In physics, screening is the damping of electric fields caused by the presence of mobile charge carriers. It is an important part of the behavior of chargecarrying fluids, such as ionized gases (classical plasmas), electrolytes, and electronic conductors (semiconductors, metals). In a fluid, with a given relative dielectric constant ε_{R}, composed of electrically charged constituent particles, each pair of particles interact through the Coulomb force,
F
=
q
1
q
2
4
π
ε
0
ε
R

r

2
r
^
.
This interaction complicates the theoretical treatment of the fluid. For example, a naive quantum mechanical calculation of the groundstate energy density yields infinity, which is unreasonable. The difficulty lies in the fact that even though the Coulomb force diminishes with distance as 1/r², the average number of particles at each distance r is proportional to r², assuming the fluid is fairly isotropic. As a result, a charge fluctuation at any one point has nonnegligible effects at large distances.
In reality, these longrange effects are suppressed by the flow of the fluid particles in response to electric fields. This flow reduces the effective interaction between particles to a shortrange "screened" Coulomb interaction. This corresponds to the simplest example of a renormalized interaction (see sections 1.2.1 and 3.2 of ).
For example, consider a fluid composed of electrons moving in a uniform background of positive charge (onecomponent plasma). Each electron possesses a negative charge. According to Coulomb's interaction, negative charges repel each other. Consequently, this electron will repel other electrons creating a small region around itself in which there are fewer electrons. This region can be treated as a positively charged "screening hole". Viewed from a large distance, this screening hole has the effect of an overlaid positive charge which cancels the electric field produced by the electron. Only at short distances, inside the hole region, can the electron's field be detected. For a plasma, this effect can be made explicit by an
N
body calculation (see section 5 of ). If the background is made up of positive ions, their attraction by the electron of interest reinforces the above screening mechanism. In atomic physics, a germane effect exists for atoms with more than one electron shell: the shielding effect. In plasma physics, electricfield screening is also called Debye screening or shielding. It manifests itself on macroscopic scales by a sheath (Debye sheath) next to a material with which the plasma is in contact.
The first theoretical treatment of screening, due to Debye and Hückel, dealt with a stationary point charge embedded in a fluid. This is known as electrostatic screening.
Consider a fluid of electrons in a background of heavy, positively charged ions. For simplicity, we ignore the motion and spatial distribution of the ions, approximating them as a uniform background charge. This is permissible since the electrons are lighter and more mobile than the ions, provided we consider distances much larger than the ionic separation. In condensed matter physics, this model is referred to as jellium.
Let ρ denote the number density of electrons, and φ the electric potential. At first, the electrons are evenly distributed so that there is zero net charge at every point. Therefore, φ is initially a constant as well.
We now introduce a fixed point charge Q at the origin. The associated charge density is Qδ(r), where δ(r) is the Dirac delta function. After the system has returned to equilibrium, let the change in the electron density and electric potential be Δρ(r) and Δφ(r) respectively. The charge density and electric potential are related by the first of Maxwell's equations, which gives
−
∇
2
[
Δ
ϕ
(
r
)
]
=
1
ε
0
[
Q
δ
(
r
)
−
e
Δ
ρ
(
r
)
]
.
To proceed, we must find a second independent equation relating Δρ and Δφ. We consider two possible approximations, under which the two quantities are proportional: the DebyeHückel approximation, valid at high temperatures, and the FermiThomas approximation, valid at low temperatures.
In the Debye–Hückel approximation, we maintain the system in thermodynamic equilibrium, at a temperature T high enough that the fluid particles obey Maxwell–Boltzmann statistics. At each point in space, the density of electrons with energy j has the form
ρ
j
(
r
)
=
ρ
j
(
0
)
(
r
)
exp
[
e
ϕ
(
r
)
k
B
T
]
where k_{B} is Boltzmann's constant. Perturbing in φ and expanding the exponential to first order, we obtain
e
Δ
ρ
≃
ε
0
k
0
2
Δ
ϕ
where
k
0
=
d
e
f
ρ
e
2
ε
0
k
B
T
The associated length λ_{D} ≡ 1/k_{0} is called the Debye length. The Debye length is the fundamental length scale of a classical plasma.
In the FermiThomas approximation, the system is maintained at a constant electron chemical potential (Fermi level) and at low temperature. (The former condition corresponds, in a real experiment, to keeping the fluid in electrical contact at a fixed potential difference with ground.) The chemical potential μ is, by definition, the energy of adding an extra electron to the fluid. This energy may be decomposed into a kinetic energy T part and the potential energy eφ part. Since the chemical potential is kept constant,
Δ
μ
=
Δ
T
−
e
Δ
ϕ
=
0
.
