|Covid-19|January 1 – Bouvet Island is discovered by French explorer Jean-Baptiste Charles Bouvet de Lozier in the South Atlantic Ocean.
February 24 – Battle of Karnal: The army of Iranian ruler Nader Shah defeats the forces of the Mughal emperor of India, Muhammad Shah.
March 20 – Nader Shah occupies Delhi in India and sacks the city, stealing the jewels of the Peacock Throne, including the Koh-i-Noor.
May 12 – John Wesley lays the foundation stone of the New Room, Bristol in England, the world's first Methodist meeting house.
June 2 – The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences is founded in Stockholm, Sweden.
September 9 – The Stono Rebellion, a slave rebellion, erupts near Charleston, South Carolina.
September 18 – The Treaty of Belgrade brings the Austro-Russian–Turkish War (1735–39) to an end.
October 3 – The Treaty of Niš is signed.
October 17 – The Foundling Hospital is created in London by royal charter.
October 23 – War of Jenkins' Ear: Great Britain declares war on Spain.
November 20–22 – War of Jenkins' Ear: Battle of Porto Bello: British marine forces capture the Panamanian silver exporting town of Portobelo from the Spanish.
Ecuador becomes a part of New Granada.
84,000 farmers revolt in the province of Iwaki in Japan.
Plinian eruption of Mount Tarumae volcano in Japan.
The first Bible in Estonian is published.
January 25 – Charles François Dumouriez, French general (d. 1823)
February 15 – Alexandre-Théodore Brongniart, French architect (d. 1813)
March 16 – George Clymer, American politician and Founding Father (d. 1813)
March 19 – Charles-François Lebrun, duc de Plaisance, Third Consul of France (d. 1824)
July 26 – George Clinton, 4th Vice President of the United States, American soldier and politician (d. 1812)
August 31 – Johann Augustus Eberhard, German theologian and philosopher (d. 1809)
September 17 – John Rutledge, Chief Justice of the United States (d. 1800)
November 2 – Carl Ditters von Dittersdorf, Austrian composer (d. 1799)
November 20 – Jean-François de La Harpe, French critic (d. 1803)
December 14 – Pierre Samuel du Pont de Nemours, French politician (d. 1817)
Antonio Cachia, Maltese architect, engineer and archaeologist (d. 1813)
Bénédict Chastanier, French surgeon (d. 1816)
Samuel Mason, Revolutionary War soldier and early American outlaw (d. 1803)
Karoline Kaulla, German banker (d. 1809)
January 20 – Francesco Galli Bibiena, Italian architect/designer (b. 1659)
April 7 – Dick Turpin, English highwayman (hanged) (b. 1705)
April 19 – Nicholas Saunderson, English scientist and mathematician (b. 1682)
July 24 – Benedetto Marcello, Italian composer (b. 1686)
September 8 – Yuri Troubetzkoy, Governor of Belgorod (b. 1668)
September 12 – Ernest Louis, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt (b. 1667)
October 18 – Antônio José da Silva, Brazilian-born dramatist (b. 1705)
1739 (MDCCXXXIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (dominical letter D) of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Monday (dominical letter G) of the Julian calendar, the 1739th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 739th year of the 2nd millennium, the 39th year of the 18th century, and the 10th and last year of the 1730s decade. As of the start of 1739, the Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.