| 43 m|
Lutz Trumper (SPD)
| Cathedral of Magdeburg, Jahrtausendturm, Gruson-Gewachshauser, Middle Elbe Biosphere Reserve|
Otto-von-Guericke University Magdeburg
Magdeburg ( [ˈmakdəbʊɐ̯k]; Low Saxon: Meideborg, [ˈmaˑɪdebɔɐ̯x]) is the capital city and the second largest city of the state of Saxony-Anhalt, Germany. Magdeburg is situated on the Elbe River and was one of the most important medieval cities of Europe.
Emperor Otto I, the first Holy Roman Emperor, founder of the archbishopric of Magdeburg, was buried in the town's cathedral after his death. Magdeburg's version of German town law, known as Magdeburg rights, spread throughout Central and Eastern Europe. The city is also well known for the 1631 Sack of Magdeburg, which hardened Protestant resistance during the Thirty Years' War. Prior to it Magdeburg was one of the largest German cities and a notable member of the Hanseatic League. Magdeburg was destroyed twice in its history.
Magdeburg is the site of two universities, the Otto-von-Guericke University and the Magdeburg-Stendal University of Applied Sciences.
Nowadays Magdeburg is a traffic junction as well as an industrial and trading centre. The production of chemical products, steel, paper and textiles are of particular economic significance, along with mechanical engineering and plant engineering, ecotechnology and life-cycle management, health management and logistics.
In 2005 Magdeburg celebrated its 1200th anniversary. In June 2013 Magdeburg was hit by record breaking flooding.
Founded by Charlemagne in 805 as Magadoburg (probably from Old High German magado for big, mighty and burga for fortress), the town was fortified in 919 by King Henry I the Fowler against the Magyars and Slavs. In 929 the city went to Edward the Elder's daughter Edith, through her marriage to Henry's son Otto I, as a Morgengabe — a Germanic customary gift received by the new bride from the groom and his family after the wedding night. Edith loved the town and often lived there; at her death she was buried in the crypt of the Benedictine abbey of Saint Maurice, later rebuilt as the cathedral. In 937, Magdeburg was the seat of a royal assembly. Otto I repeatedly visited Magdeburg and was also buried in the cathedral. He granted the abbey the right to income from various tithes and to corvée labour from the surrounding countryside.
The Archbishopric of Magdeburg was founded in 968 at the synod of Ravenna; Adalbert of Magdeburg was consecrated as its first archbishop. The archbishopric under Adalbert included the bishoprics of Havelberg, Brandenburg, Merseburg, Meissen and Naumburg-Zeitz. The archbishops played a prominent role in the German colonisation of the Slavic lands east of the Elbe river.
In 1035 Magdeburg received a patent giving the city the right to hold trade exhibitions and conventions, which form the basis of the later family of city laws known as the Magdeburg rights. These laws were adopted and modified throughout Central and Eastern Europe. Visitors from many countries began to trade with Magdeburg.
In the 13th century, Magdeburg became a member of the Hanseatic League. With more than 20,000 inhabitants Magdeburg was one of the largest cities in the Holy Roman Empire. The town had an active maritime commerce on the west (towards Flanders), with the countries of the North Sea, and maintained traffic and communication with the interior (for example Brunswick). The citizens constantly struggled against the archbishop, becoming nearly independent from him by the end of the 15th century.
In about Easter 1497, the then twelve-year-old Martin Luther attended school in Magdeburg, where he was exposed to the teachings of the Brethren of the Common Life. In 1524, he was called to Magdeburg, where he preached and caused the city's defection from Catholicism. The Protestant Reformation had quickly found adherents in the city, where Luther had been a schoolboy. Emperor Charles V repeatedly outlawed the unruly town, which had joined the Alliance of Torgau and the Schmalkaldic League. Because it had not accepted the Augsburg Interim (1548), the city, by the emperor's commands, was besieged (1550–1551) by Maurice, Elector of Saxony, but it retained its independence. The rule of the archbishop was replaced by that of various administrators belonging to Protestant dynasties. In the following years Magdeburg gained a reputation as a stronghold of Protestantism and became the first major city to publish the writings of Luther. In Magdeburg, Matthias Flacius and his companions wrote their anti-Catholic pamphlets and the Magdeburg Centuries, in which they argued that the Roman Catholic Church had become the kingdom of the Antichrist.