If the temperature is extremely low, the behavior of the electrons comes close to the quantum mechanical model of a free electron gas. We thus approximate T by the kinetic energy of an additional electron in the free electron gas, which is simply the Fermi energy E_{F}. The Fermi energy is related to the density of electrons (including spin degeneracy) by
ρ
=
2
1
(
2
π
)
3
4
3
π
k
F
3
,
E
F
=
ℏ
2
k
F
2
2
m
,
ρ
∝
E
F
3
/
2
.
Perturbing to first order, we find that
Δ
ρ
≃
3
ρ
2
E
F
Δ
E
F
.
Inserting this into the above equation for Δμ yields
e
Δ
ρ
≃
ε
0
k
0
2
Δ
ϕ
where
k
0
=
d
e
f
3
e
2
ρ
2
ε
0
E
F
=
m
e
2
k
f
ε
0
π
2
ℏ
2
is called the FermiThomas screening wave vector.
This follows from a previous result for the free electron gas, which is a model of noninteracting electrons, whereas the fluid which we are studying contains a Coulomb interaction. Therefore, the FermiThomas approximation is only valid when the electron density is low, so that the particle interactions are relatively weak.
Our results from the DebyeHückel or FermiThomas approximation may now be inserted into the first Maxwell equation. The result is
[
∇
2
−
k
0
2
]
ϕ
(
r
)
=
−
Q
ε
0
δ
(
r
)
which is known as the screened Poisson equation. The solution is
ϕ
(
r
)
=
Q
4
π
ε
0
r
e
−
k
0
r
which is called a screened Coulomb potential. It is a Coulomb potential multiplied by an exponential damping term, with the strength of the damping factor given by the magnitude of k_{0}, the Debye or FermiThomas wave vector. Note that this potential has the same form as the Yukawa potential. This screening yields a dielectric function
ε
(
r
)
=
e
−
k
0
r
.
A mechanical
N
body approach provides together the derivation of electricfield screening and of Landau damping [,]. It deals with a single realization of a onecomponent plasma whose electrons have a velocity dispersion (for a thermal plasma, there must be many particles in a Debye sphere, a volume whose radius is the Debye length). On using the linearized motion of the electrons in their own electric field, it yields an equation of the type
E
Φ
=
S
, where
E
is a linear operator,
S
is a source term due to the particles, and
Φ
is the FourierLaplace transform of the electrostatic potential. When substituting an integral over a smooth distribution function for the discrete sum over the particles in
E
, one gets
ϵ
(
k
,
ω
)
Φ
(
k
,
ω
)
=
S
(
k
,
ω
)
, where
ϵ
(
k
,
ω
)
is the plasma permittivity, or dielectric function, classically obtained by a linearized Vlasovian calculation (section 6.4 of ),
k
is the wave vector,
ω
is the frequency, and
S
(
k
,
ω
)
is the sum of
N
source terms due to the particles (equation (20) of ).
By inverse FourierLaplace transform, the potential due to each particle is the sum of two parts (section 4.1 of ). One corresponds to the excitation of Langmuir waves {Waves in plasmas} by the particle, and the other one is its screened potential, as classically obtained by a linearized Vlasovian calculation involving a test particle (section 9.2 of ). The screened potential is the above screened Coulomb potential for a thermal plasma and a thermal particle. For a faster particle, the potential is modified (section 9.2 of ). Substituting an integral over a smooth distribution function for the discrete sum over the particles in
S
(
k
,
ω
)
, yields the Vlasovian expression enabling the calculation of Landau damping (section 6.4 of ).
In real metals, electrical screening is more complex than described above in the FermiThomas theory. This is because FermiThomas theory assumes that the mobile charges (electrons) can respond at any wavevector. However, it is not energetically possible for an electron within or on a Fermi surface to respond at wavevectors shorter than the Fermi wavevector. This is related to the Gibbs phenomenon, where Fourier series for functions that vary rapidly in space are not good approximations unless a very large number of terms in the series are retained. In physics this is known as Friedel oscillations, and applies both to surface and bulk screening. In each case the net electric field does not fall off exponentially in space, but rather as an inverse power law multiplied by an oscillatory term. The area of manybody physics devotes considerable effort to quantummechanical screening, which is very relevant to condensed matter physics.