The source of the Chattahoochee River is located in Jacks Gap at the southeastern foot of Jacks Knob, in the very southeastern corner of Union County, in the southern Blue Ridge Mountains, a sub-range of the Appalachian Mountains. Its headwaters flow south from ridges that form the Tennessee Valley Divide. The Appalachian Trail crosses the river's uppermost headwaters. The Chattahoochee's source and upper course lies within Chattahoochee National Forest.
From its source in the Blue Ridge Mountains, the Chattahoochee River flows southwesterly to Atlanta and through its suburbs. It eventually turns due south to form the southern half of the Georgia/Alabama state line. Flowing through a series of reservoirs and artificial lakes, it flows by Columbus, the second-largest city in Georgia, and the Fort Benning Army base. At Columbus, it crosses the Fall Line of the eastern United States.
From Lake Oliver to Fort Benning, the Chattahoochee Riverwalk provides cycling, rollerblading, and walking along 15 miles (24 km) of the river's banks. Farther south, it merges with the Flint River and other tributaries at Lake Seminole near Bainbridge, to form the Apalachicola River that flows into the Florida Panhandle. Although the same river, this portion was given a different name by separated settlers in different regions during the colonial times.
The name Chattahoochee is thought to come from a Muskogean word meaning "rocks-marked" (or "painted"), from chato ("rock") plus huchi ("marked"). This possibly refers to the many colorful granite outcroppings along the northeast-to-southwest segment of the river. Much of that segment of the river runs through the Brevard fault zone.
A local Georgia nickname for the Chattahoochee River is "The Hooch."
The vicinity of the Chattahoochee River was inhabited in prehistoric times by indigenous peoples since at least 1000 BC. The Kolomoki Mounds, now protected in the Kolomoki Mounds Historic Park near present-day Blakely in Early County in southwest Georgia, were built from 350 AD to 650 AD and constitute the largest mound complex in the state.
Among the historical nations, the Chattahoochee served as a dividing line between the Muscogee (Creek) (to the east) and the Cherokee territories (to the west) in the Southeast. The United States accomplished the removal of Native Americans, to extinguish their claims and make way for European-American settlement, through a series of treaties, land lotteries, and forced removals lasting from 1820 through 1832. The Muscogee were first removed from the southeastern side of the river, and then the Cherokee from the northwest.
The Chattahoochee River was of considerable strategic importance during the Atlanta Campaign by Union General William Tecumseh Sherman of the American Civil War.
Between the tributaries of Proctor Creek and Nickajack Creek on the Cobb and Fulton county lines in metropolitan Atlanta, are nine remaining "Shoupades" that were part of a defensive line occupied by the Confederate Army in early July 1864. Designed by Confederate Brigadier General Francis A. Shoup, the line became known as Johnston's River Line after Confederate General Joseph E. Johnston and is listed on the National Register of Historic Places.
A month prior to the Battle of Atlanta, Shoup talked with Johnston on June 18, 1864 about building fortifications. Johnston agreed, and Shoup supervised the building of 36 small elevated earth and wooden triangular fortifications, arranged in a sawtooth pattern to maximize the crossfire of defenders. Sherman tried to avoid the Shoupade defenses by crossing the river to the northeast. The nine remaining Shoupades consist of the earthworks portion of the original earth and wooden structures; they are endangered by land development in the area.
Since the nineteenth century, early improvements and alterations to the river were for the purposes of navigation. The river was important for carrying trade and passengers and was a major transportation route.
In the twentieth century, the United States Congress passed legislation in 1944 and 1945 to improve navigation for commercial traffic on the river, as well as to establish hydroelectric power and recreational facilities on a series of lakes to be created by building dams and establishing reservoirs. Creating the manmade, 46,000-acre Walter F. George Lake required evacuating numerous communities, including the historically majority-Native American settlement of Oketeyeconne, Georgia. The lakes were complete in 1963, covering over numerous historic and prehistoric sites of settlement.
