| 27.49 million (2011)|
Northeastern Mandarin, Hamgyong Korean
| Changchun, Jilin City, Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture, Siping - Jilin, Tonghua|
Jilin University (Changchun), Northeast Normal University (Changchun), Beihua University (Jilin City), Changchun University of Science and Technology (Changchun), Jilin Normal University (Siping - Jilin)
Jilin (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; former official name: Kirin) is one of the three provinces of Northeast China. Jilin borders North Korea and Russia to the east, Heilongjiang to the north, Liaoning to the south, and Inner Mongolia to the west.
The name "Jilin" – literally, "Auspicious Forest" – probably originates from girin ula ????? ???, a Manchu phrase meaning "along the river"; this would have been transcribed into jilin wula (t , s ) in Chinese, then shortened to "Jilin".
In ancient times, Jilin was inhabited by various peoples, notably the Xianbei, Koreans, the Mohe and the Wuji (). Korean kingdoms, including the Buyeo, Goguryeo and Balhae, were established in this area.
The region then fell successively under the domination of the Xiongnu, Xianbei state, Khitan Liao Dynasty, the Jurchen Jin Dynasty, and the Mongol Yuan Dynasty. During the Qing Dynasty, much of the area was under the control of the General of Jilin, whose area of control extended to the Sea of Japan to encompass much of what is Russias Primorsky Krai today. Immigration of Han Chinese was strictly controlled.
After the Primorsky Krai area was ceded to Russia in 1860, the Qing government began to open the area up to Han Chinese migrants, most of whom came from Shandong. By the beginning of the twentieth century, Han Chinese had become the dominant ethnic group of the region. In 1932, the area was incorporated into Manchukuo, a puppet state set up by Japan. Changchun (then called Hsinking), capital of Jilin today, was made the capital of Manchukuo. After the defeat of Japan in 1945, the Soviet Army captured Jilin after Operation August Storm. The region, with the rest of northeastern China, was ceded to the Communists by the Soviet Union. Manchuria was the staging ground from which the communists eventually conquered the rest of China in the Chinese Civil War.
In 1949, Jilin province was smaller, encompassing only the environs of Changchun and Jilin City, and the capital was at Jilin City, while Changchun was a municipality independent from the province. In the 1950s, Jilin was expanded to its present borders. During the Cultural Revolution, Jilin was expanded again to include a part of Inner Mongolia, giving it a border with the independent state of Mongolia, though this was later reversed. In recent times Jilin has, with the rest of heavy industry-based Northeast China, been facing economic difficulties with privatization. This has prompted the central government to undertake a campaign called “Revitalize the Northeast.”
Jilin lies in the central part of northeastern China, bordering Russia and North Korea in the east and southeast respectively. Jilin has a total area of 190,000 km2 (73,000 sq mi) and a total population of 27.3 million. Its capital is Changchun, which lies 113 km (70 mi) west of Jilin City. Jilin is rich in natural mineral deposits with 136 types of minerals, of which 70 have been extracted. Jilin has abundance of Traditional Chinese medicine resources, with approximately 27,000 kinds of wild plants and 9,000 kinds of medicinal herbs.
The province is rich in large reserves of oil, gas, coal, iron mine, nickel, molybdenum, talc, graphite, gypsum, cement rock, gold and silver; its reserves of oil shale are the largest in the country.
Jilin is highest in altitude in the southeast and drops gently towards the northwest. The Changbai Mountains run through its southeastern regions and contains the highest peak of the province, Paektu Mountain at 2744 m. Other ranges include the Jilinhada Mountains, Zhang Guangcai Mountains, and Longgang Mountains.
Jilin is drained by the Yalu and Tumen rivers in the extreme southwest (which together form the border between the Peoples Republic of China and North Korea), by tributaries of the Liao River along the southern border, and by the Songhua and Nen rivers, both eventually flowing into the Amur.
Jilin has a northerly continental monsoon climate, with long, cold winters and short, warm summers. Average January temperatures range from -20 to -14°C. Rainfall averages at 350 to 1000 mm.
Major cities in this province include Changchun, Jilin City, Baishan, Baicheng, Siping, Yanji, Songyuan, Tonghua and Liaoyuan
In 2011, the nominal GDP of Jilin province totaled RMB 1053.1 billion (US$167.1 billion). Its GDP has been rising at a double-digit rate since 2003, growing 51 percent from 2003 to 2007. Per capita nominal GDP increased to RMB 26,289 (US$3,848) in 2009. Meanwhile, the incremental value and profit of large enterprises witnessed an increase of 19 percent and 30 percent respectively, compared with 2005 figures.
Jilin is part of Northeast China, so shares many similarities in culture to neighbouring regions, such as Er ren zhuan, Stilts and Yangge. But among its music, Jiju, or Jilin Opera, is a form of traditional entertainment that Jilin has innovated over its short migrant history.
The ethnic Koreans of Jilin have their own distinct culture. See also Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture, Culture of Korea.
The Goguryeo sites and tombs found in Jian, Jilin, including Wandu, Gungnae Fortress, and the pyramidal Generals Tomb, have been listed as part of a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
The Baekdu Mountain, especially Heaven Lake on the border with North Korea, are popular tourist destinations due to their natural scenery.
Ancient Tombs at Longtou Mountain, including the Mausoleum of Princess Zhenxiao, are royal tombs of the Balhae kingdom found in Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture.