Mahārāja (Sanskrit: महाराज, also spelled maharajah) is a Sanskrit title for a "great ruler", "great king" or "high king". The female equivalent, Maharani (or Maharanee, Mahārājñī), denotes either the wife of a Maharaja (or Maharana etc.), and also in states where that was customary, a woman ruling in her own right. The widow of a Maharaja is known as a Rajmata "queen mother". Maharaj(a) Kumar generally denotes a son of a Maharaja, but more specific titulatures are often used at each court, including Yuvaraj(a) for the heir. The form Maharaj indicates a separation of noble and religious offices, although the fact that in Hindi the suffix -a is silent makes the two titles near homophones.
The word Maharaja originates in Sanskrit and is a compound karmadhāraya term from mahānt- "great" and rājan "ruler, king"). It has the Latin cognates magnum "great" and rex "king". Due to Sanskrit's major influence on the vocabulary of most languages in Greater India, the term Maharaja is common to many modern languages of India such as Kannada, Tamil, Hindi, Marathi, Rajasthani, Malvi, Telugu, Odia, Punjabi, Bengali and Gujarati. The Sanskrit title Maharaja was originally used only for rulers who ruled a considerably large region with minor tributary rulers under them. Since mediaeval times, the title was used even by (Hindu) monarchs of smaller states claiming to be the descendants of ancient Maharajas.
Maharaja as a ruler's title
On the eve of independence in 1947, India (including present day Pakistan & Bangladesh) contained more than 600 princely states, each with its own native ruler, often styled Raja or Rana or Thakur (if the ruler were Hindu) or Nawab (if he were Muslim), with a host of less current titles as well.
The British directly ruled two thirds of India; the rest was under indirect rule by the above-mentioned princes under the considerable influence of British representatives, such as Residents, at their courts.
The word Maharaja may be understood simply to mean "ruler" or "king", in spite of its literal translation as "great king". This was because only a handful of the states were truly powerful and wealthy enough for their rulers to be considered 'great' monarchs; the remaining were minor princely states, sometimes little more than towns or groups of villages. The word, however, can also mean emperor in contemporary Indian usage.
The title of Maharaja was not as common before the gradual British colonisation of India, upon and after which many Rajas and otherwise styled Hindu rulers were elevated to Maharajas, regardless of the fact that scores of these new Maharajas ruled small states, sometimes for some reason unrelated to the eminence of the state, for example support to the British in Afghanistan, World War I or World War II. Two Rajas who became Maharajas in the twentieth century were the Maharaja of Cochin and the legendary Maharaja Jagatjit Singh of Kapurthala.
Compound and dynastic ruler titles
In the Mughal Empire it was quite common to award to various princes (hereditary or not) a series of lofty titles as a matter of protocolary rank. The british would, as partamaount power, do the same. Many of these (see also above) elaborate explicitly on the title Maharaja, in the following descending order:
Maharaja itself could also be grahted as a personal; non-hereditary style, e.g. in 1941 to Sir Pratap Singh II, Raja of Ali Rajpur
Furthermore, there were various compound titles simply including other princely styles, such as :
Certain Hindu dynasties even came to use a unique style, including a term which as such is not of princely rank, e.g. Maharaja Gaikwar of Baroda, Maharaja Scindia of Gwalior, Maharaja Holkar of Indore, three of the very highest ranking ruling Maratha houses.
Nobiliary and honorary use
Like Raja and various other titles, Maharaja was repeatedly awarded to notables without a princely state, such as zamindars.
Derived style for princes of the blood
Maharaj Kumar (or Maharajkumar) means son of a Maharaja or Heir-Apparent; the female equivalent is Maharaj Kumari (Maharajkumari): daughter of a Maharaja.
The Gurkha Kings of Nepal (now a republic) used the title of Mahārājādhirāja which was Great Kings over Kings, a title of honour, a degree higher than Maharaja. Rana Prime ministers of Nepal used the title of Maharaja.
As many Indonesian states started out when the archipelago was still predominantly Hindu (Bali still is) or Buddhist, some have been ruled by a maharaja, such as Srivijaya, Majapahit and Kutai Karta Negara (until that kingdom converted to Islam in 1565, when the Muslim title of sultan was adopted). Traditional titles remain in use for the other members of this dynasty, such as Pangeran Ratu for the heir.
The Englishman Capt. James Brooke was declared as Raja Brooke by the Brunei Sultan. The word Raja derived from the word Maharaja. Raja Brooke, who was married to a Sarawak woman, pacified the Sarawak Revolt against the Brunei Sultan. Thus declared by the latter as Raja during the Raffles' stint.
