Anaheim was founded by fifty German families in 1857 and incorporated as the second city in Los Angeles County on March 18, 1876; Orange County would later be split off from Los Angeles County in 1889. Anaheim remained largely a rural community until Disneyland opened in the city in 1955. This led to the construction of several hotels and motels around the area, and residential districts in Anaheim soon followed. The city also developed into an industrial center, producing electronics, aircraft parts and canned fruit.
Anaheim's city limits extend from Cypress in the west to the Riverside County line in the east and encompass a diverse collection of neighborhoods and communities. Anaheim Hills is a master-planned community located in the city's eastern stretches that is home to many of the city's affluent. Downtown Anaheim has three mixed-use historic districts, the largest of which is the Anaheim Colony. The Anaheim Resort, a commercial district, includes Disneyland, Disney California Adventure, and numerous hotels and retail complexes. The Platinum Triangle, a neo-urban redevelopment district surrounding Angel Stadium, is planned to be populated with mixed-use streets and high-rises. Anaheim Canyon is an industrial district north of California State Route 91 and east of California State Route 57.
Anaheim's name is a blend of "Ana", after the nearby Santa Ana River, and heim, a common Germanic place name compound originally meaning "home".
The city of Anaheim was founded in 1857 by 50 German-Americans who were residents of San Francisco and whose families had originated in Rothenburg ob der Tauber, Franconia in Bavaria. After traveling through the state looking for a suitable area to grow grapes, the group decided to purchase a 1,165 acres (4.71 km2) parcel from Juan Pacifico Ontiveros' large Rancho San Juan Cajon de Santa Ana in present-day Orange County for $2 per acre.
For $750 a share, the group formed the Anaheim Vineyard Company. Their new community was named Annaheim, meaning "home by the Santa Anna River" in German. The name later was altered to Anaheim. To the Spanish-speaking neighbors, the settlement was known as Campo Alemán (English: German Field).
Although grape and wine-making was their primary objective, the majority of the 50 settlers were mechanics, carpenters and craftsmen with no experience in wine-making. The community set aside 40 acres (16 ha) for a town center and a school was the first building erected there. The first home was built in 1857, the Anaheim Gazette newspaper was established in 1870 and a hotel in 1871. For 25 years, the area was the largest wine producer in California. However, in 1884, a disease infected the grape vines and by the following year the entire industry was destroyed. Other crops – walnuts, lemons and oranges – soon filled the void. Fruits and vegetables had become viable cash crops when the Los Angeles – Orange County region was connected to the continental railroad network in 1887.
Polish actress Helena Modjeska settled in Anaheim with her husband and various friends, among them Henryk Sienkiewicz, Julian Sypniewski and Łucjan Paprocki. While living in Anaheim, Helena Modjeska became good friends with Clementine Langenberger, the second wife of August Langenberger. Helena Street and Clementine Street are named after these two ladies, and the streets are located adjacent to each other as a symbol of the strong friendship which Helena Modjeska and Clementine Lagenberger shared. Modjeska Park in West Anaheim, is also named after Helena Modjeska.
During the first half of the 20th century, before Disneyland opened its doors to the public, Anaheim was a massive rural community inhabited by orange groves and the landowners who farmed them. One of the landowners was Bennett Payne Baxter, who owned much land in northeast Anaheim that today is the location of Angel Stadium. He came up with many new ideas for irrigating orange groves and shared his ideas with other landowners. He was not only successful, he helped other landowners and businesspeople succeed as well. Ben Baxter and other landowners helped to make Anaheim a thriving rural community before Disneyland changed the city forever. Today, a street runs along Edison Park which is named Baxter Street. Also during this time, Rudolph Boysen served as Anaheim's first Park Superintendent from 1921 to 1950. Boysen created a hybrid berry which Walter Knott later named the boysenberry, after Rudy Boysen. Boysen Park in East Anaheim was also named after him.
