|Covid-19|January 1 – Scotland adopts January 1 as New Year's Day.
January – Sebald de Weert makes the first definite sighting of the Falkland Islands.
February 17 – Giordano Bruno is burned at the stake for heresy in Rome.
February 19 – Huaynaputina volcano in Peru undergoes a catastrophic eruption, the worst to be recorded in South America.
March 20 – Linköping Bloodbath: Public execution by decapitation of five Swedish nobles and de facto deposition of the Polish–Swedish King Sigismund III Vasa as ruler of Sweden.
April 19 - First Dutch ship ever to arrive in Japan The ship, called "Liefde" ("Love"), anchored in Sashifu, in the Bungo area (nowadays Usuki in Oita Prefecture).
July 2 – Battle of Nieuwpoort in the Eighty Years' War (Dutch War of Independence) between the Dutch and the Spanish.
August 5 – The brothers Alexander Ruthven and John Ruthven, 3rd Earl of Gowrie, are killed during a failed attempt to kidnap or murder King James VI of Scotland at their home.
October 21 – Battle of Sekigahara in Japan, granting Tokugawa Ieyasu nominal control over the whole country.
December 31 – East India Company granted a Royal Charter in the Kingdom of England on trades in Asia
Sumo wrestling becomes a professional sport in Japan.
William Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream is first performed and his play The Merchant of Venice is published.
William Gilbert publishes De Magnete, which describes the Earth's magnetic field and is the beginning of modern Geomagnetism.
Fabritio Caroso's Nobiltà de dame is published.
Ulster chieftains, with the lead of Hugh O'Neill, 2nd Earl of Tyrone, resist the English reconquest of Ireland.
A Persian embassy arrives in Prague and meets with Rudolf II.
Martin Möller is appointed chief pastor of Görlitz.
The Lutheran orthodox campaign intensifies to reinforce the Book of Concord (approximate date).
January 1 – Friedrich Spanheim, Calvinistic theology professor at the University of Leiden (d. 1649)
January 17 – Pedro Calderón de la Barca, Spanish playwright (d. 1681)
January 22 – Elisabet Juliana Banér, Swedish noble (d. 1640)
January 23 – Alexander Keirincx, painter (d. 1652)
January 28 – Pope Clement IX (d. 1669)
February – Edmund Calamy the Elder, English presbyterian (d. 1666)
February 1 – Johan Evertsen, Dutch admiral (d. 1666)
February 2 – Gabriel Naudé, French librarian and scholar (d. 1653)
February 6 – Matthew Brend, English landowner (d. 1659)
February 9 – Jean-Joseph Surin, French Jesuit writer (d. 1665)
February 24 – Manuel António of Portugal, Dutch-Portuguese nobleman (d. 1666)
February 26 – Matsudaira Norinaga, Daimyo (d. 1654)
George Ghica, Prince of Wallachia (d. 1664)
Robert Roberthin, German poet (d. 1648)
March 19 – Anders Bille, Danish general (d. 1657)
March 26 – Matthew Marvin, Sr., Connecticut settler (d. 1678)
April 11 – Jacques Buteux, French missionary (d. 1652)
April 13 – Duke Johann Wilhelm of Saxe-Altenburg, Colonel in the Saxon army (d. 1632)
April 22 – Alessandro dal Borro, Austrian Field Marshal (d. 1656)
May 13 – Empress Xiaoduanwen, of the Qing Dynasty (d. 1649)
May 25 – Thomas Hamilton, 2nd Earl of Haddington, Scottish noble (d. 1640)
June 26 – Juan de Palafox y Mendoza (d. 1659)
June 29 – Maria Maddalena de' Medici, Italian princess (d. 1633)
July 1 – George Gobat, French theologian (d. 1679)
July 15 – Jan Cossiers, painter (d. 1671)
July 20 – Sir Edward Acton, 1st Baronet, Sheriff of Shropshire (d. 1659)
Sir Hugh Cholmeley, 1st Baronet, English politician (d. 1657)
Michel de Marolles, French translator and churchman (d. 1681)
August 7 – Eleonore Marie of Anhalt-Bernburg, Duchess consort of Mecklenburg-Güstrow (d. 1657)
August 16 – Maria Celeste, nun, daughter of Galileo Galilei (d. 1634)
August 24 – Antoine de Laloubère (d. 1664)
August 29 – John Stawell, Politician (d. 1662)
September 5 – Loreto Vittori, Italian singer and composer (d. 1670)
Hermann Busenbaum, Jesuit theologian (d. 1668)
John Frederick, Duke of Saxe-Weimar (d. 1628)
September 29 – Sir Thomas Aston, 1st Baronet, English politician (d. 1645)
September 30 – Francis Bacon, English politician and Ipswich MP (d. 1663)
October 1 – Dirk Graswinckel, Dutch jurist (d. 1666)
October 2 – Petronio Veroni, Roman Catholic prelate, Bishop of Boiano (1652–1653) (d. 1653)
October 4 – Giovanni Paolo Oliva, Italian Jesuit (d. 1681)
November – John Ogilby, English writer and cartographer (d. 1676)
November 15 – Aniello Falcone, Italian Baroque painter (d. 1665)
Lieuwe van Aitzema, Dutch historian and statesman (d. 1669)
Charles I of England (d. 1649)
