F) (February 1951). The average temperature in July is +18.6 °C (65.5 °F), with a record high of +38 °C (100 °F).
The average annual precipitation is 457 millimeters (18.0 in). The wettest year on record was 1943, with 581 millimeters (22.9 in), and the driest was 1917, with only 231 millimeters (9.1 in).
The Cossack ataman Yermak Timofeyevich annexed the Tyumen area, originally part of the Siberia Khanate, to the Tsardom of Russia in 1585. On July 29, 1586, Tsar Feodor I ordered two regional commanders, Vasily Borisov-Sukin and Ivan Myasnoy, to construct a fortress on the site of the former Siberian Tatar town of Chingi-Tura ("city of Chingis"), also known as Tyumen, from the Turkish and Mongol word for "ten thousand" – tumen.
Tyumen stood on the "Tyumen Portage", part of the historical trade route between Central Asia and the Volga region. Various South Siberian nomads had continuously contested control of the portage in the preceding centuries. As a result, Siberian Tatar and Kalmyk raiders often attacked early Russian settlers. The military situation meant that streltsy and Cossack garrisons stationed in the town predominated in the population of Tyumen until the mid-17th century. As the area became less restive, the town began to take on a less military character.
By the beginning of the 18th century Tyumen had developed into an important center of trade between Siberia and China in the east and Central Russia in the west. Tyumen had also become an important industrial center, known for leather-goods makers, blacksmiths, and other craftsmen. In 1763, 7,000 people were recorded as living in the town.
In the 19th century the town's development continued. In 1836, the first steam boat in Siberia was built in Tyumen. In 1862, the telegraph came to the town, and in 1864 the first water mains were laid. Further prosperity came to Tyumen after the construction, in 1885, of the Trans-Siberian Railway. For some years, Tyumen was Russia's easternmost railhead, and the site of transhipment of cargoes between the railway and the cargo boats plying the Tura, Tobol, Irtysh, and Ob Rivers.
By the end of the 19th century Tyumen's population exceeded 30,000, surpassing that of its northern rival Tobolsk, and beginning a process whereby Tyumen gradually eclipsed the former regional capital. The growth of Tyumen culminated on August 14, 1944 when the city finally became the administrative center of the extensive Tyumen Oblast.
At the outbreak of the Russian Civil War in 1917, forces loyal to Admiral Alexander Kolchak and his Siberian White Army controlled Tyumen. However, the city fell to the Red Army on January 5, 1918.
During the 1930s, Tyumen became a major industrial center of the Soviet Union. By the onset of World War II, the city had several well-established industries, including shipbuilding, furniture manufacture, and the manufacture of fur and leather goods.
World War II saw rapid growth and development in the city. In the winter of 1941, twenty-two major industrial enterprises evacuated to Tyumen from the European part of the Soviet Union. These enterprises went into operation the following spring. Additionally, war-time Tyumen became a "hospital city", where thousands of wounded soldiers were treated.
During Operation Barbarossa, when it seemed possible that Moscow would fall to the advancing German Army, Tyumen also became a refuge for the body of the deceased Soviet leader Vladimir Lenin. Lenin's body was secretly moved from Lenin's mausoleum in Moscow (October 1941) to a hidden tomb located in what is now the Tyumen State Agriculture Academy (former Tyumen Agriculture Institute).
Between 1941 and 1945 more than 20,000 Tyumen natives saw action at the front. Almost a third, about 6,000, perished in action (the exact number remains uncertain as official data includes non-local soldiers who died in Tyumen's hospitals).
The town was affected by the discovery of rich oil- and gas-fields in the Tyumen Oblast in the 1960s. While most of these lay hundreds of kilometers away, near the towns of Surgut and Nizhnevartovsk, Tyumen was the nearest railway junction and so the city became their supply base while the railway was extended northwards. As the result of this economic and population boom, with tens of thousands of skilled workers arriving from across the Soviet Union between 1963 and 1985, the rapid growth of the city also brought a host of problems. Its social infrastructure was limited and the lack of city planning has resulted in uneven development, with which Tyumen has continued to struggle.
Tyumen is the administrative center of the oblast and, within the framework of administrative divisions, it also serves as the administrative center of Tyumensky District, even though it is not a part of it. As an administrative division, it is incorporated separately as the City of Tyumen—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts. As a municipal division, the City of Tyumen is incorporated as Tyumen Urban Okrug.
Tyumen is divided into four administrative okrugs:Kalininsky
The legislative authority of Tyumen is the City Duma. In addition to legislative activities, the City Duma appoints the Head of the Tyumen City Administration, who is the chief executive officer of the city.