Since the late twentieth century, the non-profit organization, Upper Chattahoochee Riverkeeper, advocates for the preservation of the environment and ecology of the northern part of the river, including the portion adjacent to Atlanta.
In 2010 a campaign to create a whitewater course was launched in the portion of the Chattahoochee River that runs through Columbus, Georgia. Between 2010 and 2013, construction took place on the river, the Eagle and Phenix and City Mills Dams were breached and a 2.5 mile Whitewater Course was formed in Uptown, Columbus. The project returned the river to its natural fall line as well as created the longest urban whitewater course in the world.
Several reservoir lakes, including Lanier, Walter F. George, West Point, and George W. Andrews lakes are controlled by the United States Army Corps of Engineers. The dams and reservoirs were developed following legislation by Congress of the mid-1940s for flood control, domestic and industrial water, hydroelectricity, recreation, and improved navigation for river barges. The lakes were completed by 1963. Numerous historic and prehistoric sites were covered over by the lakes during the flooding of the reservoirs, including Oketeyconne, Georgia.
The Georgia Power Company also owns a small series of dams along the middle portion of the river (the Columbus area) between West Point Lake and Lake Walter F. George. Several smaller and older lakes and dams also provide these services on a much smaller and more localized scale, including Bull Sluice Lake, which is held by Morgan Falls Dam. This dam was built by the Georgia Railway and Power Company in 1902 to provide electric power for the Atlanta trolley system, which has long since been replaced by other forms of transportation.
At various points, the Chattahoochee serves as the boundary between several counties and cities, as well as forming the lower half of the boundary between Alabama and Georgia.
Within Georgia, it divides:Habersham County and White County
Forsyth County and Gwinnett County
Fulton County and Gwinnett County
Sandy Springs and Roswell
Cobb County and Fulton County
Douglas County and Fulton County
Carroll County and Fulton County
Carroll County and Coweta County
Columbus, Georgia and Phenix City, Alabama
Atlanta is built upon the crest of a large ridge, rather than in the floodplain of the river. This has contributed the preservation of much of the natural scenic beauty of the section that runs through metropolitan Atlanta. North of the metropolis, the Chattahoochee River National Recreation Area protects other portions of the riverbanks in a region that is spread across several disconnected areas.
The river traverses through much of Atlanta's hilly topography of the northern suburbs. Wealthy suburban communities in northern metro Atlanta that abut the river include: Vinings, Buckhead, Sandy Springs, East Cobb, Roswell, Dunwoody, Peachtree Corners, Johns Creek, and Berkeley Lake.
As three states have needs related to the river, there has been increasing controversy since the late twentieth century related to competing development among the regions and the implications for the river. The enormous growth of metropolitan Atlanta has increased its water withdrawals from the river. This has effects downstream. For example, the oysters in the Apalachicola Bay, Florida, depend on the brackish water mixture of river and ocean water, and the alternating freshwater and saltwater flows that the river and the tides provide. The amount of flow in the Chattahoochee has also been decreased by interbasin water transfers, where water is withdrawn from the Chattahoochee, but discharged as treated sewage water into another river, such as the Oconee River, which flows to the Atlantic Seaboard.
Interest groups and the state of Florida have asked the United States Congress to intervene to reduce the priority given to put navigation of the lower Chattahoochee, south of Columbus, by river barge. This requirement causes large water withdrawals, which environmental supporters consider a waste of water needed to support habitats, especially during droughts. The navigation issue has aggravated the fight between Georgia, Florida, and Alabama over rights to the river water. A lawsuit has been filed in the case to reduce priorities given to navigation. The lawsuit is now in court, and may take years to resolve.