In 1631, during the Thirty Years' War, imperial troops under Johann Tserclaes, Count of Tilly, stormed the city and committed a massacre, killing about 20,000 inhabitants and burning the town in the sack of Magdeburg. The city had withstood a first siege in 1629 by Albrecht von Wallenstein. After the war, a population of only 4,000 remained. Under the Peace of Westphalia (1648), Magdeburg was to be assigned to Brandenburg-Prussia after the death of the administrator August of Saxe-Weissenfels, as the semi-autonomous Duchy of Magdeburg. This occurred in 1680.
In the course of the Napoleonic Wars, the fortress surrendered to French troops in 1806. The city was annexed to the French-controlled Kingdom of Westphalia in the 1807 Treaty of Tilsit. King Jérôme appointed Count Heinrich von Blumenthal as mayor. In 1815, after the Napoleonic Wars, Magdeburg was made the capital of the new Prussian Province of Saxony. In 1912, the old fortress was dismantled, and in 1908, the municipality Rothensee became part of Magdeburg.
Magdeburg was heavily bombed by the Royal Air Force during the Second World War. The RAF bombing raid on the night of 16 January 1945, destroyed much of the city. The death toll is estimated at 2000-2500.
Near the end of World War II, the city of about 340,000 became capital of the Province of Magdeburg. Brabag's Magdeburg/Rothensee plant that produced synthetic oil from lignite coal was a target of the Oil Campaign of World War II. The impressive Gründerzeit suburbs north of the city, called the Nordfront, were destroyed as well as the city's main street with its Baroque buildings. It was occupied by United States troops on 19 April 1945 and was left to Red Army on 1 July 1945. Post-war the area was part of the Soviet Zone of Occupation and many of the remaining pre-World War II city buildings were destroyed, with only a few buildings near the cathedral and in the southern part of the old city being restored to their pre-war state. Before the reunification of Germany, many surviving Gründerzeit buildings were left uninhabited and, after years of degradation, waiting for demolition. From 1949 on until German reunification on 3 October 1990, Magdeburg belonged to the German Democratic Republic.
In 1990 Magdeburg became the capital of the new state of Saxony-Anhalt within reunified Germany. Huge parts of the city and its centre were also rebuilt in a modern style. Its economy is one of the fastest-growing in the former East German states.
In 2005 Magdeburg celebrated its 1200th anniversary.
The city was hit by 2013 European floods. Authorities declared a state of emergency and said they expected the Elbe river to rise higher than in 2002. In Magdeburg, with water levels of five metres (16 ft) above normal, about 23,000 residents had to leave their homes on 9 June.
Magdeburg has an oceanic climate (Cfb) according to Köppen climate classification.
One of Magdeburg's most impressive buildings is the Lutheran Cathedral of Saints Catherine and Maurice with a height of 104 m (341.21 ft), making it the tallest church building of eastern Germany. It is notable for its beautiful and unique sculptures, especially the "Twelve Virgins" at the Northern Gate, the depictions of Otto I the Great and his wife Editha as well as the statues of St Maurice and St Catherine. The predecessor of the cathedral was a church built in 937 within an abbey, called St. Maurice. Emperor Otto I the Great was buried here beside his wife in 973. St. Maurice burnt to ashes in 1207. The exact location of that church remained unknown for a long time. The foundations were rediscovered in May 2003, revealing a building 80 m (262.47 ft) long and 41 m (134.51 ft) wide.
The construction of the new church lasted 300 years. The cathedral of Saints Catherine and Maurice was the first Gothic church building in Germany. The building of the steeples was completed as late as 1520.
While the cathedral was virtually the only building to survive the massacres of the Thirty Years' War, it suffered damage in World War II. It was soon rebuilt and completed in 1955.
The square in front of the cathedral (also called the Neuer Markt, or "new marketplace") was occupied by an imperial palace (Kaiserpfalz), which was destroyed in the fire of 1207. The stones from the ruin were used for the building of the cathedral. The presumed remains of the palace were excavated in the 1960s.Unser Lieben Frauen Monastery (Our Lady), 11th century, containing the church of St. Mary. Today a museum for Modern Art. Home of the National Collection of Small Art Statues of the GDR (Nationale Sammlung Kleinkunstplastiken der DDR).
