Siddhesh Joshi


Country  India
Capitals  Imphal, Guwahati (Judiciary)
Language spoken  Meeteilon
Area  22,327 km2
Capital  Imphal
Founded  21 January 1972
Chief Minister  Okram Ibobi Singh
Governor  Krishan Kant Paul
Literacy  79.21% (2011 Census)
Population  2.722 million (2011)
Colleges and Universities  Manipur University (Imphal), National Institute of Technology - Manipur, Central Agricultural University (Imphal), Manipur Institute of Technology (Imphal), Indira Gandhi National Tribal University

Manipur is a state in northeastern India, with the city of Imphal as its capital. The state is sometimes referred to by alternative names such as Kangleipak and Meeteileipak. It is bounded by Nagaland to the north, Mizoram to the south, and Assam to the west; Burma lies to its east. The state covers an area of 22,327 square kilometres (8,621 sq mi). Its people include the Nagas, Meeteis, Kuki, Hmar,Pangal, Gorkhali and Bishnupriya Manipuri, who speak different types of Sino-Tibetan languages.

Map of Manipur

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Manipur has been at the crossroads of Asian economic and cultural exchange for more than 2,500 years. It has long connected the Indian subcontinent to Southeast Asia, enabling migration of people, cultures and religions. It has also witnessed many wars, including fighting during World War II.

Exotica episode 46 exotic locations in manipur

The Kingdom of Manipur was one of the princely states of British India. Between 1917 and 1939, the people of Manipur pressed for their rights against the British Raj. By late 1930s, the princely state of Manipur negotiated with the British administration its preference to be part of India, rather than Burma (now Myanmar). These negotiations were cut short with the outbreak of World War II. On 21 September 1949, Maharaja Budhachandra signed a Treaty of Accession merging the kingdom into India; this merger is disputed by various groups in Manipur as having been completed without consensus and under duress. The dispute and different visions for future has led to a 50-year insurgency in the state for independence from India, as well as to violence between different ethnic groups within the state. Over 2010–2013, the militant insurgency was responsible for the violent death of about 1 civilian per 100,000 people, each year. The worlds average annual death rate from intentional violence has been 7.9 per 100,000 people.

Manipur tourism beautiful locations and nature scenes

The Meetei ethnic group, constitute a plurality of the population ethnic group. 27% of the total population. Tribal people constitute 30% of the state population. There are many other tribes, practicing a variety of religions.

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The language of Meetei people, Meitei (or Manipuri), is the lingua franca in Manipur.

Manipur is primarily an agrarian economy, with significant hydroelectric power generation potential. It is connected by daily flights through Imphal airport, the second largest airport in northeastern India.

Manipur is credited with introducing Polo to Europe.


The Kingdom of Manipur was one of the many hundreds of kingdoms in south and southeast Asia. The ancient of manipur date back to 50 BC which includes the whole part of Nagaland, some part of Assam and Mizoram. However, there are no data about the early history of Manipur, but legendary chronicles claim that "Ningthou Kangba", the first King of Manipur ruled from Kangla at Imphal in 33 AD. He is also known as Meidingu Nongdaa Lairen Paakhangba.

Manipur in the past, History of Manipur

Manipur came under British rule as a princely state (Kangleipak).

Manipur is credited with introducing Polo to Europe. it is the Indian state where Captain Robert Stewart and Lieutenant Joseph Sherer of British colonial era first watched locals play a rules-based pulu or sagolkangjei (literally, horse and stick) game in 1859, rules they spread as Polo, first to Calcutta and then in England.

During World War II, Manipur was the scene of many fierce battles between the Japanese and the British Indian forces. The Japanese were beaten back before they could enter Imphal, which was one of the turning points of the war. After the war, the Manipur Constitution Act of 1947 established a democratic form of government, with the Maharaja as the Executive Head. In 1949, Maharaja Bodhchandra was summoned to Shillong where he signed the instrument of accession merging the kingdom into India. Thereafter the legislative assembly was dissolved and Manipur became part of the Republic of India in October, 1949. It was made a Union Territory in 1956 and a fully-fledged State in 1972.

A separatist movement has been active in Manipur since 1964 with the establishment of the United National Liberation Front; several groups have used violence to achieve their goal of a sovereign Manipur. Beside this, there have been demands by the tribal people to divide the present state into two or three Indian states. Foreign travellers to Manipur must gain special permission to enter, as it is considered a "sensitive area" due to its political troubles and geographical location.

Geography and climate

Manipur Beautiful Landscapes of Manipur

Manipur is one of the seven states of Northeast India. The state is bound by Nagaland in the north, Mizoram in the south, Assam in the west, and by the borders of the country Burma in the east as well as in the south. The state capital of Manipur is Imphal. The state lies at a latitude of 23°83’N – 25°68’N and a longitude of 93°03’E – 94°78’E. The total area covered by the state is 22,347 km². The capital lies in an oval-shaped valley of approximately 700 square miles (2,000 km2) surrounded by blue mountains and is at an elevation of 790 metres above the sea level. The slope of the valley is from north to south. The mountain ranges prevent the cold winds from the north from reaching the valley and bar cyclonic storms originating from the Bay of Bengal.