In 1924, Ku Klux Klan members were elected to the Anaheim City Council on a platform of political reform. Up until that point, the city had been controlled by a long-standing business and civic elite that was mostly German American. Given their tradition of moderate social drinking, the German Americans did not strongly support prohibition laws of the day. The mayor himself was a former saloon keeper. Led by the minister of the First Christian Church, the Klan represented a rising group of politically oriented non-ethnic Germans who denounced the elite as corrupt, undemocratic, and self-serving. The Klansmen aimed to create what they saw as a model, orderly community, one in which prohibition against alcohol would be strictly enforced. At the time, the KKK had about 1200 members in Orange County. The economic and occupational profile of the pro and anti-Klan groups shows the two were similar and about equally prosperous. Klan members were Protestants, as were the majority of their opponents, however the opposition to the Klan also included many Catholic Germans. Individuals who joined the Klan had earlier demonstrated a much higher rate of voting and civic activism than did their opponents, and many of the individuals in Orange County who joined the Klan did so out of a sense of civic activism. Upon easily winning the local Anaheim election in April 1924, the Klan representatives promptly fired city employees who were known to be Catholic and replaced them with Klan appointees. The new city council tried to enforce prohibition. After its victory, the Klan chapter held large rallies and initiation ceremonies over the summer.
The opposition to KKK's hold on Anaheim politics organized, bribed a Klansman for their secret membership list, and exposed the Klansmen running in the state primaries; they defeated most of the candidates. Klan opponents in 1925 took back local government, and succeeded in a special election in recalling the Klansmen who had been elected in April 1924. The Klan in Anaheim quickly collapsed, its newspaper closed after losing a libel suit, and the minister who led the local Klavern moved to Kansas.
Construction of the Disneyland theme park began on July 16, 1954, and it opened to the public on July 17, 1955. It has become one of the world's most visited tourist attractions, with over 650 million visitors since its opening. The location was formerly 160 acres (0.65 km2) of orange and walnut trees, some of which remain on the property. Hotels and motels began to spread and residential districts soon followed, with increasing property values. In 2001, Disney's California Adventure (renamed Disney California Adventure Park in 2010) the most expansive project in the theme park's history, opened to the public.
In 1970, the Census Bureau reported Anaheim's population as 9.3% Hispanic and 89.2% non-Hispanic white. In the late 20th century, Anaheim grew rapidly in population. Today, Anaheim has a diverse ethnic and racial composition.
During the large expansion of the Disneyland resort in the 1990s, the city of Anaheim recognized the Anaheim Resort area as a tourist destination. It includes the Disneyland Resort, the Anaheim Convention Center, the Honda Center, and Angel Stadium. In 2007, the city celebrated its sesquicentennial.
In July 2012, political protests by Hispanic residents occurred following the fatal shooting of two men, the first of whom was unarmed. Protesting occurred in the area between State College and East Street, and was motivated by concerns over police brutality, gang activity, domination of the city by commercial interests, and a perceived lack of political representation of Hispanic residents in the city government. The protests were accompanied by looting of businesses and homes.
Anaheim is located at 33°50′10″N 117°53′23″W. and is approximately 25 miles (40 km) south east of Downtown Los Angeles. The city roughly follows the east-to-west route of the 91 Freeway from the Orange-Riverside county border to Buena Park. To the north, Anaheim is bounded by (from east to west) Yorba Linda, Placentia, Fullerton, and Buena Park. The city shares its western border with Buena Park and Cypress. Anaheim is bordered on the south by (from west to east) Stanton, Garden Grove, and Orange. Various unincorporated areas of Orange County also abut the city, including Anaheim Island. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 50.8 square miles (132 km2). 49.8 square miles (129 km2) of it is land and 1.0 square mile (2.6 km2) of it (1.92%) is water.
The city recognizes several districts, including the Anaheim Resort (the area surrounding Disneyland), Anaheim Canyon (an industrial area north of the Riverside Freeway and east of the Orange Freeway), and the Platinum Triangle (the area surrounding Angel Stadium). Anaheim Hills also maintains a distinct identity.
