| 222 km²|
| June 14, 1587|
Tobolsk (Russian: ) is a town in Tyumen Oblast, Russia, located at the confluence of the Tobol and Irtysh Rivers. It is a historic capital of Siberia. Population: 99,694?(2010 Census); 92,880?(2002 Census); 94,143?(1989 Census).
Tobolsk was founded by Yermak Timofeyevichs Cossacks in 1585–1586 during the first Russian advance into Siberia near the ruins of the Khanate of Sibirs capital, Qashliq. It became the seat of the Viceroy of Siberia and prospered on trade with China and Bukhara. It was there that the first school, theater, and newspaper in Siberia were established. After the Swedish defeat at Poltava in 1709, large numbers of prisoners were sent to Tobolsk. They numbered about 25% of the total population. Many of them were not repatriated until the 1720s, and some of them settled permanently in Tobolsk.
After administrative division of the territory, Tobolsk remained the seat of the Governor-General of Western Siberia until the seat was moved to Omsk in the 1820s or 1830s. Bowing to the citys authority, many Siberian towns, including Omsk, Tyumen, and Tomsk, had their original arms display the Tobolsk insignia. Omsk honors the legacy to this day.
Until the October Revolution of 1917, the town served as the seat of Tobolsk Governorate. Some of the Decembrists were exiled and lived there as well. The towns importance declined when the Trans-Siberian Railway bypassed it in the 1890s.
In August 1917, after the February Revolution, Tsar Nicholas II and his family were brought here to live in relative luxury in the former house of the Governor-General. After the White Army approached the city in spring of 1918, the royal family was moved to Yekaterinburg and shot there, ending the Imperial Romanov Dynasty.
The economy of modern Tobolsk centers on a major oil refinery. Some traditional crafts, such as bone-carving, are also preserved.
Tobolsk is the only town in Siberia and one of the few in Russia which has a standing stone kremlin (Tobolsk Kremlin): an elaborate city-fortress from the turn of the 17th and 18th centuries. Its white walls and towers with an ensemble of churches and palatial buildings spectacularly sited on a high river bank were proclaimed a national historical and architectural treasure in 1870.
The principal monuments in the kremlin are the Cathedral of St. Sophia (1683–1686), a merchant courtyard (1703–1705), an episcopal palace (1773–1775; now a museum of local lore), and the so-called Swedish Chamber, with six baroque halls (1713–1716). The town contains some remarkable baroque and Neoclassical churches from the 18th and 19th centuries. Also noteworthy is a granite monument to Yermak, constructed to a design by Alexander Brullov in 1839. The towns vicinity is rich in ancient kurgans and pagan shrines, some of which date back to the 10th century BCE.
The cuisine of Algeria is a distinct fusion of Moorish and Amazigh cuisines.
Algerian cuisine differs slightly from region to region. Every region has its own cuisine, including Kabylie, Algiers (couscous) and Constantine. Pork consumption is forbidden in accordance with Sharia, religious laws of Islam.
Algeria, like other Maghreb countries, produces a large range of Mediterranean fruits and vegetables and even some tropical ones. Lamb is commonly consumed. Mediterranean seafood and fish are also eaten and produced by the little inshore fishing.