The Magdeburger Reiter ("Magdeburg Rider", 1240), the first free-standing equestrian sculpture north of the Alps. It probably depicts the Emperor Otto I.
Town hall (1698). This building had stood on the market place since the 13th century, but it was destroyed in the Thirty Years' War; the new town hall was built in a Renaissance style influenced by Dutch architecture. It was renovated and re-opened in Oct 2005.
Landtag; the seat of the government of Saxony-Anhalt with its Baroque façade built in 1724.
monuments depicting Otto von Guericke (1907), Eike von Repkow and Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben.
Ruins of the greatest fortress of the former Kingdom of Prussia.
Elbauenpark containing the highest wooden structure in Germany.
St. John Church (Johanniskirche)
The Gruson-Gewächshäuser, a botanical garden within a greenhouse complex
The Magdeburg Water Bridge, Europe's longest water bridge
"Die Grüne Zitadelle" or The Green Citadel of Magdeburg, a large, pink building of a modern architectural style designed by Friedensreich Hundertwasser and completed in 2005.
Magdeburg is one of the major towns along the Elbe Cycle Route (Elberadweg).Cathedral of Magdeburg
GETEC Arena – Biggest multi-purpose hall in Saxony-Anhalt, home of handball team SC Magdeburg
AMO - Culture and congress building
Altes Theater am Jerichower Platz – Former theater, used for parties and large conferences
Stadthalle - Concert hall
St. Johannis Church
St. Petri Church, with stained glass by Charles Crodel
Seebühne at Elbauenpark
Concert hall Georg Philipp Telemann at "Kloster unser lieben Frauen"
Projekt 7 – Night club at the university campus. Concerts with indie-pop and rock music
Factory – Former factory building, German and international pop, rock, metal, and indie music artists are featured
Kulturwerk Fichte – used mainly for conferences
Prinzzclub – Night club at Halberstädter Straße – house-, electro and black music
Festung Mark – Part of the former city fortification, now reconstructed for parties and conventions
Kunstkantine – Factory cafeteria, monthly electro-music parties
Feuerwache – Former fire station, repurposed for events
MDCC-Arena - Home of 1. FC Magdeburg
Kiste - Student club in Medicine campus
SC Baracke - Student club on the main University Campus
The Otto-von-Guericke University Magdeburg (German: Otto-von-Guericke-Universität Magdeburg) was founded in 1993 and is one of the youngest universities in Germany. The university in Magdeburg has about 13,000 students in nine faculties. There are 11,700 papers published in international journals from this institute.
The Magdeburg-Stendal University of Applied Sciences was founded in 1991. There are 30 direct study programs in five departments in Magdeburg and two departments in Stendal. The university has more than 130 professors and approximately 4,500 students at Magdeburg and 1,900 at Stendal.
Magdeburg has a municipal theatre, Theater Magdeburg.
Magdeburg has a proud history of sports teams, with football proving the most popular. 1. FC Magdeburg currently play in the 3. Liga. The now defunct clubs SV Victoria 96 Magdeburg and Cricket Viktoria Magdeburg were among the first football clubs in Germany. 1. FC Magdeburg is the only East German football club to have won a European club football competition. There is also the very successful handball team, SC Magdeburg who are the first German team to win the EHF Champions League.
The city is portrayed as a rebel castle on the strategy map of Medieval II: Total War.
The discus was re-discovered in Magdeburg in the 1870s by Christian Georg Kohlrausch, a gymnastics teacher.
Magdeburg is well known for its Christmas market, which is an attraction for 1.5 million visitors every year. Other events are the Stadtfest, Christopher Street Day, Elbe in Flames and the Europafest Magdeburg
Magdeburg is twinned with:Max Albert (1905–1976), writer
Ernst Anders (1845–1911), portrait and genre painter
Theodor Avé-Lallemant (1806–1890), music critic and writer on music
Alfons Bach, (1904–1999), industrial designer
Kurt Behrens (1884–1928), springboard diver
Arno Bieberstein (1884–1918), swimmer
Jessica Böhrs (born 1980), actress and singer, known for the film Eurotrip
Adelbert Delbrück (1822–1890), banker and lawyer
Friedrich Ernst Fesca (1789–1826), violinist and composer
Hans Gericke (1912–2014), architect
Frank Giering (1971–2010 Berlin), actor
Harry Giese (1903–1991), actor and spokesman in Nazi newsreels
Alfred Grünberg (1901–1942), worker, KPD member and resistance fighter against Nazism
Otto von Guericke (1602–1686), mayor and inventor of the Magdeburg hemispheres. The Otto von Guericke University Magdeburg is named after him.