Manipur Beautiful Landscapes of Manipur

Four major river basins are in Manipur State: the Barak River Basin (Barak Valley) to the west, the Manipur River Basin in central Manipur, the Yu River Basin in the east, and a portion of the Lanye River Basin in the north. The total water resources of Barak and Manipur river basins are about 1.8487 Mham. The overall water balance of the state amounts to 0.7236 Mham in the annual water budget. (By way of comparison, India receives 400 Mham (million hectare meters) of rain annually.) The Barak River, the largest of Manipur, originates in the Manipur Hills and is joined by a number of tributaries such as the Irang, Maku, and Tuivai. After its junction with the Tuivai, the Barak River turns north and forms the border with Assam State, and then enters the Cachar Assam just above Lakhipur. The Manipur river basin has eight major rivers: the Manipur, Imphal, Iril, Nambul, Sekmai, Chakpi, Thoubal and Khuga. All these rivers originate from the surrounding hills.

Almost all the rivers in the valley area are in the mature stage and therefore deposit their sediment load in the Loktak lake. The rivers draining the Manipur Hills are comparatively young, due to the hilly terrain through which they flow. These rivers are corrosive in nature and assume turbulent form in the rainy season. Important rivers draining the western area include the Maku, Barak, Jiri, Irang and Leimatak. Rivers draining the eastern part of the state, the Yu River Basin, include the Chamu, Khunou and other short streams.

Physiographically, Manipur may be characterised as two distinct physical regions – an outlying area of rugged hills and narrow valleys, and the inner area of flat plain, with all associated land forms. These two areas are not only distinct in respect of physical features but are also conspicuous with regard to various flora and fauna. The valley region would have been a monotonous, featureless plain but for a number of hills and mounds rising above the flat surface. The Loktak lake is an important feature of the central plain. The total area occupied by all the lakes is about 600 km². The altitude ranges from 40 m at Jiribam to 2,994 m at Mt. Iso Peak near Mao Songsong.

The soil cover can be divided into two broad types, viz. the red ferruginous soil in the hill area and the alluvium in the valley. The valley soils generally contain loam, small rock fragments, sand and sandy clay, and are quite varied. On the plains, especially flood plains and deltas, the soil is quite thick. The top soil on the steep slopes is very thin. Soil on the steep hill slopes is subject to high erosion, resulting in gullies and barren rock slopes. The normal pH value ranges from 5.4 to 6.8.


The 2012-2013 gross state domestic product of Manipur at market prices was about 10188 crore (US$1.6 billion). Its economy is primarily agriculture, forestry, cottage and trade driven.


Manipur Culture of Manipur

The Manipuri have a rich culture. Theatre has been part of the Laiharaoba festivals since time immemorial. Theatre in Manipur is divided into religious and secular, based on texts. The former is the adaptation of religious epics or some episodes from them, performed mainly in the sacred sphere such as temples. Within this, Gauralila (the story of the childhood days of Caitanya Mahaprabhu), Sanjenba (an episode from the play between Krishna and his cows and his Gopis), and Udukhol (an episode from Krishnas childhood days) can be incorporated. They are seasonal performances commanding spiritual devotions among the audience.

Manipur Culture of Manipur

Secular theatre is mostly confined to themes that are not religious; it is performed in the secular or profane spheres. Within these are Shumang lila and Phampak lila (stage drama). Shumang lila is very popular. Etymologically Shumang lila is the combination of "Shumang" (courtyard) and "Lila" (play or performance). It is performed in an area of 13/13 ft in the centre of any open space, in a very simple style without a raised stage, set design, or heavy props such as curtains, background scenery, visual effects, etc. It uses one table and two chairs, kept on one side of the performance space. Its claim as the "theatre of the masses" is underlined by the way it is performed in the middle of an audience that surrounds it, leaving one passage as both entrance and exit.

Shumang lila is performed by a touring band of 12–13 professional artists on invitation basis. These troupes may be exclusively female (Nupi Shumang Lila) or exclusively male (Nupa Shumang lila). In each case, one sex plays all parts. Historically Shumang lila was based in Phagee lila (farce), performed during the reign of Ningthourel Chandrakirti (1850–1886), though traces of it were already present in the episode of Tangkhul-Nurabi Loutaba of Laiharaoba festival. Then it was succeeded by such plays as Ramlila, Sabha parba, Kabul lila, etc. But the real Shumang lila with various rasas (sentiments) was ushered in with the epic play Harishchandra (1918). Then it was followed by others such as Meiraba charan, Thok lila, etc. One of the most successful of this era was Moirang parba, an epic play based on the legendary lovers Khamba and Thoibi of Moirang.

