The 1000s was a decade of the Julian Calendar which began on January 1, 1000, and ended on December 31, 1009.
In continental Europe, the Holy Roman Empire established itself as the most powerful state. Otto III made a pilgrimage from Rome to Aachen and Gniezno (Gnesen), stopping at Regensburg, Meissen, Magdeburg, and Gniezno. The Congress of Gniezno (with Bolesław I Chrobry) was part of his pilgrimage. In Rome, he built the basilica of San Bartolomeo all'Isola, to host the relics of St. Bartholomew.
In France, Robert II, the son of Hugh Capet, was the first of the Capetian kings.
The Byzantine Empire under the Macedonian dynasty was engaged in a long and hard war with the First Bulgarian Empire. In the year 1000, the Byzantine generals Theodorokanos and Nikephoros Xiphias captured the former Bulgarian capitals of Pliska and Great Preslav, along with Little Preslav, extending Byzantine control over the northeastern portion of the Bulgarian state (Mysia and Scythia Minor). At the same time, Byzantium was instrumental in the Christianization of the Kievan Rus' and of other medieval Slavic states.
In Great Britain, a unified kingdom of England had developed out of the various Anglo-Saxon kingdoms. In Scandinavia, Christianization was in its early stages, with the Althingi of the Icelandic Commonwealth embracing Christianity in the year 1000.
On September 9, King Olaf Tryggvason was defeated by an alliance of his enemies in the Battle of Svolder. Sweyn I established Danish control over part of Norway. Oslo, Norway, was founded (the exact year is debatable, but the 1,000 year anniversary was held in the year 2000).
The Papacy during this time was in a period of decline, in retrospect known as the saeculum obscurum ("Dark Age") or "pornocracy" ("rule of harlots"), a state of affairs that would result in the Great Schism later in the 11th century.
Hungary was established in 1000 as a Christian state. In the next centuries, the Kingdom of Hungary became the pre-eminent cultural power in the Central European region. On December 25, Stephen I was crowned as the first King of Hungary in Esztergom.
Sancho III of Navarre became King of Aragon and Navarre. The Reconquista was gaining some ground, but the southern Iberian peninsula would still be dominated by Islam for centuries to come; Córdoba at this time was the world's largest city with 450,000 inhabitants.
It is believed that in or around this year, Norse explorer Leif Ericson became the first European to land in the Americas, at L'Anse aux Meadows in modern-day Newfoundland.The Château de Goulaine vineyard was founded in France.The Diocese of Kołobrzeg was founded.The archdiocese in Gniezno was founded; the first archbishop was Gaudentius (Radim), from Slavník's dynasty.The Bell foundry was founded in Italy by Pontificia Fonderia Marinelli.
The Islamic World was in its Golden Age; still organised in Caliphates, it was still dominated by the Abbasid Caliphate, with the Caliphate of Córdoba to the west, and ongoing campaigns in Africa and in India. Persia was a period of instability, with various polities seceding from Abassid rule, among whom the Ghaznavids would emerge as the most powerful.
The Islamic world was reaching the peak of its historical scientific achievements. Important scholars and scientists who flourished in the year 1000 include Abu al-Qasim (Abulcasis), Ibn Yunus (publishes his astronomical treatise Al-Zij al-Hakimi al-Kabir in Cairo in c. 1000), Abu Sahl al-Quhi (Kuhi), Abu-Mahmud al-Khujandi, Abu Nasr Mansur, Abu al-Wafa, Ahmad ibn Fadlan, Al-Muqaddasi, Ali Ibn Isa, and al-Karaji (al-Karkhi). Ibn al-Haytham (Book of Optics), Avicenna, Abu Rayhan al-Biruni, and Abu al-Qasim (Al-Tasrif), who all flourished around the year 1000, are considered to be among the greatest scientists of the Middle Ages altogether.
The Turkic migration by this time had reached Eastern Europe, and most of the Turkic tribes (Khazars, Bulghars, Pechenegs etc.) had been Islamized.
AfricaKhazrun ben Falful, from the Maghrawa family Banu Khazrun, begins ruling Tripoli.