Downtown Anaheim is located in the heart of the Colony Historic District. Downtown is the administrative heart of the city where you find City Hall, Anaheim West Tower, Anaheim Police Headquarters, the Anaheim Chamber of Commerce and the Main Library. Anaheim Ice (formerly Disney Ice), the Downtown Anaheim Farmer's Market, a food hall in a historic 1919 Sunkist packing house, and the Center Street Promenade are also located in Downtown Anaheim. In late 2007, The Muzeo, the newest major museum in Orange County, opened its doors for the first time and is located next to Anaheim West Tower. Pearson Park is also located in Downtown Anaheim, and is named after Charles Pearson, who was Mayor of Anaheim during the time Walt Disney opened Disneyland in Anaheim. One of the major attractions located in Pearson Park is the Pearson Park Amphitheater. In the Colony Historic District just west of Downtown Anaheim is the Mother Colony House, which was built by George Hanson and was the first house built in Anaheim, the founder of Anaheim. Today, it is Anaheim's and Orange County's oldest museum still open to the public. The Woelke-Stoeffel House is a Victorian mansion located next door to the Mother Colony House. Originally the Victorian Home was occupied by the Stoeffel family, early pioneer residents of Anaheim. The home served as headquarters for the local Red Cross until the early 1990s. In 2010–2011, the Woelke-Stoeffel house became refurnished and is now part of the Founder's Park complex. Founder's Park includes the Mother Colony house and a carriage house, which serves as a museum of Anaheim's agricultural history. These three buildings are open every first Saturday from 9 to 12 pm.
Like many other South Coast cities, Anaheim maintains a Subtropical Mediterranean climate Csa, enjoying warm winters and hot summers.
The 2010 United States Census reported that Anaheim had a population of 336,265. The population density was 6,618.0 people per square mile (2,555.2/km²). The racial makeup of Anaheim was 177,237 (52.7%) White (27.5% non-Hispanic White alone), 9,347 (2.8%) African American, 2,648 (0.8%) Native American, 49,857 (14.8%) Asian (4.4% Vietnamese, 3.6% Filipino, 2.0% Korean, 1.4% Chinese, 1.3% Indian), 1,607 (0.5%) Pacific Islander, 80,705 (24.0%) from other races, and 14,864 (4.4%) from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 177,467 persons (52.8%); 46.0% of Anaheim's population was of Mexican descent, 1.2% Salvadoran, and 1.0% Guatemalan; the remainder of the Hispanic population came from smaller ancestral groups.
The census reported that 332,708 people (98.9% of the population) lived in households, 2,020 (0.6%) lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, and 1,537 (0.5%) were institutionalized.
There were 98,294 households, out of which 44,045 (44.8%) had children under the age of 18 living in them, 52,518 (53.4%) were opposite-sex married couples living together, 14,553 (14.8%) had a female householder with no husband present, 7,223 (7.3%) had a male householder with no wife present. There were 6,173 (6.3%) unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, and 733 (0.7%) same-sex married couples or partnerships. 17,448 households (17.8%) were made up of individuals and 6,396 (6.5%) had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.38. There were 74,294 families (75.6% of all households); the average family size was 3.79.
The age distribution of the population was as follows: 91,917 people (27.3%) under the age of 18, 36,506 people (10.9%) aged 18 to 24, 101,110 people (30.1%) aged 25 to 44, 75,510 people (22.5%) aged 45 to 64, and 31,222 people (9.3%) who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 32.4 years. For every 100 females there were 99.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.1 males.
There were 104,237 housing units at an average density of 2,051.5 per square mile (792.1/km²), of which 47,677 (48.5%) were owner-occupied, and 50,617 (51.5%) were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 1.7%; the rental vacancy rate was 7.2%. 160,843 people (47.8% of the population) lived in owner-occupied housing units and 171,865 people (51.1%) lived in rental housing units.
According to the 2010 United States Census, Anaheim had a median household income of $59,627, with 15.6% of the population living below the federal poverty line.
