One of the earliest tea urban centres of Assam that has been the headquarters of the oldest subdivision for over 179–180 years since 1839, Golaghat was raised to the level of a District in the year 1987. The local government body, Golaghat Municipal Board (GMB), was established in 1920, and is one of the earliest civic bodies of the state of Assam formed before Indian Independence of 1947 that has been responsible for the civic infrastructure and administration of the city of Golaghat. It is a historical body in terms of its age that has been in operation since 1920.
Golaghat has the earliest post/mail service and telegraphic communication systems in Assam dating back to 1876. It has the oldest social – literature/rhetorical congresses of Assam – the Golaghat Sahitya Sabha, of Asam Sahitya Sabha, started in 1918. The Golaghat Amateur Theatre Society (GATS), is one of the oldest theatre societies that was established in 1895 to uplift the dramatic and cultural activities in the state of Assam, particularly in Golaghat. The Golaghat Bar Association (GBA), established in 1891, is one of the oldest legal societies of Assam, especially in the Upper – Assam division.
Golaghat has a number of heritage buildings and sites – the Golaghat British Cemetery, established in 1876, the Bezbaruah Higher Secondary School, set up in the late 19th century in the year 1886 by the educationalist Dinanath Bezbarua, the Baptist Church founder by American missionaries in 1898, the Mission School setup by British missionaries in 1919, Assam's first department store – Doss & Co. incorporated under the Registrar of Companies (RoC) – Shillong in the year 1955 to name a few.
It is the only place in Assam to have Sports Authority of India – Sports Training Centre (STC) after Guwahati. The place is also the headquarters of The North Eastern Tea Association (NETA), one of the tea growers' groups in the state of Assam, a constituent member of Consultative Committee of Plantation Associations (CCPA), Assam Valley branch.
Golaghat has played a significant role in the tea industry of Assam and there is a saying that one can’t make bad tea in the Golaghat belt. The small tea growers’ movement was also started from Golaghat. As per the latest statistics, Golaghat has the third highest number of small tea growers (STGs) and third highest number of bought leaf factories (BLFs) in Assam.
Golaghat has been divided into following divisions:Golaghat Central
The name Golaghat ('Gola' which means shop and 'Ghat' meaning the landing point of river ferry or enclosure for boats) originated from the shops established by the 'Marwari' businessmen during the mid-20th century at the bank of river Dhansiri near present Golaghat.
Stone inscription of Nagajari Khanikar gaon of Sarupathar, dating back to the 5th century, reveals that there was an independent kingdom in Doyang – Dhansiri valley and relics of ramparts, brick structures, temples, tanks etc. discovered in these area confirms the presence of a kingdom during 9th and 10th century.
The Doyang – Dhansiri valley came under the rule of Ahom's during the 16th century. Prior to that, this part was ruled by the Kacharis known as Herombial. During Ahom rule this area was under 'Morongi – Khowa Gohain', an administrative officer.
During the declining days of Ahoms, when their independent sovereignty had come to an end, Purandar Singha was entrusted in 1833 with the administration of Upper – Assam by the East India Company who had already won mastery over Assam. However this artificial ornamentation by scion of Ahom Royal House was short lived and in the year 1838 AD the whole area was resumed by the authorities of the East India Company and annexed to the British territory with the appointment of Col Aham White as the political agent on 16 September during the same year. By a proclamation in 1839 the British took possession of Assam, and the area was divided into two districts of Lakhimpur and Sivasagar, where Doyang – Dhansiri valley was included under the newly formed Golaghat subdivision of Sibsagar (now Sivasagar) district in 1839. Golaghat became the largest subdivision of Assam and comprised Dergaon and Golaghat circles. Golaghat circle was the largest among them and with only 150.10 sq. mi of area Dergaon was the smallest. During this time, Purandar Singha continued to rule with Jorhat as the capital of his territory, Upper Assam, but with formation of two other subdivisions, one at Jaipur and the other at Golaghat. On 18 December 1846 Jorhat was declared as a subdivision comprising certain portions of Golaghat subdivision. In 1751 certain portions of Barpathar, Sarupathar Barangi mauzas of Golaghat circle and Duarbagari of Bokakhat circle transferred to the united Mikir and N.C. Hills district. Golaghat was later elevated to the position of a full–fledged district of Assam comprising an area of 3,502 km2 (or 1, 352.13 sq. mi) on 15 August 1987.