On the other hand, the world of Phampak lila (stage drama) performed in the proscenium theatre is similar, in form, to the Western theatrical model and Indian Natyasastra model though its contents are indigenous. The so-called modern theatre descended on Manipuri theatre culture with the performance of Pravas Milan (1902) under the enthusiastic patronage of Sir Churchand Maharaj (1891–1941). The pace of theatrical movement was geared up with the institution of various groups such as Manipur Dramatic Union (MDU) (1930), Arian Theatre (1935), Chitrangada Natya Mandir (1936), Society Theatre (1937), Rupmahal (1942), Cosmopolitan Dramatic Union (1968), and the Chorus Repertory Theatre of Ratan Thiyam (1976). These groups started experimenting with various types of plays apart from historical and pauranic ones. Today Manipuri theatre is well respected because of various excellent productions shown in various parts of the country and abroad. Manipuri plays, both Shumang lila and stage lila, have been a regular feature in the annual festival of the National School of Drama, New Delhi.

Iskcon led by Bhaktisvarupa Damodara Swami started a network of schools in Northeastern India where more than 4000 students receive education centred on Vaishnava spiritual values. In 1989 he founded "Ranganiketan Manipuri Cultural Arts Troupe" which has approximately 600 performances at over 300 venues in over 15 countries. Ranganiketan (literally "House of Colorful Arts") is a group of more than twenty dancers, musicians, singers, martial artists, choreographers and craft artisans. Some of them have received international acclaim.


Manipur Tourist places in Manipur

The culture features martial arts, dance, theatre and sculpture. Greenery accompanies a moderate climate. The seasonal Shirui Lily plant at Ukhrul (district), Dzukou valley at Senapati, Sangai (Brow antlered deer) and the floating islands at Loktak Lake are among the rarities of the area. Polo, which can be called a royal game, also originated in Manipur.


Manipur Festival of Manipur

The various festivals of Manipur are Lui-ngai-ni Ningol Chakouba, Yaoshang, Ramzan Id, Kut, Gan-ngai, Chumpha, Christmas, Cheiraoba, Kang and Heikru Hidongba. Most of these festivals are usually celebrated on the basis of lunar calendar. Almost every festival celebrated in other states of India is observed here and it makes Manipur a mini metropolis.

Pangal festivals

The Pangals (Manipuri Muslims) observed Id-ul-Fitr festival as in other Muslim world. During this month of Ramzan (Ramadan), Pangals practice denial by taking a fast, abstaining from eating and drinking, from pre-dawn till sunset and offer prayers for all. After the thirtieth day of Ramadan, when the new moon is visible they break fast which is also popularly known as Id-Ul-Fitr. They offer prayers at the mosques, have delicious dishes, exchange greetings and call on the friends and relatives. Children play with crackers, balloons, toy-guns with friends and go from one house to another house asking for money in the name of "Id ki Paisa" from the elders. Married women go to their maternal homes in the evening along with their families. Id-ul-Adha is the second most important festival of the Pangals in Manipur. Like Muslims elsewhere, Pangals offer animal sacrifices in the name of Allah and celebrate throughout the day in a festive mood and with family.

Cuisine of Manipur

Manipur Cuisine of Manipur, Popular Food of Manipur

Manipuri cuisines are simple,tasty,organic and healthy. Dishes are typically spicy foods that use chili pepper rather than garam masalas hence healthy, simple and organic foods. Most of the cuisines doesnt use oil as its ingredients.

Manipuri food getit food and dining

Chicken fry by tribals of manipur foods of india

The staple diet of Manipur consists of rice, fish, large varieties of leafy vegetables (of both aquatic and terrestrial) and fishes. Manipuris typically raise vegetables in a kitchen garden and rear fishes in small ponds around their house. Since the vegetables are either grown at home or obtained from local market, the cuisines are very seasonal, each season having its own special vegetables and preparations. The taste is very different from mainland Indian cuisines because of the use of various aromatic herbs and roots that are peculiar to the region and list of these aromatic herbs and roots are listed below.

Savouring manipuri cuisine

  1. Nungshi hidak (Mint)
  2. Maroi napaakpi (Hooker chives)
  3. Maroi naakuppi (Chinese chives)
  4. Awaa phadigom (Mexican coriander)
  5. Mayang-ton (Lemon Basil)
  6. Toning-khok (Chameleon plant)
  7. khanghuman
  8. Mukthrubi
  9. Phakpai (Vietnamese coriander)
  10. Chantruk (Wavy Bittercress)
  11. Yaipan
  12. Kang-hu mapaan
  13. Takhel-manao
  14. Lomakha-mapan
  15. Leipung-khankha


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