As of the census of 2000, there were 328,014 people, 96,969 households, and 73,502 families residing in the city. The population density was 6,842.7 inhabitants per square mile (2,587.8/km²). There were 99,719 housing units at an average density of 2,037.5 per square mile (786.7/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 55% White, 3% Black or African American, 0.9% Native American, 12% Asian, 0.4% Pacific Islander, 24% from other races, and 5% from two or more races. 46% of the population were Hispanic or Latino.
Of Anaheim's 96,969 households, 43.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.3% were married couples living together, 13.1% had a female householder with no husband present, and 24.2% were non-families. 18.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.1% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.34 and the average family size was 3.75.
In the city, the population was spread out with 30.2% under the age of 18, 10.5% from 18 to 24, 33.5% from 25 to 44, 17.7% from 45 to 64, and 8.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 30 years. For every 100 females there were 100.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 98.1 males.
The median income household income was $47,122, and the median family income was $49,969. Males had a median income of $33,870 versus $28,837 for females. The per capita income for the city was $18,266. About 10.4% of families and 14.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 18.9% of those under age 18 and 7.5% of those age 65 or over.
Anaheim's income is based on a tourism economy. In addition to The Walt Disney Company being the city's largest employer, the Disneyland Resort itself contributes about $4.7 billion annually to Southern California's economy. It also produces $255 million in taxes every year. Another source of tourism is the Anaheim Convention Center, which is home to many important national conferences. Many hotels, especially in the city's Resort district, serve theme park tourists and conventiongoers.
The Anaheim Canyon business park makes up 63% of Anaheim's industrial space and is the largest industrial district in Orange County. Anaheim Canyon is also home to the second-largest business park in Orange County. Anaheim Canyon houses 2,600 businesses, which employ over 55,000 workers.
Several notable companies have corporate offices and/or headquarters within Anaheim.
According to the City's 2012 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, the top employers in the city are:
Larger retail centers include the Downtown Disney shopping area at the Disneyland Resort, the power centers Anaheim Plaza in western Anaheim (347,000 ft2), and Anaheim Town Square in East Anaheim (374,000 ft2), as well as the Anaheim GardenWalk lifestyle center (440,000 ft2 of retail, dining and entertainment located in the Anaheim Resort).Anaheim GardenWalk
Anaheim Convention Center
Angel Stadium of Anaheim
Battle of the Dance dinner theater (closed in 2012)
Disney California Adventure Park
The Grove of Anaheim, formerly the Sun Theater, formerly Tinseltown Studios
Honda Center, formerly the Arrowhead Pond of Anaheim
American Sports Centers, home of the U.S. men's national volleyball team
Flightdeck Flight Simulation Center
Anaheim Hills Golf Course
Dad Miller Golf Course
Oak Canyon Nature Center
MUZEO, Art Museum located in Downtown Anaheim
Anaheim/OC Walk of Stars
NHL team: Anaheim Ducks – 2007 Stanley Cup Champions
MLB team: Los Angeles Angels – 2002 World Series Champions under the name Anaheim Angels
NLL team: Anaheim Storm (Folded after 2004–2005 season because of low attendance)
NFL team: Los Angeles Rams played in Anaheim in Anaheim Stadium from 1980 through 1994 before moving to St. Louis.
NBA team: Los Angeles Clippers played select games in Anaheim at Arrowhead Pond of Anaheim from 1994 through 1999 before moving permanently to Staples Center in Downtown Los Angeles.
World Football League team: The Southern California Sun played at Anaheim Stadium from 1974–1975.
Arena Football League team: Anaheim Piranhas played at the Arrowhead Pond from 1994 to 1997.
AFL team: Los Angeles Kiss played at Honda Center from 2014 to 2016.
Roller Hockey International team: Anaheim Bullfrogs played in the RHI from 1993 to 1997 and 1999, winning the Murphy Cup Championship twice.
American Basketball Association team: Anaheim Amigos played at the Anaheim Convention Center during the 1967–68 Season, then moved to Los Angeles.
