|Covid-19|January 1 – Queen Maria II of Portugal marries Prince Ferdinand Augustus Francis Anthony of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha.
January 5 – Davy Crockett arrives in Texas.
January 12 – HMS Beagle with Charles Darwin onboard reaches Sydney.
January 12 – Will County, Illinois, is formed.
January 16 – Kane County, Illinois, is formed.
January 18 – Dade County, Florida, is formed.
January 8 – London and Greenwich Railway opens its first section, the first railway in London, England.
February 23 – The Battle of the Alamo begins with an American settler army surrounded by the Mexican Army under Santa Anna.
February 25 – Samuel Colt receives a United States patent for the Colt revolver, the first revolving barrel multishot firearm.
Antonio García Gutiérrez's play El Trovador is performed for the first time in Madrid, Spain.
Convention of 1836: Delegates from many Texas communities gather in Washington-on-the-Brazos, Texas, to deliberate independence from Mexico.
March 2 – Convention of 1836: The Texas Declaration of Independence is signed by 60 delegates and the Republic of Texas is declared.
March 6 – The Battle of the Alamo ends; 182 Texan settler soldiers die in a struggle with approximately 5,000 Mexican soldiers.
March 11 – Sultan Mahmud II abolishes the posts of Reis ül-Küttab and Kahya Bey and establishes the Ottoman ministries of Foreign Affairs and of the Interior in their place.
March 17 – Convention of 1836: Delegates adopt the Constitution of the Republic of Texas, modeled after the United States Constitution. It allows slavery, requires free blacks to petition Congress to live in the country, but prohibits import of slaves from anywhere but the United States.
March 27 – United States Survey of the Coast returned to U.S. Treasury Department; renamed U.S. Coastal Survey.
March 27 – 342 Texan prisoners are shot and killed in the Goliad massacre along with Texan General James Walker Fannin by Mexican troops in Goliad near the Presidio La Bahía during the Texas Revolution.
March – First monthly part of Charles Dickens' The Pickwick Papers ("The Posthumous Papers of the Pickwick Club..., edited by Boz") published in London.
March 29 – Richard Wagner's opera Das Liebesverbot is performed for the first time in Magdeburg.
April 20 – The Wisconsin Territory is created. The first capital is Belmont.
April 21 – Battle of San Jacinto: Mexican forces under General Antonio López de Santa Anna are defeated at San Jacinto, Texas.
April 22 – Texas Revolution: Forces under Texas General Sam Houston capture Mexican General Antonio López de Santa Anna.
May 4 – The Ancient Order of Hibernians, an Irish Catholic fraternal organization, is founded in New York City.
May 7 – The settlement of Mayagüez, Puerto Rico, is elevated to the royal status of villa by the government of Spain.
May 15 – Francis Baily, during an eclipse of the Sun, observes the phenomenon named after him as Baily's beads.
May 19 – Fort Parker massacre: Among those captured by Native Americans is nine-year-old Cynthia Ann Parker; she later gives birth to a son named Quanah, who becomes the last chief of the Comanche.
June 15 – Arkansas is the 25th state admitted into the United States of America.
July 13 – The first numbered U.S. Patent 1 (after filing 9,957 unnumbered patents) is granted, to John Ruggles for improvements to railroad steam locomotive tires.
July 20 – Charles Darwin climbs Green Hill on Ascension Island.
July 21 – The Champlain and St. Lawrence Railroad opens between St. John and La Prairie, Quebec, the first steam-worked passenger railroad in British North America.
July 27 – Adelaide, South Australia, is founded.
July 30 – The first English-language newspaper is published in Hawaii.
August 17 – Marriage Act in the United Kingdom establishes civil marriage and registration systems that permit marriages in nonconformist chapels, and a Registrar General of Births, Marriages, and Deaths.
August 30 – The city of Houston, Texas, is founded.
September 1 – Rebuilding begins at the Hurva Synagogue in Jerusalem.
September 5 – Sam Houston is elected as the first president of the Republic of Texas.
September 11 – Riograndense Republic is proclaimed in South America.
October 2 – Charles Darwin returns to England aboard HMS Beagle with biological data he will later use to develop his theory of evolution, having left South America on August 17.