Golaghat boasts of having one of the earliest post/mail service and telegraphic communication systems. The earliest head post offices of the Assam Circle of British Assam were located in Golaghat besides Debrughur, Gouhati, Jorhat, Nowgaon, Sibsagar, Shillong and Tezpore (spellings as appear in the book – Glimpse of Assam). Much later after telegraph lines had been stretched between Calcutta and Guwahati in 1869; Golaghat got its speaking wires' system in and around 1876. The telegraphic lines (speaking wires) were stretched to connect Golaghat with Kohima (in Nagaland), Shillong with Guwahati, Sibsagar with Nazira and Dibrugarh with Makum.
In British Assam, Golaghat derived its importance chiefly because of having advanced communication systems during that time and on account of its connection by road with Kohima.
Golaghat also has one of the oldest railway lines in Assam. Text noted from the book Glimpse of Assam written by Mrs. SR Ward in 1884 states that, Mr. Bryers who was then the Chief of Cachar and Assam Railway Survey succeeded in finding a railway route that would be carried up the Dhansiri valley to Golaghat... thus giving Assam direct railway communication with Chittagong and Calcutta.
Golaghat is known for its notable contribution in India's Freedom Struggle, Arts, Literature and Culture and Sports.Kushal Konwar, Kamala Miri, Dwariki Das, Biju Vaishnav, Sankar Chandra Barua, Shri Tara P. Barooah, Maheshwar Barooah, Rajendra Nath Barua, Gaurilal Jain, Ganga Ram Bormedhi and Dwarikanath Goswami are eminent freedom fighters of the town.
The Golaghat Sahitya Sabha is one of the oldest congresses of Asam Sahitya Sabha, started in 1918.
The most prominent writer of the 19th century who hailed from Golaghat was Hem Chandra Barua, the writer of first Assamese dictionary Hemkosh.
Ghanashyam Barua of Golaghat, who was also famous in the field of politics as the first Central Minister of Assam, translated William Shakespeare's The Comedy of Errors into the Assamese language along with three of his partners.
Golaghat has played an important role in the field of sports in Assam. The tea centre has produced several National and International players of repute in athletics, table tennis, tennis, boxing and football. Sports Authority of India has a training centre at SAI sports' complex in Golaghat.
Golaghat Tennis Club (GTC) is one of the oldest in Assam. Presently, besides two clay courts, there are also 2 lawn courts at Kushal Konwar Memorial Trust complex. The old club is now equipped with modern infrastructure facilities that includes the facility of floodlight system and qualified coach. The club has been organising North East Tennis Championship and other AITA tournaments regularly since 1987.
The Lawn court at Kushal Konwar Memorial Trust Complex located near Mission Circle in Golaghat is the only grass court of Assam.
Numaligarh Refinery, located at Morangi area, Numaligarh is one of the employment and revenue generating sectors of Golaghat.
The administration of Golaghat is formed of two tiers: a city–wide and a local tier. City–wide administration is coordinated by the Golaghat Development Authority, while the local administration is carried out by the Golaghat Municipal Board. The development authority functions under Directorate of Town and Country Planning – Urban Development Department, Government of Assam, and is responsible for the implementation of infrastructure projects, besides preparation of master plan for Golaghat urban area to ensure distributed growth. The authority works closely with the municipal board.
The municipal board covers the geographical area of 7.32 square kilometres (2.83 sq mi) within Golaghat, and has the administration over 9,646 houses to which it supplies basic amenities like water and sewerage, besides performing certain obligatory services as a part of local administration.
Golaghat is located at 26.52°N 93.97°E / 26.52; 93.97. It has an average elevation of 95 metres (311 feet).
The Golaghat telephone area code (03774) covers a larger area, the entire Golaghat district, while the postal index number 785 621 and 785 702 are for the Golaghat H.O. (Head Post Office) and the sub – office delivery in Bengenakhowa, besides branch office in Missionpatty.
Golaghat presently comprises the areas within the jurisdiction of Golaghat Municipal Board however, the proposed planning covers an extended area of Golaghat Grant and Bengenakhowa Grant, besides the Amolapatty region.
Golaghat encompasses a total area of 7.32 square kilometres (2.83 sq mi), an area which has a population of ~ 60,000 and a population density of ~ 8303.55 inhabitants per square kilometres (3,206.02 sq mi). Dhansiri River, one of the important tributaries of Brahmaputra River, is the primary geographical feature of Golaghat which is a navigable river and the main factor for the growth human settlements in the region. The Dhansiri is a tidal river, and Golaghat and surrounding areas are vulnerable to flooding.
The summer season is warm and usually humid starting from the end of March, and continuing until October. Golaghat falls under the temperate region with Monsoon–type climate prevailing through the year. The summer days have a wide range of temperature with the average scale ranging from 29 to 36 degree celsius, with the highest temperature of 38 degree celsius in the month of June. South–west monsoons that lasts from June to September are responsible for ~ 65% of the average rainfall in the entire year, where the wettest months are usually June and July, accounting for a total average of 1300 mm of rainfall.