ABA2000 team: Southern California Surf played at the Anaheim Convention Center from 2001–2002.
NBADL team: Anaheim Arsenal played at the Anaheim Convention Center from 2006–2009. The team moved to Springfield, Massachusetts and was renamed for the 2009–2010 season.
World Team Tennis: The Anaheim Oranges played in 1978.
Continental Indoor Soccer League Team: The Anaheim Splash, played from 1994 to 1997.
California Surf of the now defunct North American Soccer League played from 1978 to 1981.
On January 3, 2005, Angels Baseball LP, the ownership group for the Anaheim Angels, announced that it would change the name of the club to the Los Angeles Angels of Anaheim. Team spokesmen pointed out that from its inception, the Angels had been granted territorial rights by Major League Baseball to the counties of Los Angeles, Ventura, Riverside, and San Bernardino in addition to Orange County. The new owner, Arturo Moreno, believed the name would help him market the team to the entire Southern California region rather than just Orange County. The "of Anaheim" was included in the official name to comply with a provision of the team's lease at Angel Stadium which requires that "Anaheim" be included in the team's name.
Mayor Curt Pringle and other city officials countered that the name change violated the spirit of the lease clause, even if it were in technical compliance. They argued that a name change was a major bargaining chip in negotiations between the city and Disney Baseball Enterprises, Inc., then the ownership group for the Angels. They further argued that the city would never have agreed to the new lease without the name change, because the new lease required that the city partially fund the stadium's renovation but provided very little revenue for the city. Anaheim sued Angels Baseball LP in Orange County Superior Court, and a jury trial was completed in early February 2006, resulting in a victory for the Los Angeles Angels of Anaheim franchise.
Anaheim appealed the court decision with the California Court of Appeal in May 2006. The case was tied up in the Appeals Court for over two years. In December 2008, the Appeals Court upheld the February 2006 Decision and ruled in favor of The Angels Organization. In January 2009, the Anaheim City Council voted not to appeal the court case any further, bringing an end to the four-year legal dispute between the City of Anaheim and the Angels Organization.
Under its city charter, Anaheim operates under a council-manager government. Legislative authority is vested in a city council of seven nonpartisan members, who hire a professional city manager to oversee day-to-day operations. The mayor serves as the presiding officer of the city council in a first among equals role. Under the city's term limits, an individual may serve a maximum of two terms as a city council member and two terms as the mayor.
Up until 2014, all council seats were elected at large. Voters elected the mayor and four other members of the city council to serve four-year staggered terms. Elections for two council seats were held in years divisible by four while elections for the mayor and the two other council seats were elected during the intervening even-numbered years.
In response to protests and a California Voting Rights Act lawsuit by the American Civil Liberties Union and several residents, the city placed two measures on the November 2014 ballot. Measure L proposed that council members be elected by district instead of at large. Measure M proposed to increase the number of council seats from five to seven. Both measures passed.
The current city council:Mayor Tom Tait (since 2010)
Kris Murray, At-Large (since 2010)
James Vanderbilt, At-Large (since 2014)
Denise Barnes, District 1 (since 2016)
Jose F. Moreno, District 3 (since 2016)
Lucille Kring, District 4 (since 2012)
Stephen Faessel, District 5 (since 2016)
In the United States House of Representatives, Anaheim is split among three Congressional districts:California's 39th congressional district, represented by Republican Ed Royce,
California's 45th congressional district, represented by Republican Mimi Walters, and
California's 46th congressional district, represented by Democrat Lou Correa.
In the California State Senate, Anaheim is split among three districts:the 29th Senate District, represented by Democrat Josh Newman,
the 34th Senate District, represented by Republican Janet Nguyen, and
the 37th Senate District, represented by Republican John Moorlach.
In the California State Assembly, Anaheim is split among three districts:the 65th Assembly District, represented by Democrat Sharon Quirk-Silva,
the 68th Assembly District, represented by Republican Steven Choi, and
the 69th Assembly District, represented by Democrat Tom Daly.
