| Peoples Republic of China|
| Jin Yuhui|
Liaoyuan (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a prefecture-level city in Jilin province, Peoples Republic of China. It is bounded on the west and south by Tieling of Liaoning province, west and north by Siping, and east by Tonghua and Jilin City. Liaoyuan lies some 100 km (62 mi) south of Changchun, the provincial capital. Covering an area of 5,125 km2 (1,979 sq mi), Liaoyuan is the smallest among the prefecture-level divisions of Jilin. Liaoyuan has a total population of 1,176,645 in the prefecture, while the urban area has a population of 462,233.
Liaoyuan was an imperial hunting ground during the Qing Dynasty, going by the name Shengjing Paddock (). Ordinary citizens were prohibited from entering this region until late 1800s, when waves of immigrants from Hebei, Shandong and Henan began to populate Manchuria (see Chuang Guandong). In 1902, Qing government established Xian County () in this region, which became todays Xian District.
The discovery of coal underground shortly afterwards brought prosperity to the city. Between 1931 and 1945, Xian was an important coal-mining city in Manchukuo and also the place where American Army General Jonathan M. Wainwright was held as a prisoner. During the Chinese Civil War after World War II, Xian was a focal point of the intense fighting between the Communist and Nationalist forces until the summer of 1947 when it was permanently captured by the Communist force. The city was renamed Liaoyuan (literally the source of the East Liao River) in 1952 as the former name conflicted with that of the much larger city of Xian in Shaanxi province. As a county-level city, Liaoyuan was under Siping Prefectures jurisdiction till 1983, when it became a prefecture-level city, administering two districts and two counties.
Liaoyuan has a temperate semi-humid monsoon climate. The average annual sunshine totals 2,580 hours, while the average annual precipitation reaches around 650 mm. The average temperature is 4.5 °C. Liaoyuan is replete with water resources. There are 56 rivers and streams running through the city, including tributes of Liao River and Songhua River. In addition, Liaoyuan is also rich in timber and mineral resources. Mineral resources such as limestone, marble, coal, silica, and wollastonite are abundant. Forests cover 42% of the citys lands.
Coal mining in Liaoyuan started in late Qing dynasty and continued to be the most important industry for more than 100 years. During the Japanese occupation from 1931 to 1945, Liaoyuan was the second largest coal-mining center of Manchukuo, preceded only by Fushun. This city continued to produce approximately 3 million tons of coal every year till the mid 1990s, when the exhaustion of coal resource brought the economy of this city to a standstill. Fortunately, the city succeeded in transforming its economic structure from a mining oriented one to a light manufacturing oriented one. At present, the city is the largest cotton-sock manufacturing center in China. Furthermore, the aluminum shell of Apple Macbook Pro is also manufactured in this city. Liaoyuan has a GDP of RMB 50 billion in 2011, rising 15.6% year on year.
Guandong deer meat is one of the popular dishes among local people since Liaoyuan has a long history of raising deer.