Puneet Varma (Editor)

1800

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1800


1800 (MDCCC) was an exceptional common year starting on Wednesday (dominical letter E) of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Sunday (dominical letter AG) of the Julian calendar, the 1800th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 800th year of the 2nd millennium, the 100th and last year of the 18th century, and the 1st year of the 1800s decade. As of the start of 1800, the Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. As of March 1 (O.S. February 18), when the Julian calendar acknowledged a leap day and the Gregorian calendar did not, the Julian calendar fell one day further behind, bringing the difference to 12 days.

Contents

Events

  • World population approaches the 1 billion milestone which it will attain in 1802. The population distribution by region:
  • Africa: 107,000,000
  • Asia: 635,000,000
  • China: 300–400,000,000
  • Europe: 203,000,000
  • Latin America: 24,000,000
  • Northern America: 7,000,000
  • Oceania: 2,000,000
  • January–March

  • January 1
  • Action of 1 January 1800, a naval battle in the Quasi-War off the coast of Haiti between four United States merchant vessels escorted by naval schooner USS Experiment and a squadron of armed barges manned by piratical Haitians known as picaroons under the command of general André Rigaud.
  • Dutch East India Company dissolves.
  • February 7 – A public plebiscite in France confirms Napoleon as First Consul by a substantial majority.
  • February 13 – The Banque de France is founded.
  • February 28 – United Irishman Roddy McCorley is executed in Toomebridge for his part in the Irish Rebellion of 1798.
  • March 14 – Cardinal Barnaba Chiaramonti succeeds Pius VI as Pius VII, the 251st pope. He is crowned on March 21 in Venice.
  • March 17 – The British Royal Navy ship of the line HMS Queen Charlotte (1790) catches fire off the coast of Capraia, with the loss of 673 lives.
  • March 20 – Alessandro Volta describes his new invention, the voltaic pile, the first chemical battery, in a letter to the Royal Society of London.
  • March 26 – British Royal Navy officer Henry Waterhouse first charts the Antipodes Islands.
  • April–June

  • April – Voting begins in the United States presidential election, 1800; it will last until October. The result is not announced until February 1801.
  • April 2
  • Première of Ludwig van Beethoven's Symphony No. 1 at the Burgtheater in Vienna.
  • April 6 – Siege of Genoa: General André Masséna is surrounded by Austrian troops (40,000 men) under Field Marshal Michael von Melas, and blockaded by a strong British squadron under Lord Keith.
  • The Septinsular Republic is established on the Ionian Islands.
  • April 24 – The U.S. Library of Congress is founded in Washington, D.C.
  • May 14 – Second Coalition: French forces under General Louis-Alexandre Berthier are halted by 400 Austro-Piedmont soldiers at Fort Bard in the Aosta Valley.
  • May 15 – Napoleon and his French army (40,000 men)—not including the field artillery and baggage trains—(35,000 light artillery and infantry, 5,000 cavalry) begins crossing the Alps. He selects the shortest route through the Great St. Benard Pass and invades after five days traversing the northern region of Italy.
  • June 2 – First smallpox vaccination is made in North America, at Trinity, Newfoundland.
  • June 4 – Siege of Genoa: The French army is evacuated from Geona. Masséna is allowed to march out with all the honours of war. A portion of his force joins General Louis-Gabriel Suchet and the rest is conveyed in British ships to Antibes.
  • June 14
  • Battle of Marengo: Napoleon defeats the Austrian troops near Marengo, Italy.
  • Assassination of French general Jean-Baptiste Kléber in Cairo by Syrian Kurdish Muslim student Suleiman al-Halabi.
  • July–September

  • July 2 & August 1 – Acts of Union 1800: The complementary Union with Ireland Act 1800, an Act of the Parliament of Great Britain, and Act of Union (Ireland) 1800, an Act of the Parliament of Ireland, are passed by the respective legislatures, to unite the Kingdom of Great Britain and Kingdom of Ireland into the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland with effect from the start of 1801 and abolish the Parliament of Ireland. The British act is signed by King George III of the United Kingdom in August.
  • July 10 – Fort William College is established by Lord Wellesley, British Governor-General of India, in Calcutta to promote Bengali, Hindi and other vernaculars of the Indian subcontinent.
  • September 4 – The French garrison in Valletta surrenders to British troops who had been called at the invitation of the Maltese. The islands of Malta and Gozo become the Malta Protectorate.
  • September 30 – The Convention of 1800, or Treaty of Mortefontaine, is signed between France and the United States of America, ending the Quasi-War.
  • October–December