AsiaMarch 17 – The Buddhist ruler of Butuan, in the Philippines (P’u-tuan in the Sung Dynasty records), Sari Bata Shaja, makes the first tributary mission to China.Changbai Mountains volcano, located on the present-day Chinese-Korean border, erupts with a force of 6.5, the fourth largest Holocene blast (approximate date).The Tao/Tayk region is annexed by the Byzantines, as the Theme of Iberia.Mahmud of Ghazni, Muslim leader of Ghazni, begins a series of raids into northern India, establishing the Ghaznavid Empire across most of today's Afghanistan, eastern Iran, and Pakistan.Jayapala suffers defeat from the Ghaznavid Empire, near Peshawar.Former emperor Đinh_Phế_Đế dies, while supressing the Cửu Long Rebellion in Thanh Hoa Province.Khmer King Jayavarman V is succeeded by Udayadityavarman I and/or Suryavarman I.Construction begins on the Liaodi Pagoda, the tallest pagoda in Chinese history (completed in 1055).Oqropiri (Ioane I), Svimeon III and Melkisedek I are Catholicoi of Iberia within one year.
EuropeFebruary 6 – After leading the revolt against Emperor Otto III and expelling the Crescentii, Gregory I, Count of Tusculum is named "Head of the Republic".July 31 – Emperor Otto III confirms the possessions of Ulric Manfred II of Turin, and grants him privileges.July – Sergius II becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.Byzantine Emperor Basil II attempts to reconquer Bulgaria.Robert II, King of France, marries for the third time, with Constance Taillefer d'Arles.Otto III, Holy Roman Emperor has Charlemagne's vault opened (see Aachen Cathedral).The First Battle of Alton: Danish invaders defeat the English.Battle of Pinhoe: Vikings defeat the Anglo-Saxons in Devon.Boleslaw I of Poland begins ruling parts of Slovakia.Bryachislav of Polotsk begins ruling Polotsk.Werner I, Bishop of Strasbourg begins ruling the Archbishopric of Strasbourg.Ermengol I of Urgell makes his second voyage to Rome.Þorgeirr Ljósvetningagoði ends being a lawspeaker in Iceland's Althing.Ælfgar, bishop of Elmham, is consecrated.Æthelred becomes Bishop of Cornwall, and dies shortly after that.The town of Lloret de Mar is founded in Catalonia.The first reference is made to Khotyn, Ukrainian town, and to Nyalka, Hungarian village, as to Chimudi.Vikings, led by Leif Eriksson, establish small settlements in and around Vinland in North America (approximate).
ReligionKing Edward the Martyr of England is canonized.A tomb of Saint Ivo (possibly) is uncovered in Huntingdonshire.
AsiaKing Suryavarman I defeats the armies of Udayadityavarman I, eventually becoming ruler of the Khmer Empire.December – Khalaf I of Sistan surrenders to the Ghaznavids in Taq.
EuropeJanuary 8 – Wulfsige III, Bishop of Sherborne, dies and is succeeded by Æthelric.January 23 – Henry II succeeds Otto III, as King of Germany.June – Frederick is sent as an imperial legate to the Synod of Pöhlde, to mediate between the claims of Bishop Bernard of Hildesheim, and Willigis, Archbishop of Mainz, concerning the control of Gandersheim Abbey.July – Battle of Calatañazor: Christian armies of Castille, led by Count Sancho García, and León, led by Alfonso V, defeat invading Muslim forces under Almanzor.August 8 – Abd al-Malik succeeds Almanzor, chief minister of the Umayyad Caliphate of Córdoba, Spain.November 13 – St. Brice's Day massacre: English king Æthelred the Unready orders all Danes in England killed.November – Frederick is elected Archbishop of Ravenna.Vladivoj succeeds Boleslaus III, Duke of Bohemia.Otto of Worms withdraws his nomination for the title of Holy Roman Emperor, and receives the Duchy of Carinthia in return.King Æthelred the Unready of England marries (as his second wife) Emma, daughter of Richard I, Duke of Normandy.Brian Boru, King of Leinster and Munster, becomes High King of Ireland, breaking the Uí Néill monopoly on the title. Not satisfied with the submission of Máel Sechnaill mac Domnaill, Brian Boru makes an expedition to the north, to take hostages from the northern states.John IV of Naples is probably released from German captivity by Henry II, Holy Roman Emperor.With a new group of colonists, an epidemic hits the Viking colony in Greenland.Danegeld is paid by Æthelred the Unready, to prevent Viking raids against England.
