University University of Limoges
|Population 140,138 (2008)|
Mayor Emile-roger Lombertie
Map of Limoges
Limoges (; [limɔʒ]; Occitan: Lemòtges or Limòtges [liˈmɔdʒes]) is a city and commune, the capital of the Haute-Vienne department and was the administrative capital of the former Limousin region in west-central France.
- Map of Limoges
- Limoges mon royaume mon terrain de jeu
- Cuisiner le filet mignon
- Ancient and medieval history
- Modern history
- Main sights
- Art and literature
- Notable people
- Twin towns
- Views around limoges haute vienne limousin france october 2015
Limoges is known for its medieval and Renaissance enamels (Limoges enamels) on copper, for its 19th-century porcelain (Limoges porcelain) and for its oak barrels which are used for Cognac and Bordeaux production. Some are even exported to wineries in California.
Limoges mon royaume mon terrain de jeu
Cuisiner le filet mignon
Ancient and medieval history
Scarce remains of pre-urban settlements have been found in the area of Limoges. The capital of the Gaulish people of the Lemovices, who lived in the area, was probably either near Villejoubert, some kilometres south-east of Saint-Léonard-de-Noblat, or St Gence, just west of Limoges.
The city proper was founded as Augustoritum by the Romans, around 10 BC: "rito-" is Gaulish for "ford". The foundation was part of the reorganization of the province by the emperor Augustus, hence the new name. The Roman city included an amphitheatre measuring 136 x 115 metres, a theatre, a forum, baths and several sanctuaries. According to tradition, a temple consecrated to Venus, Diana, Minerva and Jupiter was located near the modern cathedral. The city was on the typical Roman square plan, with two main streets crossing in the centre. It had a Senate and a currency of its own, a sign of its importance in the imperial age. Later, like many towns and cities in Gaul, it was renamed after the tribe (here the Lemovices) whose chief town it was; "Lemovices" subsequently evolved into "Limoges", and "Lemovicinus" for the area around changed into "Limousin".
Limoges was evangelized by Saint Martial, who came to the city around 250 with two companions, Alpinianus and Austriclinienus. However, in the late 3rd century it was increasingly abandoned, due to unsafe conditions created by the invasions of various Germanic tribes. The population was concentrated instead in a more easily fortifiable site, the modern Puy Saint-Étienne, which is the centre of the modern Limoges. Starting from the construction of the Abbey of St. Martial (9th century), another settlement grew around the tomb of the saint, while a third area, next to the residence of the viscount (the future Castle of Saint Martial), seems to have been populated from the 10th century.
Starting from the 11th century, thanks to the presence of the Abbey of St. Martial and its large library, Limoges became a flourishing artistic centre. It was home to an important school of medieval music composition, which is usually called the St. Martial School; its most famous member was the 13th-century troubadour Bertran de Born.
In the 13th century, at the peak of its splendour, central Limoges consisted of two fortified settlements.
In 1370, Limoges was occupied by Edward, the Black Prince, who massacred some 300 residents, "perhaps a sixth of the normal population", with another 60 members of the garrison of 140 dead as well.
The city and castle were united in 1792 to form the single city of Limoges. During the French Revolution several religious edifices, considered symbols of the Ancien Régime, were destroyed by the population: these included the Abbey of St. Martial itself.
Some years later the porcelain industry started to develop, favoured by the presence of kaolinite which was discovered near Limoges in 1768 (near St Yrieix, south-west of Limoges). Many of the inhabitants became employed in the new sector or in connected activities (including the lumbering of wood needed for firing the porcelain) in manufacture and exporting needed for European distribution of Limoges Boxes, dinnerware, and other porcelain wares. Because the Limousin region has had a long history of breeding (Baronet sheep and Limousine cows), the leather industry also settled in and around Limoges along the banks of the Vienne–the river providing the necessary water and power. Factories in Limoges and St Junien still produce luxury leather shoes, gloves, and bags.
In the 19th century Limoges saw strong construction activity, which included the destruction and rebuilding of much of the city centre. The unsafe conditions of the poorer population is highlighted by the outbreak of several riots, including that of July–November 1830; April 1848. In early 1905 strikes began in another local industry, shoe factories soon followed in the porcelain factories. Barricades were built, the army intervened. There would be two casualties: a horse and a young porcelain worker, Camille Vardelle. The first French confederation of workers, Confédération Générale du Travail (CGT) (General Confederation of Labour), was created in Limoges in 1895.
During the World War II, many Jews from Alsace were evacuated to and around Limoges.