Winter commences from the month of November with less rainfall and misty mornings and afternoons. By December, the temperature usually drops to 10 degree celsius.
When compared with winter, the summers have much more rainfall. The climate here is classified as Cwa by the Köppen–Geiger system. The temperature here averages 24.0 °C. The average annual rainfall is 1960 mm.
Although located in the one of the environmentally clean regions of India, the recent studies of air pollution levels in Golaghat have suggest poor air quality in the region with harmful air particulate matter levels higher than the standards.
Being one of the oldest municipal regions of Assam, Golaghat has many pre-independence style of bungalows in Assam–type architecture, the design style that has houses with high ceilings and light tin roof, and wooden or concrete flooring. However, with time, such characteristic designs are replaced with RCC houses and buildings.
As of 2001 India census, Golaghat had a population of 33,021. Males constitute 53% of the population and females 47%. Golaghat has an average literacy rate of 82%, higher than the national average of 59.5%. Male literacy is 84%, and Female literacy is 79%. In Golaghat, 11% of the population is under 6 years of age.Air
Rowriah Airport is the nearest airport from Golaghat.Rail
The Golaghat railway station is located at Bet Mahal, and the main railhead is Furkating junction on Lumding–Dibrugarh section of Northeast Frontier Railway, about 10 kilometers from Golaghat municipal area. There are daily and weekly trains running through the Furkating junction to all important cities of the country.Road
Golaghat is well connected by roadways to all the cities and towns of Assam. The National Highway 39 (NH 39) starts from Numaligarh, passes near Golaghat town which is linked by GD Road and GF Road.
Golaghat is known for many literary intellects who have made outstanding contributions to Assamese literature. The place has good old institutions which have been credited with students' high academic performance and record scores in the past when being compared to other institution equivalents of similar repute in Assam.
Primary and secondary education in Golaghat are offered by various schools affiliated to one of the boards of education, such as the HSLC of SEBA, AISSE of CBSE and ICSE of CISE. Schools in Golaghat are either government run or are private (both aided and un-aided by the government). After completing their high or secondary education, students either attend Higher Secondary School Leaving Certificate (HSSLC) through Degree/Junior College affiliated to AHSEC or All India Senior Secondary School Examination (AISSSE) affiliated to CBSE or Indian School Certificate (ISC) affiliated to CISCE in one of the three streams – Arts / Humanities, Commerce or Science with combinational electives.
Following are a few of the institutes:Bachpan Play School
Golaghat Sishu Bhavan school, a daycare for infants, babies and young school going children (post-school hours).
Schools – Level: Primary & High Schools and Higher or Senior Secondary
PrimaryGolaghat Sishu Bhavan
No. 1 Town Model School
No. 2 Town Model School
No. 3 Town Chandmari School
High School and Higher or Senior SecondaryBezbaruah Higher Secondary School (SEBA – HSLC, AHSEC – HSSLC)
Bengali School (SEBA – HSLC)
Christian High School, Golaghat (SEBA – HSLC)
Dandadhar Barooah Girls High School (SEBA – HSLC)
Fallagani High School (SEBA – HSLC)
Golaghat Jatiya Vidyalaya (SEBA – HSLC)
Hindi School (SEBA – HSLC)
Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalaya, Golaghat – JNV Golaghat (CBSE – AISSE/AISSSE)
Kendriya Vidyalaya – KV Golaghat (CBSE – AISSE)
Morangi Dina Nath High School
Montessori School, Golaghat – KKBB: Kushal Konwar Balya Bhawan (SEBA – HSLC)
Phanidhar Bordoloi High School (Town High School) "(SEBA – HSLC)"
Pulibor Vidyapith, (SEBA – HSLC, AHSEC – HSSLC)
Rodhola high school (SEBA – HSLC)
Sacred Heart High School – Golaghat (SEBA – HSLC)
Saint Mary's High School, Doigrung (SEBA – HSLC)
Shankardev Shisu/vidya Niketan
Sri Sathya Sai Vidya Vihar (CBSE – AISSE)
Town Girls High School, Golaghat (SEBA – HSLC)
Vivekananda Kendra Vidyalaya Golaghat – VKV Golaghat (CBSE – AISSE/AISSSE)
Delhi Public School Numaligarh Golaghat (CBSE – AISSE/AISSSE)
Colleges – Level: Undergraduate & Postgraduate Degree and HSSLC (Jr.)Biseswar Phukan Junior College
College of Teacher Education (B.ed College) – CTE Golaghat
Debraj Roy College – DR
Don Bosco College, Golalghat - DBC Golaghat
Golaghat Commerce College – Golaghat Commerce
Golaghat Jatiya Mahavidyalaya
Golaghat Law College
H.P.B. Girls College
Indian Technical Institute, Golaghat
Maheshwar Barooah Sangeet Mahavidyalaya: Music college
Reliance Junior College
Residential Girls' Polytechnic – RGP Golaghat
Rupaban Mahavidyalaya: College of music and dance
Ajanta Kala Manadal: School of dance
KVK: Krishi Vigyan Kendra (ICAR – AAU)
Mayur Kala Kendra
NEiiT: North East Institute of Information Technology
Golaghat Gymkhana is a public/private members' club located on Station Road in Golaghat. The members mostly consist the citizens of Golaghat. The new Golaghat Gymkhana is a heritage bungalow that was built in 1910 and is a clubhouse which is over a 100 years old and had been renovated to convert into a modern clubhouse.