  • October 1 – Third Treaty of San Ildefonso: Spain returns Louisiana (New Spain) to France in return for the Tuscany area of Italy.
  • October 7 – French privateer Robert Surcouf leads the 150-man crew of his corvette Confiance (1800) to capture the 40-gun, 437-man British East Indiaman Kent (1799) in the Indian Ocean.
  • November 1
  • U.S. President John Adams becomes the first President of the United States to live in the Executive Mansion (later renamed the White House).
  • Middlebury College is granted its charter by the Vermont General Assembly.
  • November 17 – The United States Congress holds its first Washington, D.C. session.
  • December 3 – Battle of Hohenlinden: French army defeats Habsburg and Bavarian troops.
  • December 24
  • An assault on Napoleon fails in Paris.
  • Pierre Coudrin and Henriette Aymer de la Chevalerie found the Congregation of the Sacred Hearts of Jesus and Mary in Paris.
  • December 25 – Christmas Day first becomes a public holiday on an international scale.
  • January–June

  • January 1 – Francis Egerton, 1st Earl of Ellesmere, English landowner (d. 1857)
  • January 4 – Martha Christina Tiahahu, Moluccan freedom fighter and National Heroine of Indonesia (d. 1818)
  • January 6 – Anna Maria Hall, Irish writer (d. 1881)
  • January 7 – Millard Fillmore, 13th President of the United States (d. 1874)
  • January 11 – Ányos Jedlik, Hungarian physicist, the inventor of the dynamo (d. 1895)
  • January 12 – George Villiers, 4th Earl of Clarendon, English diplomat and statesman (d. 1870)
  • January 14 – Ludwig von Köchel, Austrian musicologist (d. 1877)
  • January 17 – Caleb Cushing, American statesman and diplomat (d. 1879)
  • January 24 – Edwin Chadwick, English social reformer (d. 1890)
  • January 26
  • Johann Gerhard Oncken, German Baptist preacher (d. 1884)
  • Elizabeth Ann Whitney, American Mormon leader (d. 1882)
  • January 27 – Evelyn Denison, 1st Viscount Ossington, English statesman (d. 1875)
  • February 1 – Brian Houghton Hodgson, English civil servant (d. 1894)
  • February 6 – Achille Devéria, French painter and lithographer (d. 1857)
  • February 9
  • Hyrum Smith, American religious leader (d. 1844)
  • Joseph von Führich, Austrian painter (d. 1876)
  • February 11 – William Fox Talbot, English photographic pioneer (d. 1877)
  • February 12 – John Edward Gray, English zoologist (d. 1875)
  • February 23 – William Jardine, Scottish naturalist (d. 1874)
  • February 26
  • Lucius Lyon, American statesman (d. 1851)
  • John Baptist Purcell, Irish-born American archbishop (d. 1883)
  • March 2 – Yevgeny Baratynsky, Russian poet (d. 1844)
  • March 3 – Heinrich Georg Bronn, German geologist and paleontologist (d. 1862)
  • March 4 – William Price, Welsh physician and eccentric (d. 1893)
  • March 10
  • Victor Aimé Huber, German social reformer (d. 1869)
  • George Hudson, English railway financier (d. 1871)
  • March 12 – Louis Prosper Gachard, Belgian man of letters (d. 1885)
  • March 13 – Mustafa Reşid Pasha, Turkish statesman and diplomat (d. 1858)
  • March 16 – Emperor Ninkō of Japan (d. 1846)
  • March 17 – Rudolf Ewald Stier, German Protestant churchman and mystic (d. 1862)
  • March 20
  • Braulio Carrillo Colina, Costa Rican head of state and politician (d. 1845)
  • Gottfried Bernhardy, German philologist and literary historian (d. 1875)
  • March 25
  • Alexis Paulin Paris, French scholar and author (d. 1881)
  • Ernst Heinrich Karl von Dechen, German geologist and mineralogist (d. 1889)
  • March 28 – Johann Georg Wagler, German herpetologist (d. 1832)
  • April 2 – Andrzej Artur Zamoyski, Polish nobleman (d. 1874)
  • April 4 – Tokugawa Nariaki, Japanese daimyo of Mito (d. 1860)
  • April 10 – Henri-Gustave Delvigne, French soldier and weapon inventor (d. 1876)
  • April 15 – James Clark Ross, British naval officer and explorer (d. 1862)
  • April 16
  • Jakob Heine, German orthopaedist (d. 1879)
  • George Bingham, 3rd Earl of Lucan, British soldier (d. 1888)
  • April 29 – Hiram Cronk, American soldier and shoemaker last surviving veteran of the War of 1812 (d. 1905)
  • May 1 – James Black, American bladesmith, creator of the original Bowie knife (d. 1870)
  • May 4 – John McLeod Campbell, Scottish churchman (d. 1872)
  • May 5 – Louis Christophe François Hachette, French publisher (d. 1864)
  • May 6 – Roman Sanguszko, Polish noble (d. 1881)
  • May 8 – Armand Carrel, French writer (d. 1836)
  • May 9
  • John Brown, American abolitionist (d. 1859)
  • Samuel Carter Hall, English journalist (d. 1889)
  • May 30 – Karl Wilhelm Feuerbach, German geometer (d. 1834)
  • June 1 – Charles Fremantle, British Royal Navy officer (d. 1869)
  • June 2 – Nicholas P. Trist, secretary to President Andrew Jackson of the U.S. (d. 1874)
  • June 3 – Gustaw Potworowski, Polish activist (d. 1860)
  • June 12 – Samuel Wright Mardis, American politician (d. 1836)
  • June 17 – William Parsons, 3rd Earl of Rosse, Irish astronomer (d. 1867)
  • June 23 – Karol Marcinkowski, Polish physician and social activist (d. 1846)
  • June 30 – Richard Bethell, 1st Baron Westbury, Lord Chancellor of Great Britain (d. 1873)
  • July–December