The city is one of France's basketball capitals. The Palais des Sports de Beaublanc, has been host for international basketball events such as the EuroBasket 1983 and serves as home court for the professional team CSP Limoges (Cercle St Pierre). Since 1983, the club has been French champion 11 times (1983, 1984, 1985, 1988, 1989, 1990, 1993, 1994, 2000, 2014, 2015) and 6 European titles (1982, 1983, 2000 (Korac Cup), 1988 (FIBA Saporta Cup), 1993 (Euroleague)). It was the first French club team to become European champion in a collective sport. The team currently plays in Pro A, the French first basketball professional league.
The Sports Palace of Beaublanc (Bòsc Blanc in Occitan) is located in the sports park of the city of Limoges. It was realized during the year 1981 thanks to Albert Chaminade (1912–2009), who long demanded an honorable basketball field of the sports facilities worthy to the Mayors Georges Guingouin then Léon Betoulle it was not until 1981, distant cousin of the Blessed Guillaume-Joseph Chaminade, (1761–1850), French religious priest, founder of the Society of Mary (Marianists). He was beatified on 3 September 2000 by St John Paul II. He was a CSP player during the 1920s, a basketball officer, an International and National Referee, a Police Inspector, then a municipal councilor, to cover the Palais des sports, which gives the hall a wave style and has a mandate for basketball French and later of the region his project asked the Mayor Louis Longequeue who accepted and validated for the cover, the Architects were Rauby & Marty. At the death of Albert Chaminade, in 2009, this one rests under the stele in memory of the French sportsmen of the Haute-Vienne this was accepted by the Mayor of (1990–2014) Alain Rodet before entrance of the Sports Palace. The Beaublanc Sports Center is equipped with a basketball hall, an athletics stadium, an Olympic swimming pool, tennis courts and various football fields.
Limoges FC, founded in 1947, is a French association football team based in Limoges, France, which is currently playing in the fifth tier of the French football league system. Notable players: French international players:
Limoges Hand 87 is a French handball team based in Limoges, France, which is currently playing in the Division 2 of Ligue Nationale de Handball.
Limoges experiences an oceanic climate (Köppen climate classification Cfb) common to much of Western France. Most precipitation occurs between October and February. On 27 December 1999, winds reached 148 km/h. On average, the city undergoes 41 days of frost and seven days of snow each winter. In June, July and August, precipitation tends to come only from violent thunderstorms coming from the Bay of Biscay.
Population city: 139,502 (limougeauds), urban area: 281,570. At the 1999 census, the population was 133,968.
Art and literature
"Le marché de Limoges" (Limoges market) is the name of a section of Pictures at an Exhibition by Modest Mussorgsky.
In 1768, kaolin, a rock rich in fine, white clay which is used for making porcelain, was discovered at Saint-Yrieix-la-Perche, 30 km south of Limoges. Under the impetus of the progressive economist Anne Robert Jacques Turgot, Baron de Laune, who had been appointed intendant of this impoverished and isolated region, a new ceramics industry was developed, and Limoges porcelain became famous during the 19th century. However, Limoges porcelain is a generic term for porcelain produced in Limoges rather than at a specific factory (there are still several porcelain factories in and around Limoges). More than 50% of all porcelain made in France comes from Limoges
Limoges is mentioned in T.S. Eliot's poem Gerontion (London 1919), lines 23 to 25:
"... Mr. Silvero/ With caressing hands, at Limoges/ Who walked all night in the next room."
Eliot's compatriot and mentor Ezra Pound visited Limoges in 1912 when researching the landscape and the work of the 12th-century troubadours. As he states in his essay Troubadours: Theirs Sorts and Conditions: "... a man may walk the hill roads and river roads from Limoges and Charente to Dordogne and Narbonne and learn a little, or more than a little, of what the country meant to the wandering singers ..."
There is also a reference to Limoges in Jean-Paul Sartre's novel Nausea, near the middle of the book in the Shrove Tuesday section, when the magistrate says: "I had a similar case at the beginning of my career. It was in 1902. I was deputy magistrate at Limoges ..."
While Limoges is absent from the work of Auguste Renoir, although a native of the city, she remains an important source of inspiration for local artists, such as Paul-Laurent Courtot, Auguste Aridas, who paints the workers' world of the second half Of the nineteenth century then Francis Chigot glass and stained glass painter, Jean-Louis Paguenaud, Élie Lascaux or Jean-Joseph Sanfourche.
The main railway station of Limoges is the Gare de Limoges-Bénédictins. It offers direct connections with Paris, and Toulouse, and several regional destinations. The motorway A20 connects Limoges with Chateauroux, Vierzon, Orléans and Paris to the north, and Brive-la-Gaillarde, Cahors, Montauban and Toulouse to the south. The nearest airport is Limoges – Bellegarde Airport.
Urban transport in Limoges and its metropolitan area is operated by Société de transports en commun de Limoges Métropole (STCL). The Limoges urban bus network includes the Limoges trolleybus system, one of only four such systems currently operating in France.
Limoges was the birthplace of