Since Tyumen is the administrative center of the oblast, all the governing bodies of the oblast are located in the city. They include:Elected Legislative Assembly (Duma) of Tyumen Oblast is the legislature of Tyumen Oblast. The Duma also confirms the appointment of the Governor of Tyumen Oblast, who is nominated by the President of Russia
Office of the Governor – Head of the executive authority of Tyumen Oblast
Government of Tyumen Oblast – Executive authority of Tyumen Oblast
Arbitration Tribunal of Tyumen Oblast – Judiciary
Tyumen's population grew steadily from the 16th century through the 19th century. However, when the Trans-Siberian Railway came through at the end of the 19th century, the town's rate of population growth was greatly boosted. Tyumen rapidly became the largest town in the region, with approx. 30,000 inhabitants by the beginning of the 20th century. Tyumen again experienced rapid population growth with the coming of World War II. The evacuation of workers from factories in central Russia in 1941 more than doubled Tyumen's population to 150,000.
In the 1960s, the discovery of the rich oil and gas fields in Western Siberia caused the city's population, which had not been forecast to exceed 250,000 inhabitants that decade, to swell to almost half a million. After the growth of the 1960s, a period of population stability lasted until 1988, when economic depression hit the Soviet Union. The city's population in 1989 was 476,869, according to the census of that year. However, within five or six years Tyumen was again a major economic center with a rising population. By 2002, Tyumen's population had risen to 510,719. Further population growth (mainly due to migration and the incorporation of surrounding settlements) meant that by 2008 regional government statistics put Tyumen's population at 588,600 inhabitants.
While the population of Tyumen includes people from over a hundred different ethnicities, most belong to one of the following ethnicities:Russians
As of 2009, there are over ten operational Orthodox temples (both newly built and historical), two mosques (both newly built), one synagogue, and one Roman Catholic church in Tyumen.
While the state religion of the Russian Empire was Orthodoxy, this religion historically prevailed in Tyumen.
In 1616, Trinity Monastery was established in Tyumen by Nifont of Kazan. In 1709–1711, this monastery was rebuilt in stone by the order of Filofey Leshchinsky, the first Metropolitan of Siberia.
In 1761, the Tyumen Religious School was established.
Overall, from 1708 to 1885, twelve stone Orthodox temples of different size, and two monasteries were constructed in Tyumen.
During Soviet times, two of the temples were completely destroyed, but the rest remained. As of 2008, most of them are accessible and returned to operational state. At the start of 2009, one of the destroyed temples is being restored to double size at a new location, and another is under discussion.
Some operational temples are also under restoration. Tyumen Religious School was reopened in 1997.
Despite Orthodoxy predominance, in the past Catholic churches and temples of Islam and Judaism were also built. However, only one Catholic church remains preserved. The Tyumen Mosque was completely destroyed, but the mosque's reconstruction on the same site caused controversy. The Tyumen synagogue collapsed in 2000, but was reconstructed on the same site.
At the start of the 20th century, there was a strong Old Believers community in Tyumen.
All of the aforementioned religions operate cultural centers in Tyumen.
There are also several other religious bodies with a few adherents in Tyumen.Interesting facts
Tyumen Trinity Monastery was built with special permission of Peter the Great. At the time, the construction of stone buildings outside Saint Petersburg was prohibited.
Church of Savior Uncreated was visited by Crown prince Alexandr (later Alexander II) during his Siberian tour.
Tyumen is an important service center for the gas and oil industries in Russia. Due to its advantageous location at the crossing of the motor, rail, water and air ways and its moderate climate Tyumen was an ideal base town for servicing the oil and gas industry of the West Siberia. As a result, today Tyumen is the center of industry, science, culture, education and medicine.
Many large oil and gas companies such as Gazprom (the biggest is TyumenNIIgiprogas), LUKoil, Gazpromneft, Shell (Salym Petroleum Development N.V.) have their representative offices in Tyumen.
There are numerous, factories, engineering companies, oil industry service companies (KCA DEUTAG and Schlumberger), design institutes, shipyard and other oil servicing companies located in Tyumen. Schwank, market leader for industrial heaters, has its subsidiary, SibSchwank, in Tyumen, holding market shares of approx. 25%.
Tyumen is one of the Russian towns which have its own Technopark. UTair is also based in Tyumen.
Town has a quite good selection of recreational activities of all kinds for all ages. Tyumen is also a destination for a fair number of tourists, in particular from Germany.
The Tyumen railway station was built in 1885. Currently the station administratively belongs to the Tyumen Division of Sverdlovskaya Rail Road.
The station is located in the center of Tyumen within a 15-minute walk from City Hall and services suburban, intercity, and international passenger traffic.
At the regional level, the station services three directions to Yekaterinburg, to Omsk, and to Tobolsk. The railroad to Yekaterinburg has been electrified since 1980.