Sub-Saharan AfricaRafael of Makuria constructs a red brick building in Old Dongola.
AmericaOctober 9 – Leif Erikson lands in L'Anse aux Meadows, Canada.
Eastern AsiaThe Zubu khan surrenders to the Liao Dynasty.
EuropeJanuary 25 – Werner, Margrave of the Nordmark, succeeds Lothair.February 9 – Boleslaus III of Bohemia is restored to authority, with armed support from Bolesław I the Brave of Poland. In the following months, Boleslav's brothers Jaromir and Oldrich flee to Germany, and place themselves under the protection of Henry II, Holy Roman Emperor, while Boleslaus III of Bohemia orders the massacre of his leading nobles at Vyšehrad.May 4 – Herman III, Duke of Swabia succeeds Herman II.Vladivoj of Bohemia succeeds Boleslaus III.Boleslaus IV succeeds Vladivoj of Bohemia.Bolesław I of Poland annexes parts of present-day Slovakia (possible date).Wilfred succeeds Abbot Oliva as count of Berga.Sweyn I of Denmark begins his first invasion of England.Humbert I becomes the first count of Savoy.King Robert II of France invades Burgundy, but fails.Robert II of France marries Constance of Arles.Boleslaus I of Poland becomes duke of Bohemia and Moravia.Stephen I of Hungary invades Transylvania, and organises the Diocese of Transylvania (possible date).Deutz Abbey is founded at Deutz, by Heribert of Cologne.Battle of Albesa: Troops of the Caliphate of Cordoba defeat the northern Christian armies.
Middle EastZacharias succeeds Philotheos, as Patriarch of Alexandria.
ArtConstruction of the Brihadeeswarar Temple, Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu, India, begins during the Chola Dynasty (Early Medieval period).
ReligionMay 16 – Pope John XVII succeeds Pope Silvester II, as the 140th pope.December 25 – Pope John XVIII succeeds Pope John XVII as the 141st pope.
AfricaAn episode of plague and famine breaks out in North Africa.
AsiaDecember – The Samanid dynasty ends in Bokhara.The Liao dynasty launches a major offensive against the Song dynasty. Their armies meet near Shanyang, north of the Song capital of Kaifeng.Battle of Shanzhou: The Liao dynasty general Xiao Talin is picked off, by an elite Song Chinese crossbow sniper.Jingdezhen porcelain enters a period of significant production.
EuropeMay 14 – Henry II is crowned King of Italy at Pavia. A quarrel between his German companions and the Pavese erupts into a full-scale battle.Henry II launches a war against Bolesław of Poland (which lasts until 1018).Boleslaus I of Poland loses Bohemia, after having become duke the previous year. He is succeeded as Duke of Bohemia by Jaromir.Sancho III becomes king of Navarre, Aragon and Castille.Sweyn I of Denmark destroys Norwich.Aberdeen becomes a bishopric.The Arabs sack Pisa.The troops of Vizier Al-Mansur sack the Catalan city of Manresa.Pope John XVIII begins his reign (or 1003).
Eastern AsiaJanuary 13–January 18 – The Shanyuan Treaty is negotiated between the Liao Dynasty and the Song Dynasty. The Song agrees to pay an annual tribute to the Liao.Lê Trung Tông succeeds Lê Hoàn as the emperor of Vietnam, preceding anarchy and 8 months succession war with Long Ngân and other princes.October – Long Ngân is defeated and killed in Thạch Hà, by the hands of natives.Lê Ngoạ Triều succeeds Lê Trung Tông, killing him after just three days of reign, and beginning tyrannical executions.The Shūi Wakashū is compiled (earliest possible date).
EuropeMarch 25 – Battle of Monzievard: Malcolm II succeeds Cináed III as king of Scotland, killing him and his son Giric II of Scotland.Brian Boru makes a second expedition to the north, to take hostages from the northern states; during this expedition, he visits Armagh, making an offering of twenty ounces of gold to the church' and confirming to the apostolic see of Saint Patrick, ecclesiastical supremacy over the whole of Ireland (as recorded in the Book of Armagh).Danish raids continue on southern England.Ælfric of Abingdon leaves ships to the people of Wiltshire and Kent in his will, with his best one, equipped for sixty men, going to King Æthelred II.Aeddan ap Blegywryd, Prince of Gwynedd, succeeds Cynan ap Hywel.Pomerania revolts against the church.Schaffhausen starts minting its own coins.The Republic of Pisa conducts a military offensive against the Muslim strongholds, on the coast of Calabria.