On the Orange County Board of Supervisors, Anaheim is divided between two districts, with Anaheim Hills lying in the 3rd District and the remainder of Anaheim lying in the 4th District:3rd, represented by Todd Spitzer since 2013
4th, represented by Shawn Nelson since 2010
Fire protection is provided by the Anaheim Fire Department, Disneyland Resort has its own Fire Department, though it does rely on the Anaheim Fire Department for support, and for Paramedic Services. Law enforcement is provided by the Anaheim Police Department. Ambulance service is provided by Care Ambulance Service.
Anaheim Public Utilities is the only municipal owned water and electric utility in Orange County, providing residential and business customers with water and electric services. The utility is regulated and governed locally by the City Council. A Public Utilities Board, made up of Anaheim residents, advises the City Council on major utility issues.
Anaheim has decided to bury power lines along major transportation corridors, converting its electricity system for aesthetic and reliability reasons. To minimize the impact on customer bills, undergrounding is taking place slowly over a period of 50 years, funded by a 4% surcharge on electric bills.
In 2003, Anaheim reported nine murders; given its population, this rate was one-third of the national average. Reported rapes the city are relatively uncommon as well, but have been increasing, along with the national average. Robbery (410 reported incidents) and aggravated assault (824 incidents) rank among the most frequent violent crimes in the city, though robbery rates are half of the national average, and aggravated assaults are 68% of the average. 1,971 burglaries were reported, as well as 6,708 thefts, 1,767 car thefts, and 654 car accidents. All three types of crime were below average. There were 43 cases of arson reported in 2003, 43% of the national average.
Anaheim is served by seven public school districts:
Anaheim is home to 84 public schools, of which 46 serve elementary students, nine are junior high schools, fourteen are high schools and six offer alternative education.
Private schools in the city include Acaciawood Preparatory Academy, Cornelia Connelly High School, Fairmont Preparatory Academy and Servite High School.
Anaheim has three private universities: Anaheim University and Southern California Institute of Technology (SCIT), and Bristol University (BU) with its sport teams Bristol Bears.
North Orange County Community College District serves the community.
Anaheim has eight public library branches.
In the western portion of the city (not including Anaheim Hills), the major surface streets run east to west, starting with the northernmost, Orangethorpe Avenue, La Palma Avenue, Lincoln Avenue, Ball Road and Katella Avenue. The major surface streets running north-south, starting with the westernmost, are Knott Avenue, Beach Boulevard (SR 39), Magnolia Avenue, Brookhurst Street, Euclid Street, Harbor Boulevard, Anaheim Boulevard and State College Boulevard.
The Santa Ana Freeway (I-5), the Orange Freeway (SR 57) and the Riverside Freeway (SR 91) all pass through Anaheim. The Costa Mesa Freeway (SR 55), and the Eastern Transportation Corridor (SR 241) also have short stretches within the city limits.
Anaheim is served by two major railroads, the Union Pacific Railroad and the BNSF Railway. In addition, the Anaheim Regional Transportation Intermodal Center (ARTIC), a major regional transit station near Honda Center and Angel Stadium, serves Amtrak, Metrolink, and several bus operators, and the Anaheim Canyon Metrolink station serves Metrolink's IEOC Line. ARTIC is a proposed stop on the proposed California High-Speed Rail network and the proposed Anaheim Rapid Connection.
The Orange County Transportation Authority (OCTA) provides bus service for Anaheim with local and county-wide routes, and both OCTA and Los Angeles County Metro operate bus routes connecting Anaheim to Los Angeles County. Also, Anaheim Resort Transit (ART) provides local shuttle service in and around the Anaheim Resort area, serving local hotels, tourist attractions, and the Disneyland Resort. Disney GOALS operates daily free bus service for low-income youth in the central Anaheim area.
Anaheim is equidistant from both John Wayne Airport and Long Beach Airport (15 miles), but is also accessible from nearby Los Angeles International (30 miles), and Ontario (35 miles) airports.