  • July 15 – Sidney Breese, American senator from Illinois, "father of the Illinois Central Railroad" (d. 1878)
  • July 19 – Juan José Flores, President of Ecuador (d. 1864)
  • July 24 – Henry Shaw, American botanist (d. 1889)
  • July 31 – Friedrich Wöhler, German chemist (d. 1882)
  • August 12 – Jean-Jacques Ampère, French philologist, writer and historian (d. 1864)
  • August 20 – Bernhard Heine, German physician, bone specialist and inventor (d. 1846)
  • August 22
  • Edward Bouverie Pusey, English churchman (d. 1882)
  • Frank Stone, English painter (d. 1859)
  • September 1 – Giuseppe Gabriel Balsamo-Crivelli, Italian naturalist (d. 1874)
  • September 22 – George Bentham, English botanist (d. 1884)
  • October 14 – John Hogan, Irish sculptor (d. 1858)
  • October 23 – Henri Milne-Edwards, French zoologist (d. 1885)
  • October 26 – Helmuth von Moltke the Elder, German Field Marshal. (d. 1891)
  • November 21 – Barney Aaron, English bare-knuckle boxer (d. 1850)
  • December 3 – France Prešeren, Slovenian romantic poet (d. 1849)
  • December 18 – Charles Goodyear, American self-taught chemist and manufacturing engineer (d. 1860)
  • December 25 – John Phillips, English geologist (d. 1874)
  • December 26 – Paul Curtis, American shipbuilder (d. uncertain)
  • Approximate date

  • Elizabeth Austin, English opera singer and actress (d. 1835)
  • Abraham Rice, German-born rabbi, first ordained rabbi to serve in the United States (d. 1862)
  • Tarenorerer, Indigenous Australian Tasman freedom fighter (d. 1831)
  • Constance Trotti, Belgian salonniére and culture patron (d. 1871)
  • Pelaghia Roșu, Romanian heroine (d. 1870)
  • Wanda Malecka, Polish publisher (d. 1860)
  • January–June