AsiaGranaries for famine relief are set up across China.
EuropeHolmgang (dueling) is declared illegal in Iceland.
OceaniaA major eruption of the Mount Merapi volcano covers all of central Java with volcanic ash, causes devastation throughout central Java, and destroys a Hindu kingdom on the island of Java.
ReligionAelfheah (St. Alphege) goes to Pope John XVIII at Rome for his pallium, and becomes Archbishop of Canterbury.
AstronomyMay 1 – The brightest supernova ever recorded, SN 1006, occurs in the constellation of Lupus. It is observed and described in China, Japan, the Middle East, Europe, and elsewhere. The records of the event are suppressed in some western countries. The Supernova provides enough light to read by on a night with a dark moon.
AsiaSongjiang County (later the city of Shanghai) is founded (approximate date).Snow falls in the city of Baghdad.
EuropeAethelred buys two years of peace with the Danes, for 36,000 pounds of silver.One of Mt. Vesuvius's many eruptions occurs.
ReligionHenry II of Germany founds the Diocese of Bamberg.
AsiaThe Egyptian Fatimid Empire, under Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah, sends the sea captain Domiyat on a tributary mission, to Emperor Zhenzong of the Song dynasty, in order to reestablish trade relations between Egypt and China.Battle of Peshawar: The Turkic Ghaznavid armies defeat a Hindu confederacy.
EuropeThe oldest known mention is made of the city of Gundelfingen.Olav Haraldsson, the future king of Norway, lands on Saaremaa Island in Estonia, wins a battle there, and forces the inhabitants to pay tribute.Georgia is unified under King Bagrat III.Mohammed II succeeds Hisham II as Caliph of Cordoba.
ReligionOlof, king of Sweden, is baptized by Saint Sigfrid.Bruno of Querfurt and others try to establish a mission among the Prussians.
AsiaThe Lý dynasty, Vietnam's first independent dynasty, is proclaimed.The provinces of Goryeo (modern-day Korea) are redistributed.
EuropeFebruary 14 or March 9 – The first known mention is made of the name of Lithuania, in connection with the murder of Saint Bruno of Querfurt.August 29 – Mainz Cathedral suffers extensive damage from a fire, on the day of its inauguration.Suleiman II succeeds Mohammed II, as Caliph of Córdoba.The Vikings repeatedly attack England.
ReligionOctober 18 – The Church of the Holy Sepulchre is destroyed by Caliph al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah.July 31 – Pope Sergius IV succeeds Pope John XVIII, as the 142nd pope.
Science and technologyThe scientific achievements of the Islamic civilization reach their zenith. Major works from this decade include Ibn al-Haytham (Alhacen)'s Book of Optics, Abu al-Qasim al-Zahrawi (Abulcasis)'s 30-volume medical encyclopedia, the Al-Tasrif.Other significant contributions to scientific and mathematical understanding were made by Avicenna, who would later publish influential works on medicine, Persian Muslim polymath and scientist Abu Rayhan al-Biruni, Arab Egyptian Muslim mathematician and astronomer Ibn Yunus, Persian Muslim physicist and mathematician Abu Sahl al-Quhi (Kuhi) and Persian Muslim astronomer and mathematician, Abu-Mahmud al-Khujandi.The Law of sines is discovered by Muslim mathematicians.Bell foundry is founded in Italy.Gunpowder is invented in China.Abd al-Rahman Ibn YunusAbu al-Qasim al-Zahrawi (Abulcasis)Abu-Mahmud al-KhujandiAbu Nasr MansurAbu Rayhan al-BiruniAlhacen (Ibn al-Haytham)Avicenna (Ibn Sina)Basil IIBoleslaus I of PolandBrian BoruBruno of QuerfurtRobert II of FranceRobert GuiscardRoger I of SicilySancho III of NavarreStephen I of HungarySweyn I of DenmarkTsar Samuil of Bulgaria