October 13 – Theodor Fliedner, a Lutheran minister, and Friederike, his wife, open the Deaconess Home and Hospital at Kaiserswerth, Germany, as an institute to train women in nursing.
October 22 – Sam Houston is inaugurated as first elected President of the Republic of Texas.
October 24 – The earliest United States patent for a phosphorus friction match is granted to Alonzo Dwight Phillips of Springfield, Massachusetts.
October 25 – Construction begins on the Wilmington and Raleigh Railroad in North Carolina. Due to a lack of support in Raleigh, the route is revised to run from Wilmington to the Petersburg Railroad in Weldon.
November 28 – University of London established by Royal Charter, with University College London and King's College London named as the first affiliated colleges.
December 4 – Whig Party holds its first national convention, in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania.
December 7 – United States presidential election, 1836: Martin Van Buren defeats William Henry Harrison.
December 15 – The United States Patent Office burns in Washington, D.C.
December 26 – The Crown colony of South Australia is officially proclaimed (now celebrated in the state of South Australia as Proclamation Day).
December 27 – Lewes avalanche: An avalanche at Lewes in Sussex, England, kills eight of fifteen people buried when a row of cottages is engulfed in snow.
December 28 – Spain recognizes the independence of Mexico.
December 28 – Colony of South Australia founded by Captain John Hindmarsh
December 30 – In Saint Petersburg, the Lehman Theater catches fire, killing 800 people.
The first printed literature in Assyrian Neo-Aramaic is produced by Justin Perkins, an American Presbyterian missionary in Persia.
The New Board brokerage group is founded in New York City.
James Peter Allaire's company, the Howell Works, is at its peak.
Eugène Schneider and his brother Adolphe Schneider purchase a bankrupt ironworks near the town of Le Creusot in the Burgundy region of France and found the steelworks and engineering company Schneider Frères & Cie.
George Catlin ends his 6-year tour of 50 tribes in the Dakota Territory.
Chatsworth Head found near Tamassos on Cyprus.
January 2 – Mendele Mocher Sforim, Russian Yiddish writer (d. 1917)
January 8 – Lawrence Alma-Tadema, Dutch-English painter (d. 1912)
January 10 – Charles Phillip Ingalls, Pioneer father of author Laura Ingalls Wilder (d. June 8, 1902)
January 14 – Henri Fantin-Latour, French painter (d. 1904)
January 27 – Leopold von Sacher-Masoch, Austrian writer (d. 1895)
February 16 – Robert Halpin, Irish mariner and cable layer (d. 1894)
February 18 – Ramakrishna Paramhansa, Bengali religious leader (d. 1886)
February 21 – Léo Delibes, French composer (d. 1891)
February 24 – Winslow Homer, American painter (d. 1910)
March 2 – Henry Billings Brown, Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States (d. 1913)
March 4 – Stuart Robson, American stage comedian (d. 1903)
March 12 – Isabella Beeton, British cook and expert on household management (d. 1865)
Ferris Jacobs, Jr., American politician (d. 1886)
Sir Edward Poynter, French-born artist (d. 1919)
March 28 – Frederick Pabst, German-American brewer (d. 1904)
April 27 – Major Charles Bendire, U.S. Army captain and ornithologist (d. 1897)
May 23 – Touch the Clouds, Native American chieftain of Teton Lakota Sioux.