December 12 – Denis of the Nativity, French sailor and cartigrapher (d. 1638)
December 14 – Anna Magdalene of Hanau, German countess (d. 1673)
December 15 – Selius Marselis, Dutch/Norwegian tradesman (d. 1663)
December 20 – Nicolas Sanson, French cartographer (d. 1667)
Marin le Roy de Gomberville, French poet and novelist (d. 1674)
Sir Richard Grenville, 1st Baronet, English Royalist leader (d. 1658)
Peter Heylin, English ecclesiastical writer (d. 1662)
Antoine de Laloubère, French Jesuit mathematician (d. 1664)
Claude Lorrain, French painter, draughtsman and engraver of the Baroque era (d. 1682)
Anna Alojza Ostrogska, Polish noblewoman (d. 1654)
William Prynne, English puritan politician (d. 1669)
Brian Walton, English divine and scholar (d. 1661)
Martine Bertereau, French mineralogist
Jonas Bronck, Swedish colonist in America (d. 1643)
Dud Dudley, first Englishman to smelt iron ore with coke (d. 1684)
Piaras Feiritéar, Irish language poet (d. 1653)
Samuel Hartlib, British scholar (d. 1662)
Samuel Rutherford, Scottish theologian and controversialist (d. 1660)
January 9 – John Spencer, English landowner and politician (b. 1549)
January 21 – Jerzy Radziwiłł, Polish–Lithuanian nobleman (szlachcic) from the Radziwiłł family (b. 1556)
February 9 – John Frederick, Duke of Pomerania, Protestant Bishop of Cammin (1567–1574) and ruling Duke of Pomerania (1569–1600) (b. 1542)
February 13 – Gian Paolo Lomazzo, Italian painter (b. 1538)
February 17 – Giordano Bruno, Italian philosopher (burned at the stake) (b. 1548)
February 18 – José de Acosta, Spanish Jesuit missionary and naturalist (b. 1540)
February 25 – Sebastian de Aparicio, Spanish colonial industrialist and saint in Mexico (b. 1502)
February 29 – Caspar Hennenberger, German historian and cartographe (b. 1529)
March 6 – Johann Major, German poet and theologian (b. 1533)
March 20 – Gustaf Banér, Swedish noble (b. 1547)
April – Thomas Deloney, English writer (b. 1543)
May 17 – Thomas Leighton, English politician (b. 1554)
Nicolaus Olai Bothniensis (b. 1550)
Fulvio Orsini, Italian humanist, historian, and archaeologist (b. 1529)
May 19 – Abe Masakatsu, Japanese nobleman (b. 1541)
June 3 – Juan Grande Román, Spanish Roman Catholic (b. 1546)
June 8 – Edward Fortunatus, German nobleman (b. 1565)
June 19 – Christopher Layer, English politician (b. 1531)
July 5 – Jean Kincaid, Murderer (b. 1579)
July 17 – Hosokawa Gracia, Japanese noblewoman (b. 1563)
July 20 – William More, English courtier (b. 1520)
July 27 – John Glanville, English politician (b. 1542)
Alexander Ruthven, Scottish earl (b. 1580)
John Ruthven, 3rd Earl of Gowrie, Scottish conspirator (b. 1577)
Queen Uiin, Korean royal consort (b. 1555)
August 18 – Sebastiano Montelupi, Italian businessman (b. 1516)
August 22 – Nicasius de Sille, Dutch diplomat (b. 1543)
August 27 – Mizuno Tadashige, Japanese nobleman (b. 1541)
September 1 – Tadeáš Hájek, Czech physician and astronomer (b. 1525)
September 25 – Antoine du Verdier, French politician (b. 1544)
September 26 – Claude Le Jeune, French composer (b. 1530)
October 12 – Luis de Molina, Spanish Jesuit (b. 1535)
October 17 – Cornelis de Jode, cartographer, engraver, publisher (b. 1568)
Toda Katsushige, Japanese warlord (b. 1557)
Shima Sakon, Japanese samurai (b. 1540)
Shimazu Toyohisa, Samurai (b. 1570)
Ōtani Yoshitsugu, Japanese samurai (b. 1558)
November 3 – Richard Hooker, Anglican theologian (b. 1554)
Ishida Mitsunari, Japanese feudal lord (decapitated) (b. 1560)
Konishi Yukinaga, Japanese Christian warlord (b. 1555)
November 8 – Natsuka Masaie, Japanese warlord (b. 1562)
November 12 – Margrave Andrew of Burgau, German nobleman, Cardinal, Bishop of Constance and Brixen (b. 1558)
November 15 – Sigmund Fugger von Kirchberg und Weißenhorn, bishop of Regensburg (b. 1542)
November 17 – Kuki Yoshitaka, Japanese naval commander (b. 1542)
November 25 – Juan Téllez-Girón, 2nd Duke of Osuna, Spanish duke (b. 1559)
December 3 – Roger North, 2nd Baron North, English politician (b. 1530)
December 16 – Charles I, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld (1569–1600) (b. 1560)
1600 (MDC) was a century leap year starting on Saturday (dominical letter BA) of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Tuesday (dominical letter FE) of the Julian calendar, the 1600th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 600th year of the 2nd millennium, the 100th and last year of the 16th century, and the 1st year of the 1600s decade. As of the start of 1600, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.