The most recent major flooding of the Chattahoochee River took place during the week of September 22, 2009. This was caused by torrential rains from Tropical Storm Ida as it tore through the Georgia Piedmont. Downstream from Roswell, the Chattahoochee River remained in moderate flood stage. Streams affected by the September 2009 floods included the following:Chattahoochee River
The second most recent major flood along the river occurred during the 2009 Georgia floods, with 28.10 feet (8.56 m) of water recorded at Vinings at the northwestern Atlanta city limit. The flood was over 5 feet (1.5 m) higher than the previous flood recorded in September 2004, as a result of Hurricane Fred. Numerous tributaries also swelled far over and beyond their banks. These were the highest water levels seen since 1990, and the second-highest ever since the large Buford Dam was built upstream. The National Weather Service in Peachtree City estimated that this was a 500-year flood event.
Stream gauges are located:at Helen (near downtown)
near Cornelia (6 miles or 10 km northwest of)
near Buford (4 miles or 6 km northwest of) immediately down from Buford Dam
near Norcross (5 miles or 8 km north of) on Medlock Bridge Road
near Roswell (4 miles or 6 km southeast of) just off old Riverside Road
below Morgan Falls Dam TW
at Vinings (3 miles or 5 km southwest of) and Atlanta on Pace's Ferry Road bridge
near Campbellton (1 mile or 2 km northwest of) and Fairburn on Georgia 92 bridge
at Whitesburg (2 miles or 3 km southeast of) at Main Street (Georgia 18) bridge
at Franklin at Main Street (U.S. 27) bridge in downtown
at West Point (1 mile or 2 km "northeast", actually north, of the center of town)
at Columbus on 4th Street N (U.S. 280) bridge to Phenix City, Alabama
at Walter F. George Dam (USACE) in Fort Gaines
at George W. Andrews Lake & dam (USACE) south of Columbia, Alabama then in November 2009 it flooded Vinings again.
Water-level forecasts are regularly issued only at Vinings/Atlanta. Forecasts are issued only during high water at Norcross, Whitesburg, West Point, and the Lake Walter F. George and Andrews dams. All other locations have observations only.
Tributary creeks, streams, and rivers, as well as lakes, along with the county they are in:Dukes Creek (White)
Smith Creek (White)
Chickamauga Creek (White)
Blue Creek (White)
White Creek (White)
Mossy Creek (White)
Amys Creek (Habersham)
Soque River (Habersham)
Mud Creek (Habersham and Hall)
Flat Creek (White and Hall)
Helen gauge (HDCG1)
Big Creek (Hall)
Lake Lanier and Buford Dam (Dawson, Forsyth, Gwinnett, Hall, and Lumpkin)
Chestatee River (Dawson/Hall border, Forsyth/Hall border, and Lumpkin)
Six Mile Creek (Forsyth)
James Creek (Forsyth)
Johns Creek (Forsyth and north Fulton, city of Johns Creek, Georgia)
Bald Ridge Creek (Forsyth)
Audry Mill Creek (North Fulton)
Crooked Creek (DeKalb)
Young Deer Creek (Forsyth)
Four Mile Creek (Forsyth)
Dick Creek (Forsyth)
Level Creek (Gwinnett)
Haw Creek (Forsyth)
Two Mile Creek (Forsyth)
Shoal Creek (Gwinnett and Hall)
Suwanee Creek (Gwinnett)
Brushy Creek (Gwinnett)
Richland Creek (Gwinnett)
Rogers Creek (Gwinnett)
Norcross gauge (NCRG1)
Mavern Creek (north Fulton)
Old Mill Creek (north Fulton)
Vickery Creek (Forsyth, north Fulton)
Roswell gauge (RWLG1)
Willeo Creek (Cobb/Fulton border)
Bull Sluice Lake and Morgan Falls Dam
Ball Mill Creek (DeKalb and Fulton)
Beech Creek (Fulton)