  • January 1 – Louis-Jean-Marie Daubenton, French naturalist (b. 1716)
  • January 6
  • William Jones, English divine (b. 1726)
  • Friedrich Adolf Riedesel, German soldier (b. 1738)
  • January 9 – Jean Étienne Championnet, French general (b.1762)
  • January 11 – Kyra Frosini, Greek heroine (b.1773)
  • January 13 – Dempsey Burges, Republican U.S. Congressman (b. 1751)
  • January 20 – Thomas Mifflin, first Governor of Pennsylvania (b. 1744)
  • January 22 – George Steevens, English Shakespearean commentator (b. 1736)
  • January 23 – Edward Rutledge, U.S. statesman (b. 1749)
  • February 2 – James C. Jarvis, United States Navy officer (b. 1787)
  • February 4 – Charlotte Sophie of Aldenburg, German sovereign (b. 1715)
  • February 23 – Joseph Warton, English academic and literary critic (b. 1722)
  • March – Joseph de Guignes, French orientalist (b. 1721)
  • March 1 – John Hazelwood, English-born officer in the U.S. Continental Navy (b. 1726)
  • March 13 – Nana Fadnavis, Maratha statesman (b. 1742)
  • March 14 – Daines Barrington, English naturalist (b. 1727)
  • March 21 – William Blount, U.S. statesman (b. 1749)
  • March 29 – Marc René, marquis de Montalembert, French military engineer and writer (b. 1714)
  • April 13 – Kazimierz Poniatowski, Polish nobleman (b. 1721)
  • April 25
  • Ezekiel Cornell, Continental Congressman from Rhode Island (b. 1732)
  • William Cowper, English poet (b. 1731)
  • May 4 – Armand, duc d'Aiguillon (b. 1750)
  • May 7 – Niccolò Piccinni, Italian composer (b. 1728)
  • May 18 – Alexander Suvorov, Count of Rymnik (b. 1729)
  • May 23 – Henry Cort, English ironmaster (b. 1740)
  • May 29 – Charlotte Slottsberg, Swedish ballerina (b. 1760)
  • June 2 – Ingeborg Akeleye, Norwegian noble known for her love life (b. 1741)
  • June 14
  • Louis Charles Antoine Desaix, French military leader (killed in battle) (b. 1768)
  • Jean-Baptiste Kléber, French general (assassinated) (b. 1753)
  • June 20 – Abraham Gotthelf Kästner, German mathematician (b. 1719)
  • June 24 – Charles Stewart, American revolutionary (b. 1729)
  • June 28
  • King Jeongjo of Joseon, 22nd ruler of the Joseon dynasty of Korea (b. 1752)
  • Théophile Corret de la Tour d'Auvergne, Grenadier officer in the French army (b. 1743)
  • June 30 – Thomas Townshend, 1st Viscount Sydney, British politician (b. 1732)
  • July–December

  • July 14 – Lorenzo Mascheroni, Italian mathematician (b. 1750)
  • July 18 – John Rutledge, governor of South Carolina (b. 1739)
  • August 16 – Samuel Barrington, English admiral (b. 1729)
  • August 24 – Rawlins Lowndes, American lawyer and jurist (b. 1721)
  • August 25 – Elizabeth Montagu, English literary critic (b. 1718)
  • August 31 – John Blair, American politician (b. 1732)
  • September 2 – Maciej Radziwiłł, Polish nobleman (b. 1749)
  • September 10 – Johann David Schoepff, German naturalist and doctor (d. 1752)
  • September 26 – William Billings, American choral composer (b. 1746)
  • September 27 – William Gibbons, American lawyer and revolutionary (b. 1726)
  • September 29 – Michael Denis, Austrian poet (b. 1729)
  • October 4 – Johann Hermann, German physician and naturalist (b. 1738)
  • October 10 – Gabriel Prosser, American slave revolutionary (b. approx. 1776)
  • October 16 – Benjamin Huntington, American lawyer and politician (b. 1736)
  • October 28 – Artemas Ward, American Major General in the American Revolutionary War and a Congressman from Massachusetts (b. 1727)
  • November 5 – Jesse Ramsden, English astronomical instrument maker (b. 1735)
  • November 14 – François Claude Amour, marquis de Bouillé, French general (b. 1739)
  • November 25 – Francisco Bouligny, former military governor of Spanish Louisiana (b. 1736)
  • November 30
  • Charles Adams, second son of John Adams, the 2nd President of the United States (b. 1770)
  • Matthew Robinson, 2nd Baron Rokeby, English eccentric nobleman (b. 1712)
  • December – Jean-Baptiste Audebert, French artist and naturalist (b. 1759)
  • December 7 – Wilhelm von Knyphausen, Hessian Lieutenant-General (b. 1716)
  • December 17 – William Peery, American farmer and lawyer (b. 1743)
  • December 26 – Mary Robinson, English poet (b. 1756)
  • December 27 – Hugh Blair, Scottish Presbyterian preacher and man of letters (b. 1718)
  • Date unknown

  • Thomas Conway, Irish soldier (b. 1734)
  • Aleksander August Zamoyski, Polish nobleman (b. 1729)
  • References

    1800 Wikipedia


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