In peninsular Malaysia :
In contemporary Malay usage, the title Maharaja refers to an emperor, e.g. "Maharaja Jepun" ("Japanese Emperor/Emperor of Japan").
In Seri Malayas of the Srivijaya, under the Srivijaya satellite empire of the Majapahit Empire dominated over the whole Malayas far reaching the present Philippine Archipelago, Malaysia, Brunei, Indonesia under the Srivijaya Empire of the Majapahit King Maharaja Pamariwasa. The latter's daughter Es-kander was married to an Arab (Zein Ul-abidin) who was a Srivijaya ruler in Seri who were a Srivijaya Monarchy. In the 12th century with the fall of the empire, the Seri King being a Muslim established the Sultanate of Brunei in 1363 with the throne name Sultan Mohamad Shah. In 1426, as his death was recorded in 1431 Mt. Makatangis Sulu grave and 1432 Brunei grave as Sulu and Brunei claims the honour of his grave, he also did established the Sultanate of Sulu while his brother Makdum Karim (Sharif Kabungsuwan of Malabang Lanao), a Srivijaya Johore ruler, later established the Sultanate of Maguindanao-Ranao (Mindanao) after taking the political authority of his father in-law Tomaoi Aliwya of the Maguiindanao family dynasty.
A progeny in 1704, Sayyid Nakhoda Perkasa Angging (Maharaja Anddin) grandson of the second Brunei Sultan Ahmad, the former married to Mahandon the sister of Muwalil Wasit (the 1825 Sulu Sultan Jamaulul Kiram-I), The latter who begoted the 1839 Sulu Sultan Pulalun. Being childless, Pulalun proclaimed his Crown Prince- Maharaja Adinda Taup (son of Sayyid Nakhoda Perkasa Angging). The title Maharaja Adinda at the beginning of the name to append Sultan. Maharaja Adinda Taup the 1859 Maharaja of the Sulu Sultanate and Prince Heir-apparent of Sultan Pulalun at the time.
Sulu Sultan Jamalul Kiram-I (Muwalil Wasit) was the 70 year later descendant of the 1752 three So called Sultans of Mindanao, namely Kiram Sinsuat, Kiram Misuari and Kiram Sorronga. The latters in 1752, whereby Mindanao was ceded in inheritance to them by their consanguinity-Kinship, the Noble King Luisung Tagean-Tallano.
And Maharaja Adinda Taup's son was the 1916 Sharif Imam Ul-Alam Arpa and Highest Spiritual Leader of the Sulu's, the latter whom American Gov. Frank W. Carpenter returned Sulu's sovereignty as a suzerainty. The Sharif Promulgating the Literacy Campaign, building of roads, schools, water system and Jambatans-Wharfs as supported by the said American Governor, the latter named the said Sharif's son as Carpenter Arpa-I placing five silver dollars on the child's chest symbolic of the five Sulu Sultanate territories. Sayyid Paduka Ahmad Carpenter Arpa-V is the Monarchical Chieftain of Maharlika Mindanao and Sulu, as by the facts and proprietary rights as by the 2007 agreement between the Philippine Government and the Prince Julian Morden Tallano, the progeny of King Luisung Tagean Tallano.
In the Philippines, more specifically in Sulu, Maharaja (also spelled "Maharajah") was a title given to various sub-divisional princes after the fall of the Srivijaya of the Majapahit Empire. Parts of the Philippines may have later been ruled by community leaders as Maharajah from once being under the Srivijaya and Majapahit empires.
In the establishment of the Sultanate of Sulu from approximately 1425 to 1450, the title of maharaja was even used by a Sulu sultan, such as the 1520–1548 Sulu Sultan Maharaja Upo (Sultan Shar ul-uddin Digmin, also known as Mu'izz Ul-mutawad'in).
Compound Malay titles
The word can also be part of titles used by Malay nobility:
In the Sulu Sultanate in the Philippines, the Raja Muda (Crown Prince) is the heir to the throne, the Maharaja Adinda is the second heir apparent and the Maharaja Lailah acts as chief of the palace. Eventually, Maharajah Adinda was also used to refer to a particular lineage within the royal families.
Maharaja was also part of the titles of the nobility in the Sumatran sultanate of Aceh. In the past the title of Maharaja is given to leader of the unreigning noble family and the Prime Minister Maharaja Mangkubumi. The last Prime Minister of Aceh who was installed to be the Maharaja Mangkubumi, Habib Abdurrahman el Zahir, also acted as the foreign affairs minister of Aceh but was deposed and exiled to Jeddah by the colonial Dutch East Indies authorities in October 1878. The name Maharaja may also append one as a successor Sultan.