Carl Gustav Friedrich Hasselbach (1809–1882), mayor and member of the Prussian House of Lords; the Hasselbachplatz, a square in the centre of Magdeburg, is named after him.
Gottlieb von Haeseler (1701–1752), entrepreneur in the Duchy of Magdeburg
Christian Georg Kohlrausch (1851–1934), gymnastics teacher and re-discoverer of discus throwing
Carl Hindenburg (1820–1899), cycling official and first president of the German Cyclist Federation (DRB)
Heinrich Jost (1889–1948), typeface designer
Georg Kaiser (1878–1945), writer
Wilhelm Kobelt (1865–1927), member of the Reichstag and local politician in Magdeburg
Rolf Kohnert (born 1938), emigrated to Australia in 1963, engineer
Stefan Kretzschmar (born 1973), retired professional handball player and Olympic medallist
Hans Kühne (1880–1969), chemist on the board of I.G. Farben and defendant during the Nuremberg trials
Ernst Lehmann (1908–1945), SPD politician, active in the resistance against Nazism
Otto Lehmann (1900–1936), resistance fighter against Nazism
Werner Marcks (1896–1967), lieutenant general in World War II
Olaf Malolepski (born 1946), singer-songwriter, frontman of schlager band Die Flippers
Johann Carl Simon Morgenstern (1770–1852), philologist who coined the term Bildungsroman
Werner Naumann (1896–1952), director of the Focke-Wulf aircraft factory in Bremen
Felix von Niemeyer (1820–1871), physician, royal Württemberg personal physician
Leo Nowak (born 1929), Roman Catholic bishop of Magdeburg (1990–2004)
Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard (born 1942), biologist, the Albert Lasker Award for Basic Medical Research in 1991 and the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1995
Richard Ölze (1900–1980), painter
Erich Ollenhauer (1901–1963), leader of the Social Democratic Party of Germany 1952–1963
Menahem Pressler (born 1923), pianist
Ernst Reuter (1889–1953), Mayor of Magdeburg 1931–1933, then Mayor of West Berlin from 1948 to 1953
Willy Rosen (born 1894 as William Julius Rosenbaum; died 28 October 1944 (according to other sources 30 September 1944) in Auschwitz
Ekkehard Schall (1930–2005), actor and theatre director
Karl Schmidt (1902–1945 in the Bay of Lübeck), resistance fighter against Nazism
Manfred Schoof (born 1936), jazz trumpeter
Wolfgang Schreyer (born 1927), writer
Patrick Schulz (born 1988), handball goalkeeper
Petra Schmidt-Schaller (born 1980), actress
Margarete Schön (1895–1985), stage and film actress
Kurt Singer (1886–1962), philosopher
Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben (1730–1794), American patriot
Christoph Christian Sturm (1740–1786), preacher and author, who wrote the majority of his devotional works here
Bruno Taut (1880–1938), city architect 1921–1923, completed two housing projects in Magdeburg
Georg Philipp Telemann (1681–1767), composer
Klaus Thunemann (born 1937), bassoon professor
Henning von Tresckow (1901–1944), major general in the Wehrmacht, active in the military resistance
Lothar von Trotha (1848–1920), military commander notorious for presiding over the near-extermination of the Herero in German South-West Africa
Karl Wallenda (1905–1978), highwire acrobat
Camillo Walzel (1829–1895), librettist and theatre director, who wrote under the pseudonym F Zell
Dejan Zavec, (born 1976), Slovenian welterweight boxer, IBF Welterweight Champion
Heinrich Zschokke, (1771–1848), author and reformer
Arthur Ruppin, (1876–1943), Zionist thinker and leader
Marcel Schmelzer, (born 1988), footballer