At the international level, the station services passage to (Trans-Siberian Railway): Poland, Germany, China, Mongolia, and Azerbaijan.
Additional stations within city territory include: Tyumen North, Tyumen yard, Voynovka yard.
Public transportation in Tyumen is dominated by both municipal bus services and by numerous private operators (marshrutkas), which account for nearly a third of all transport capacity. The city's bus fleet is in process of modernization and expansion, with newly acquired Russian buses replacing the severely aged Soviet models.
Tyumen is a major hub for intercity bus service, centered on the bus-terminal, which was constructed in 1972, and greatly expanded between 2006 and 2008.
Tyumen is served by the international Roschino Airport located 13 kilometres (8 miles) west of the city. In addition Plekhanovo Airport is in the area.
The Roschino airport has permits to handle with the following types of aircraft: Tu-154, Tu-134, An-12, An-24, An-26, Yak-40, Yak-42, IL-18, L-410, B-737, B-767, B-757, IL-86, IL-76, ATR-42, ATR-72, HS-125.
The airport has a permit to handle all types of helicopters.
The airstrip is capable to handle with huge aircraft such as An-22 Antaeus.
The city has a regular service to the large number of Russian towns, including, Moscow (9 flights a day), St. Petersburg, and Samara. There are also weekly or biweekly flights to the following international locations: Baku, Erevan, Khujand, and Tashkent.
Tyumen has very difficult road scheme. The town is divided by the Tura River, the Tyumneka River, and the Trans-Siberian Railroad, creating several isolated zones. Ten bridges, one footbridge, seven flyovers, and five-foot crossings connect these zones.
In addition, the road network was planned before the fall of the Soviet Union, and in its current state, it can operate normally only in the scheme which includes public transportation only. Compact planning of the city center prevents expansion of main roads; congestion coming from the city periphery moves slower and slower as it approaches the town center. To date, the road network serves about 200% above planned capacity, which leads to numerous traffic jams and high accident rates.
Since 2002, city and regional authorities have undertaken numerous initiatives to improve Tyumen road network, however due to the continued growth of private automobile ownership rates, these efforts only had short term positive effect. To date, a complex transport infrastructure reconstruction project is being directed by Regional Administration.Total length of the city roads: 925 kilometres (575 miles) (Jan 2009).
Total number of cars: 380,000 of 1,176,441 total in Tyumen Oblast (as of March 2015), previous count 151,000 (Jan. 2008)
In January 2015 in Tyumen starts the paid parking programm and prohibition of vehicle access for none residents for city center to remove private cars from the Down Town.
Historically, Tyumen occupied a small area on the high bank of the Tura River around the foundation site of the city. The city consisted of one and two-storey wooden buildings, surrounded by a number of villages. With time, the territory of the city was developed and extended by including the surrounding villages.
Present-day Tyumen has a decentralised feel. When viewed from above, Tyumen appears to be a collection of low-rise towns with occasional clusters of tall buildings.
Two areas of the city, Yamskaya Sloboda and Republic Street are noted for their historic character. These areas are dominated by old brick and wooden merchant houses and buildings, with the occasional intrusion of mid-century Soviet low-rise buildings.
Bukharskaya Sloboda – a historic residential area on the low bank of the Tura river. This area is mostly made up of very old one and two-storey wooden buildings. The area is part of the Historical Centre on the city and has a mostly Muslim population.
Low bank Dormitories – this cluster of standard 9-storey buildings was built on reclaimed land east of Bukharskaya Sloboda – Zareka and Vatutina.
City Centre – the area at east of the historical town centre built between 1948 and 1978 and is mostly 4 and 5-storey buildings. Earlier buildings in this area have individual designs, but the later buildings have a rectangular style. This area contains most of the political and business activities of the town.
New Centre – the modern area near the center of the town and was built over demolished wooden houses and industrial areas. This area contains mostly tall buildings and is a mix of the dormitory areas and business centres.
Old Dormitories – this area features standard 5-storey blocks of flats constructed in the 1960s and 1970s at the west and east extremities of the city. However, today this area is actually in the town centre. While there are almost no variety in the area's architecture, this area has the most greenery in the city and the best social infrastructure.
New dormitories – this area features clusters of standard tall buildings constructed after year 1980 at the south and south-east edges of Tyumen. This area is considered to be the worst place to live in the city. The area is remote, badly planned, and has very poor social infrastructure. The best feature of this areas is a better natural environment when compare to city centre.
Tyumen is too diverse to be characterized by any particular architectural style, and it generally has no overall style whatsoever. The town was built and non-planned for decades and because of that its architecture is an eclectic mix of buildings of different styles and eras.
