Limousin ([limuzɛ̃]; Occitan: Lemosin) is a former administrative region of France. On 1 January 2016, it became part of the new region of Nouvelle-Aquitaine. It comprised three departments: Corrèze, Creuse, and Haute-Vienne.
Situated mostly in the Massif Central, as of January 1, 2010, Limousin had 742,770 inhabitants on nearly 17,000 km², making it the least populated region of metropolitan France.
Forming part of the southwest of France, Limousin is bordered by the regions of Centre-Val de Loire to the north, Poitou-Charentes and Aquitaine to the west, Midi-Pyrénées to the south and Auvergne to the east. Limousin is also part of Occitania.
The modern region of Limousin is essentially composed of two historical French provinces:Limousin: the department of Corrèze in its entirety and the central and southeastern part of Haute-Vienne. The entire old province of Limousin is contained within the modern Limousin.
Marche: most of the department of Creuse and the north of Haute-Vienne. The old province of Marche is almost entirely contained within the modern region of Limousin, with only a small part of Marche now belonging to the region of Centre.
Beside these two main provinces, Limousin is also composed of small parts of other former provinces:Angoumois: extreme south-west of Haute-Vienne
Poitou: extreme west of Haute-Vienne
Auvergne: extreme east of Creuse
Berry: extreme north of Creuse
Today the province of Limousin is the most populous part of the Limousin region. Limoges, the historical capital and largest city of the province of Limousin, is the capital of the Limousin administrative region.
With a slowly rising population of just under 750,000, Limousin is the second-least populous region in Metropolitan France after Corsica.
The population of Limousin is aging and, until 1999, was declining. The department of Creuse has the oldest population of any in France. Between 1999 and 2004 the population of Limousin increased slightly, reversing a decline for the first time in decades.Brive-la-Gaillarde
Limousin is an essentially rural region. Famed for some of the best beef farming in the world, herds of Limousin cattle—a distinctive chestnut red—are a common sight in the region. The region is also a major timber producing area.
Due to its rural locality, it is also famed for its groves of French Oak, so prized for its distinct characters and flavors in wine fermentation that vintner Rémy Martin has exclusive rights to its oak groves. It is a partnership that is over 100 years old.
The regional capital, Limoges, was once an industrial power base, world-renowned for its porcelain and still a leader and innovator in electric equipment factories (which originally used porcelain as an insulator). However, large factories are now few in number.
Some of the rivers belonging to the Loire basin run through the north, west and east of the region, waterways belonging to that of the Dordogne through the south. The region is crossed by three major rivers: the Vienne, the Dordogne and the Charente (which has its source in Haute-Vienne). The region is well known for the high quality of its water and for offering first-rate fishing.
The Limousin region is almost entirely an upland area. The lowest land is in the northwest of the region (approximately 250 m above sea level) and the highest land is roughly in the southeast (approximately 1000 m above sea level). However, the greater part of the region is above 350 m.
Limousin is one of the traditional provinces of France. Its name is derived from the name of a Celtic tribe, the Lemovices which capital was in Saint-Denis-des-Murs and which main sanctuary was recently found in Tintignac, a site which became a major site for the Celtics studies thanks to unique objects which were found such as the carnyces, unique in the whole Celtic world.
Aimar V of Limoges was a notable ruler of the region.
Until the 1970s, Occitan was the primary language of rural areas. There remain several different Occitan dialects in use in Limousin, although their use is rapidly declining. These are:Limousin (Occitan: Lemosin) dialect
Auvergnat (Occitan: Auvernhat) dialect in the East/North-East
Languedocien (Occitan: Lengadocian) in the Southern fringe of Corrèze
in the North, the Crescent transition area between Occitan and French is sometimes considered as a separate (basically Occitan) dialect called Marchois (Occitan: Marchés).
Pâté aux pommes de terre is one of the specialties of Limousin, as well as of the neighbouring department of Allier. Clafoutis is a local dessert.
Perhaps due to its rural character, Limousin has maintained a strong tradition of traditional music, with ancient instruments such as the bagpipe (called chabrette, Chabreta in occitan) and hurdy-gurdy remaining popular.Festival 1001 Notes, music festival in Haute-Vienne, August
Festival de La Vezere, music festival in Corrèze July–August
Festival du Haut Limousin, music festival in Haute-Vienne, July–August
La Borie en Limousin, foundation of music in Haute-Vienne