Golaghat had its own Gymkhana Club much like Jorhat that was destroyed during the Quit India Movement. It was then the centre of entertainment and merry-making for the Military personnel.
The present–day club, open to all, is equipped with a lounge bar along with a billiard table, a gymnasium and a swimming pool, besides a restaurant. Although anyone may apply for the membership to avail 'members-only' facilities, such as the gymnasium, applications may be reviewed to make an informed decision.
Golaghat Natural History Museum (Uncle Robin's Museum) is located on Mission Road, Golaghat and was the former place of residence of late Dr Robin Banerjee, a naturalist of International repute. The museum is full of dolls, artifacts, mementos, movies and other personal collections of Dr Banerjee's lifetime. There are 587 dolls and 262 other show pieces. They have mostly been presented by admirers and children during his many trips to abroad and within the country as well.
Golaghat Baptist Church is one of the oldest and biggest Baptist Churches in Assam that was established in December 1898, and had celebrated its Centenary Jubilee in 1999. The pioneering man behind the foundation of this church was Dr. O. L. Swanson, a missionary from America, who had come to Assam in 1893 along with his wife. Dr. Swanson was assisted by a number of local people to erect this church.
Golaghat British Cemetery, established in 1876, is located on the premises opposite to Cally Coomer Doss & Co., adjacent to the circle office of Assam Power Distribution Company Limited at Golaghat. It is Assam's one of the oldest burial grounds dating back to India's pre-independence era, containing 28 burials of British officers of tea estates and their families, and is open for public viewing.
Incorporated 62–63 years ago as Cally Coomar Doss Co. Pvt. Ltd. under the Registrar of Companies (RoC) – Shillong in the year 1955, located at Krishna Building, Golaghat, Assam, the Golaghat Doss & Co. is the oldest Department Store, and the largest during that time, that was established soon after India's independence from Britian.
The general merchants' store belonging to entity of company with limited shareholders and an authorised capital of ₹500,000 and paid–up capital of ₹210,000, still stands to this day, trading in the same building at the heart of the city centre, having many divisions comprising home appliances, electronics, and additionally select other lines of products such as paint, hardware, toiletries, cosmetics, photographic equipment, jewellery, toys, and sporting goods, among others.
Having built long ago, and reckoned as the earliest department store in the organised retail space, and with a legacy of sixty plus years in the state of Assam, the store is one of the recommended places for tourists in Golaghat, and has an official Assam Travel Guide entry, issued and published by Assam Tourism under the Joint Secretary Finance of Tourism Departments, Assam Secretariat.
Two years later, a second branch of this store was opened in Jorhat in the year 1957. The company was incorporated on 1 March 1957 under the name of Jorhat Doss Co. Pvt. Ltd. marked by Registrar of Companies (RoC) – Shillong .
The two stores with an age difference of two years, and with the assigned registration numbers of 1063 and 1086 respectively, laid the first foundations of department stores in the region, establishing Doss & Co. – Golaghat as the thousand sixty–third and Doss & Co. – Jorhat, the thousand eighty–sixth, limited companies in Assam to be listed under the category of Trading as the principal business activity based on the classification of registered companies by the Ministry of Corporate Affairs, Government of India.
A historical spot that has one of the finest sculptures of the medieval Ahom period, relating to Kingdom of Jarasanda. An important archaeological site in the state, located on the hills amidst the tropical forests, has the ruins of an ancient temple.
Golaghat Amateur Theatre Society (GATS), established in 1895, is an oldest theatre society in Assam having its Town hall at Golaghat central. Most of the seminars, conferences, theatres, including experimental theatres, meetings and other workshops are organised and conducted by GATS.