Summerbrook Creek (Fulton)
Mountain Health Creek (Fulton)
Arrowhead Creek (Cobb)
Mulberry Creek (Cobb)
Nancy Creek (DeKalb and Fulton)
Nannyberry Creek (Cobb)
Nickajack Creek (Cobb)
Owl Creek (Cobb)
Rottenwood Creek (Cobb)
Sope Creek (Cobb)
Trout Lily Creek (Cobb)
Vinings gauge at Pace's Ferry (VING1)
Peachtree Creek (Fulton)
Proctor Creek (Fulton)
Cabin Creek (Fulton)
Camp Creek (Fulton)
Charlie's Trapping Creek (Fulton)
Crooked Creek (Fulton and Gwinnett)
Dog River (Douglas)
Hewlett Creek (Fulton)
Long Island Creek (Fulton)
Marsh Creek (Fulton)
Whitewater Creek (Fulton)
Sandy Creek (Fulton)
Sweetwater Creek (Cobb, Douglas, and Paulding)
Pea Creek (south Fulton)
Pine Creek (south Fulton)
Deep Creek (south Fulton)
Mill Branch (south Fulton)
Brock Branch (south Fulton)
Browns Lake (south Fulton)
Anneewakee Creek (Douglas)
Basket Creek (Douglas)
Bear Creek (Douglas)
Bear Creek (south Fulton)
Tuggle Creek (south Fulton)
White Oak Creek (south Fulton)
Turkey Creek (south Fulton)
Gilberts Branch (Douglas)
Hurricane Creek (Carroll and Douglas)
Wolf Creek (Carroll)
Snake Creek (Carroll)
Wahoo Creek (Coweta)
Whitesburg gauge (WHTG1)
Mulberry Creek (Harris and Talbot)
Pataula Creek (Clay, Quitman, Randolph, and Stewart)
Bull Creek (Muscogee)
Upatoi Creek (Chattahoochee/Muscogee border and Marion/Talbot border)
Moores Creek (Langdale, AL)
West Point gauge (WTPG1)
West Point Lake (Chambers, AL, Heard, GA, and Troup, GA)
Lake Harding (Harris, GA and Lee, AL)
Goat Rock Lake (Harris, GA and Lee, AL)
Lake Oliver (Lee, AL, Russell, AL, and Muscogee, GA)
Columbus gauge (CMUG1)
Walter F. George Lake (Barbour, Henry, Houston, and Russell, AL and Clay, Quitman, and Stewart, GA)
Omussee Creek (Houston, AL)
Lake Seminole (Jackson, FL, Decatur, GA, and Seminole, GA)
Note that the above list is incomplete, and that each item is not in the exact order in which it joins the Chattahoochee. (For confluences now inundated by lakes, it may be impossible to determine from current maps exactly where they were.)
The beauty of the Chattahoochee River is commemorated in the epic poem The Song of the Chattahoochee (1877), by the noted Georgian poet Sidney Lanier. Lake Lanier on the Chattahoochee is named for him.
The Chattahoochee River is featured in the video game Call of Juarez: Bound in Blood, and in Backyard Baseball 2003, Tim Hudson mentions it.
Country music artist Alan Jackson released his song "Chattahoochee" in 1993 as a single off his album A Lot About Livin' (And a Little 'bout Love). "Chattahoochee" received Country Music Association awards for Single of the Year and Song of the Year.
In an online video, rapper Yung Berg tosses his 'Transformers' chain into the Chattahoochee River.
Rapper Ludacris mentions the Chattahoochee River in the song "Who Not Me" on his 2004 album The Red Light District.
Chattahoochee is the name of electro house song created by brothers Dimitri Vegas and Like Mike for the famous Tomorrowland festival in 2013
The Chattahoochee is mentioned in the fiction book "Crossing William." Throughout the book it is spoken of as an important source of power in the practice of Hoodoo.
Chef Robert D'Agostino has a famous dish called the Chattahoochee Seared Duck Breast. It is a seared duck breast on a bed of Arborio rice finished with a Blackberry Zinfandel Sauce.
Drivin N Cryin mentions the Chattahoochee River in their song "Honeysuckle Blue" on their 1989 album "Mystery Road".