May 27 – Jay Gould, American financier (d. 1892)
Alexander Mitscherlich, German chemist (d. 1918)
Friedrich Baumfelder, German composer, conductor, and pianist (d. 1916)
May 31 – Jules Chéret, French printmaker (d. 1932)
June 9 – Elizabeth Garrett Anderson, English physician and suffragette (d. 1910)
June 16 – Wesley Merritt, American general (d. 1917)
July 8 – Joseph Chamberlain, British politician (d. 1914)
July 9 – Camille of Renesse-Breidbach, Belgian nobleman, entrepreneur and author (d. 1904)
July 24 – Jan Gotlib Bloch, Polish banker and warfare author (d. 1902)
August 5 – John T. Raymond, American actor (d. 1887)
August 13 – Bishop Nikolai of Japan, Russian Orthodox priest (d. 1912)
August 25 – Bret Harte, American writer (d. 1902)
September 7 – Henry Campbell-Bannerman, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (d. 1908)
September 10 – Joseph Wheeler, American general and politician (d. 1906)
September 11 – Fitz Hugh Ludlow, American author (d. 1870)
September 17 – William Jackson Palmer, founder of Colorado Springs, Colorado (d. 1909)
September 22 – Fredrique Paijkull, Swedish educator and Folk high school pioneer (d. 1899)
September 26 – Thomas Crapper, English plumber and inventor (d. 1910)
September 30 – Remigio Morales Bermúdez, Peruvian politician, 56th President of Peru (d. 1894)
October 4 – Piet Cronjé, Boer general (d. 1911)
October 5 – Enomoto Takeaki, Japanese samurai and admiral (d. 1908)
October 6 – Heinrich Wilhelm Gottfried von Waldeyer-Hartz, German neuroanatomist (d. 1921)
October 15 – James Tissot, French artist (d. 1902)
October 27 – Thomas Gwyn Elger, English astronomer (d. 1897)
November 8 – Milton Bradley, American businessman and inventor (d. 1911)
November 11 – Thomas Bailey Aldrich, American poet and novelist (d. 1907)
W. S. Gilbert, British playwright and librettist best known for his collaborations with Arthur Sullivan (d. 1911)
Máximo Gómez, Cuban military leader (d. 1905)
Ding Ruchang, Chinese army officer and admiral (d. 1895)
November 22 – George Barham, English businessman, founded Express County Milk Supply Company (d. 1913)
December 7 – Frank Manly Thorn, American lawyer, politician, government official, essayist, journalist, humorist, and inventor, sixth Superintendent of the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey (d. 1907)
December 18 – Kawamura Sumiyoshi, Japanese admiral (d. 1904)
Isidora Goyenechea, international Chilean industrialist and miner (d. 1897)
January 1 – Bernhard Meyer, German physician and ornithologist (b. 1767)
January 11 – John Molson, Canadian entrepreneur (b. 1763)
January 21 – Ferenc Novák, Hungarian Slovene writer (b. 1791)
January 30 – Betsy Ross, maker of the first American flag (b. 1752)
January 31 – John Cheyne, British physician, surgeon and author (b. 1777)
February 10 – Marie-Anne Pierrette Paulze, French chemist (b. 1758)
February 18 – Cornplanter, Seneca chief (b. 1750)
February 21 – William Van Mildert, last Prince Bishop of Durham and founder of Durham University (b. 1765)
March 6 (at the Alamo)
James Bowie Texan revolutionary (b. 1796)
Davy Crockett, American frontiersman, Congressman and soldier (b. 1786)
William Barret Travis, Texan revolutionary (b. 1809)
March 16 – Nathaniel Bowditch, American mathematician (b. 1773)
March 27 – James Fannin, Texas Revolutionary (b. 1804)
April 7 – William Godwin, English writer (b. 1756)
April 29 – Simon Kenton, frontiersman and American Revolutionary militia general (b. 1755)
June 10 – André-Marie Ampère, French physicist (b. 1775)
June 28 – James Madison, 4th President of the United States (b. 1751)
August 20 – Agnes Bulmer, English poet (b. 1775)
August 21 – Claude-Louis Navier, French engineer and physicist (b. 1785)
August 25 – Christoph Wilhelm Hufeland, German physician (b. 1762)
September 5 – Ferdinand Raimund, Austrian playwright (b. 1790)
September 12 – Christian Dietrich Grabbe, German playwright (b. 1801)
September 14 – Aaron Burr, 3rd Vice President of the United States (b. 1756)
September 17 – Antoine Laurent de Jussieu, French botanist (b. 1748)
November – Tenskwatawa, Shawnee prophet and political leader (b. 1775)
November 5 – Karel Hynek Mácha, Czech poet (b. 1810)
November 6 – King Charles X of France (b. 1757)
November 16 – Christiaan Hendrik Persoon, Dutch mycologist (b. 1761)
December 27 – Stephen F. Austin, American pioneer (b. 1793)
1836 (MDCCCXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Friday (dominical letter CB) of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Wednesday (dominical letter ED) of the Julian calendar, the 1836th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 836th year of the 2nd millennium, the 36th year of the 19th century, and the 7th year of the 1830s decade. As of the start of 1836, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.