The town is spread over an area of 5.5 square kilometres (2.1 sq mi). Sedam Taluk shares borders with three Taluks in the Gulbarga district: Chitapur Taluk to the west, Chincholi Taluk to the north and Yadgir district to the south. It also borders Tandur Taluk of the Rangareddy District of Telangana and Kodangal Taluk of the Mahbubnagar District in Telangana to the east. Sedam taluk is located in the eastern part of the district. Major water bearing formation is sedimentries of Bhima Formation followed by granite gneiss. The depths of bore wells drilled by CGWB are within the range 9 to 90 mbgl and drill time discharge is within 0.10 to 9 lps. 755 irrigation-dug wells exist, (as per iv th Census of Minor Irrigation Schemes 2006– 07), out of which, 634 are in use. Water lifting device fitted in dug wells is either electric or diesel pump of 2 to 6 HP with average pumping of 4 to 8 hours. Season wise irrigation potential created through dug wells is 620 ha. Out 1052 irrigation shallow bore wells, 779 are in use. Water is being lifted from these tube wells primarily by electric pumps of 2 to 6 HP, with average pumping of 4 to 8 hours. Season wise irrigation potential created through bore wells is 1159 ha
Sedam is well connected by road. It is 150 km from Hyderabad, Capital City of Telangana State. It is connected to Gulbarga, the district headquarters which is 50 km . It is connected to Yadgir which is 55 km. On the Sedam Gulbarga Road Gulbarga Airport is scheduled to come into operation by mid March 2014.
Sedam lies in the Hyderabad-Mumbai route and Delhi-Bangalore Route. The following trains have a stop in Sedam: Hussain Sagar Superfast Express, Mumbai Express, Rayalseema Express (Tirupati-[℅Hyderabad]]), Hari Priya Express, Delhi-Bangalore Rajdhani Express. Sedam is the first taluka where Rajdhani stops, Konark Express ( Mumbai-Bhuvaneshwar ), Rajkot-Secunderabad Express, Bhavnagar-Kakinada Express, Hubli-Secunderabad Express, Nanded-Bangalore Link Express, Bidar-Yeshvantpur Express. There are other ordinary passenger trains in addition.
Sedam is a Town Municipal Council city and divided into 23 wards for which elections are held every 5 years. The Sedam Town Municipal Council has population of 39,341 of which 19,816 are males while 19,525 are females as per report released by Census India 2011.
Sedam in ancient times was known Sedimba. Sedam was ruled by Rashtrautas and Kalyani Chalukyas. Some of the ancient temples in Sedam town are Madhava trilingeshwara Eshwara Temple, Kottala Basaveshwara Temple, Manvikeshwara Temple, Panchalingeshwara Temple, Bananti Kambha, Jwalamukhi statues and Ganapa Navakoti Narayana Temple, Karadagiri Hanuman Temple, Laxmi Narayan Temple, Hingulambika Temple, Sadesab Darga, Masjid-e-Mahal, Mecca Masjid. Sedam also has an ancient fort, Ganesh temple in Ganesh nagar. Near to sedam about 12–14 km away, there is a place called Ranjol with a famous masjid. Sedam also has some Jain cave ruins possibly from the time of the Rashtrakuta Dynasty. Near to sedam about 20-25km away.there is place called benakanhalli with famous chandaneshawar temple.
Sedam is famous for its Shahabad stones which are used for construction. A lot of quarries around Sedam mine these stones to sell (both uncut and polished). Three cement factories are also present in this taluk: Birla Shakti Cement a unit of Vasavadatta cement in Sedam, Ultratech Cement a unit Rajashree cement in Malkhed, and South India Cement ltd Malkhed. The food grain industry is also big here, especially with Toor dal being sent to far away places in Tamil Nadu.