Trisha Shetty (Editor)

Pterygota

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Kingdom  Animalia
Phylum  Arthropoda
Rank  Subclass
Scientific name  Pterygota
Higher classification  Insect
Pterygota Pterygota Taxa Biology 115 with Ward at University of North
Lower classifications  Butterflies and moths, Fly, Butterfly, Ant, Endopterygota

Flying pussy boxing large flying bug pterygota insect


The Pterygota are a subclass of insects that includes the winged insects. It also includes insect orders that are secondarily wingless (that is, insect groups whose ancestors once had wings but that have lost them as a result of subsequent evolution).

Contents

Pterygota Pterygota Taxa Biology 115 with Ward at University of North

The pterygotan group comprises almost all insects. The insect orders not included are the Archaeognatha (jumping bristletails) and the Thysanura (silverfishes and firebrats), two primitively wingless insect orders. Also not included are the three orders no longer considered to be insects: Protura, Collembola, and Diplura.

Pterygota tolweborgtreeToLimageslibellulasaturata86452

Systematics

Pterygota Subclass Pterygota Amateur Entomologists39 Society AES

Traditionally, this group was divided into the infraclasses Paleoptera and Neoptera. The former are nowadays strongly suspected of being paraphyletic, and better treatments (such as dividing or dissolving the group) are presently being discussed. In addition, it is not clear how exactly the neopterans are related among each other. The Exopterygota might be a similar assemblage of rather ancient hemimetabolous insects among the Neoptera like the Palaeoptera are among insects as a whole. The holometabolous Endopterygota seem to be very close relatives, indeed, but nonetheless appear to contain several clades of related orders, the status of which is not agreed upon.

Pterygota Pterygota Wikipdia a enciclopdia livre

The following scheme uses finer divisions than the one above, which is not well-suited to correctly accommodating the fossil groups.

Infraclass Palaeoptera

(probably paraphyletic)

  • Ephemeroptera (mayflies)
  • Palaeodictyoptera †(extinct)
  • Megasecoptera †(extinct)
  • Archodonata †(extinct)
  • Diaphanopterodea †(extinct)
  • Protodonata or Meganisoptera †(extinct; sometimes included in Odonata)
  • Protanisoptera †(extinct; sometimes included in Odonata)
  • Triadophlebioptera †(extinct; sometimes included in Odonata)
  • Protozygoptera or Archizygoptera †(extinct; sometimes included in Odonata)
  • Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies)
  • Infraclass Neoptera

    Superorder Exopterygota

  • Caloneurodea †(extinct)
  • Titanoptera †(extinct)
  • Protorthoptera †(extinct)
  • Plecoptera (stoneflies)
  • Embioptera (webspinners)
  • Zoraptera (angel insects)
  • Dermaptera (earwigs)
  • Orthoptera (grasshoppers, etc.)
  • Phasmatodea (stick insects - tentatively placed here)
  • Grylloblattodea (ice-crawlers - tentatively placed here)
  • Mantophasmatodea (heel-walkers - tentatively placed here)
  • Proposed superorder Dictyoptera
  • Blattodea (cockroaches and termites)
  • Mantodea (mantids)
  • Proposed superorder Paraneoptera
  • Psocoptera (booklice, barklice)
  • Thysanoptera (thrips)
  • Phthiraptera (lice)
  • Hemiptera (true bugs)
  • Superorder Endopterygota

  • Hymenoptera (ants, bees, etc.)
  • Coleoptera (beetles)
  • Strepsiptera (twisted-winged parasites)
  • Raphidioptera (snakeflies)
  • Megaloptera (alderflies, etc.)
  • Neuroptera (net-veined insects)
  • Proposed superorder Mecopteroidea/Antliophora
  • Mecoptera (scorpionflies, etc.)
  • Siphonaptera (fleas)
  • Diptera (true flies)
  • Protodiptera †(extinct)
  • Proposed superorder Amphiesmenoptera
  • Trichoptera (caddisflies)
  • Lepidoptera (butterflies, moths)
  • Neoptera orders incertae sedis

  • Glosselytrodea †(extinct)
  • Miomoptera †(extinct)
  • References

    Pterygota Wikipedia


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