Garampani Wildlife Sanctuary is a 6.05-square-kilometre (2.34 sq mi) wildlife sanctuary which is 25 km (16 mi) away from Golaghat. It is one of the oldest sanctuaries containing Hot water spring and Waterfalls and surrounded is by Nambor Sanctuary having 51 rare species of orchid. Best season to visit: November to April.
Kazirônga National Park is a World Heritage Site that hosts two-thirds of the world's great one-horned rhinoceroses. Kaziranga boasts the highest density of tigers among protected areas in the world and was declared a tiger reserve in 2006. The park is home to large breeding populations of elephants, wild water buffalo, and swamp deer. Kaziranga is recognized as an Important Bird Area by BirdLife International for conservation of avifaunal species. Compared to other protected areas in India, Kaziranga has achieved notable success in wildlife conservation. Located on the edge of the Eastern Himalaya biodiversity hotspot, the park combines high species diversity and visibility. It is a vast expanse of tall elephant grass, marshland, and dense tropical moist broadleaf forests, crisscrossed by four major rivers, including the Brahmaputra, and the park includes numerous small bodies of water. Kaziranga has been the theme of several books, songs, and documentaries. The park celebrated its centennial in 2005 after its establishment in 1905 as a reserve forest.
Nambor – Doigrung Wildlife Sanctuary, spreading across 97 square kilometres (37 sq mi) in 3 blocks, is located in Morangi, Golaghat and is famous as a spot for Hot water spring and wildlife viewpoint to spot Rhino and other animals.
A walk down the Dhansiri bridge towards the river offers a very beautiful sight. It is a popular picnic spot for the citizens of Golaghat and others alike.
It is a public boating park within the city with slow boating facility for the locals and the tourists.
It is a reserved area of Jamuna boating park that is used for the preservation of abundant flora and fauna plantations. It is not open for public boating and has a recorded history of rich and exotic species of biological plant and animal species.
The late is about 30 minutes drive from Golaghat central, located near the central jail of Golaghat. The Japixojia lake is a very lovely spot, with lush tea gardens lining the borders of the vast expanses of water. The lake is visited by many migratory birds as well as home to various all season birds.Golaghat Tennis Club: Being one of the oldest clubs in Assam, the GTC has 2 clay courts in Golaghat Tennis Complex (GTC) besides two lawn courts at Kushal Kunwar Memorial Trust complex on Mission Road. The club is equipped with modern infrastructure facilities also has Floodlight stipulation – the facility that provides broad-beamed, high-intensity artificial lights for outdoor playing in low-light conditions, and qualified coaches. The club has been organising North East Tennis Championship and other AITA tournaments regularly since 1987.
Indoor Stadium: The premises confined near to Mission Circle, the Table Tennis and Badminton Indoor Stadium is equipped with four table tennis boards and two badminton courts. It is a professional sports centre for the sports enthusiast.
Boxing Club: Golaghat boxing club is one of the pioneering boxing clubs of Assam. The club in the Amolapatty – Old is a centre for boxing events.
The Swimming Club: Located next to the indoor stadium near to Mission Circle the swimming pool managed by Golaghat District's Sport Office, the club has training facility for all age groups conducted by trained and experienced coaches.
Golaghat Rhino Football Club: Golaghat Rhino F.C. is a professional football club based in Golaghat, Assam, that competes in the Assam State Premier League, the top division state football. The club was founded in 2014.
Golaghat Stadium (Golaghat District Sports Association – GDSA): A fully built stadium with galleries and sitting capacity of 4000 people. Good Cricket pitch which is however also used to host football matches.The stadium complex houses two volleyball courts, two boxing rings, a cricket ground, a football ground, a twin-crease indoor cricket practice stadium and a four star guest house-cum-gallery.The indoor cricket practice stadium is built with materials imported from Australia.
Golaghat District Carrom Association (GDCA): The only platform for the carrom players of the district.
A few localities of Golaghat are:Amolapatty – New (residential)
Baagicha Ali (residential)
Amolapatty – Old (residential)
Arengapara (residential and commercial)
Bengenakhowa (residential and commercial)
Bet Mahal(mostly residential with a few commercial establishments)
Chandan Nagar (residential)
Court Road (residential and commercial)
Geeta Nagar (residential)
Junaki Nagar (residential new development area)
Krishna Nagar (Golaghat south, residential)
Missionpatty (mostly residential with a few commercial establishments)
Subhash Colony (residential)
Sreemanta Nagar (residential)
Tapan Nagar (mostly residential with a few commercial establishments)
Golaghat is a part of Kaliabor (Lok Sabha constituency).