Tyumen's nickname is the Capital of Villages because the most of its territory is built up by lumber houses. But most of the people who visited Tyumen as well as a considerable part of its core dwellers mistakenly consider it is a modern high-rise town due of tall buildings concentrated along all town arterial roads. Many of wooden buildings located in historical part of the city had cultural value:
There are many parks and Gardens of different size located around the Tyumen making town landscape green and fresh. Some of this parks also have sport and entertaining components.
Tyumen has a range of entertainment possibilities for all ages. There are many cinemas including two with high class stereo systems, and clubs. Tyumen has had its own Drama and Comedy Theater since 1858. There is a professional Puppet Show and the Angazhement Youth Theater. The Tyumen Music Hall is one of the most common venues for tours of Russian and World class Music Stars. The Tyumen Circus is the most contemporary in Siberia and one of the best in the whole of Russia. Tyumen offers a great variety of cuisine in its numerous restaurants and bars. There are some annual events taking place in the town such as the Student Spring Music show and Day of The City Show.
Tyumen has not been the setting for too many works of literature however there were some poets and writers in the town history.
A writer closely associated with the city is the children's writer Vladislav Krapivin. A famous Russian writer Mikhail M. Prishvin spent his youth in Tyumen as well. Viktor L. Strogalschikov one of the modern Russian writers is also living in Tyumen.
A modern Russian producer Konstantin V. Odegov was born and studied in Tyumen. Tyumen was also the location for a few episodes in Russian films.
There are numerous museums and art galleries in Tyumen. The best known are the Tyumen Museum of Local Lore and the Tyumen Fine Art Gallery which were merged last year by local government decision.
Some of the Tyumen museums:Tyumen Museum of Local Lore (Several exhibition halls)
Museum of the Fine Arts
Museum of Kolokolnikov estate (Several exhibition halls)
House of Merchant Masharov
Medical History Museum
Museum of Tyumen Agricultural Academy (includes a local lore exhibition, Museum of anatomy; Museum of soil science)
Music has always attracted the attention of Tyumen's inhabitants. The town has its own philharmonic orchestra and the Tyumen Music hall has steady auditory. While performing Russian tours Music Stars will visit the Tyumen without fail.
For many years Tyumen was the source for the Soviet and the Russian sport reserve.
Many of the most famous Soviet and Russian sportsmen started their career in Tyumen youth sport including Soviet cycle racing stars Sergey Uslamin, Yury Korotkikh, and Oleg Polovnikov.
There are some Tyumen biathletes in the current Russian national team.
Today Tyumen offers a number of sport activities for all ages. There are numerous sport and fitness clubs around the town. Tyumen has a national level ice hockey team, soccer team and futsal team. There are three all season ice arenas, a soccer field (amateur fields are not counted), a ski center, a hippodrome, a shooting range, several tennis-courts including in the open and all season, three Olympic sized pools. In winter time parks for the cross country skiing are available around the town.
Important ice hockey and soccer teams are:Rubin Tyumen
Tyumen is a town of students. The great boost to Tyumen Education development was given in the 1964 when the Tyumen Industrial Institute was founded to supply oil industry by qualified local workforce. Many academies of the different disciplines was founded in Tyumen since this date, and now the Higher Education is one of the major economic activities of the Tyumen town. There are over 10 academies, including five universities in the town and dozens of colleges. In the educational year of 2008–2009 the five largest Academies of Tyumen together had over 110,000 students.
Important note: most students are not counted in the city population since they are non-residents of the Tyumen city according to Russian law.
There are over one hundred secondary schools in Tyumen.
There are about fifty public libraries in Tyumen. In addition there are several corporate libraries integrated into public libraries book exchange system. The Tyumen special is the Tyumen Regional Scientific Library after D.I. Mendeleev which has about 2 670 000 unic units of issue in its stock .
Tyumen is twinned with: Bern, Switzerland (2007)
Brest, Belarus (1999)
Calgary, Alberta, Canada
Celle, Germany (1994)
Daqing, China (1993)
Houston, Texas, United States (1995)
Irving Berlin, musician
Yevgeni Bushmanov, association football player and coach
Sergey Fateev, journalist
Yuri Aleksandrovich Gulyayev, opera singer
Vladislav Krapivin, children's books writer
Tamara Toumanova, ballerina and actress
Anastasiya Kuzmina, Olympic biathlete
Viktor Leonenko, association football player
Vladilen Mashkovtsev, writer
Nikolay Pereverzev, futsal player
Abraham Walkowitz, painter
Ksenia Sukhinova, Miss World 2008
Andrei Vasilevskiy, professional hockey player (Tampa Bay Lightning-NHL)
Anton Shipulin, Olympic biathlete
Nikolai Chukmaldin, merchant and enlightener
Georg Wilhelm Steller, German scientist