Girish Mahajan (Editor)

Orthoptera

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Covid-19
Kingdom  Animalia
Rank  order
Phylum  Arthropoda
Scientific name  Orthoptera
Higher classification  Panorthoptera
Orthoptera wwwucmpberkeleyeduarthropodauniramiagrasshop
Lower classifications  Grasshopper, Cricket, Bush crickets, Ensifera, Mole cricket

The Orthoptera order of insects includes the grasshoppers, crickets, cave crickets, Jerusalem crickets, katydids, weta, lubber, Acrida, and locusts.

Contents

Orthoptera ENT 425 General Entomology Resource Library Compendium

More than 27,000 species are distributed worldwide. Many insects in this order have paurometabolous or incomplete metamorphosis, and produce sound (known as a "stridulation") by rubbing their wings against each other or their legs, the wings or legs containing rows of corrugated bumps. The tympanum or ear is located in the front tibia in crickets, mole crickets, and katydids, and on the first abdominal segment in the grasshoppers and locusts. These organisms use vibrations to locate other individuals.

Orthoptera Entomopixel Orthoptera Grasshoppers crickets and cicadas

Grasshoppers are able to fold their wings, placing them in the group Neoptera.

Grasshoppers are insects of the order orthoptera suborder caelifera


Etymology

The name is derived from the Greek ortho meaning 'straight' and ptera meaning 'winged'.

Characteristics

Orthoptera Orthoptera Pests and Pollinators

Orthopterans have a generally cylindrical body, with hindlegs elongated for jumping. They have mandibulate mouthparts for biting and chewing and large compound eyes, and may or may not have ocelli, depending on the species. The antennae have multiple joints and filiform type, and are of variable length.

Orthoptera Orthoptera Simple English Wikipedia the free encyclopedia

The first and third segments on the thorax are larger, while the second segment is much smaller. They have two pairs of wings, which are held overlapping the abdomen at rest. The forewings, or tegmina, are narrower than the hindwings and hardened at the base, while the hindwing is membranous, with straight veins and numerous cross-veins. At rest, the hindwings are held folded fan-like under the forewings. The final two to three segments of the abdomen are reduced, and have single-segmented cerci. and their wing type is tegmina.

Life cycle

Orthoptera Orthoptera Grasshoppers Locusts Crickets Katydids Discover Life

Orthopteroid species have a paurometabolous lifecycle or incomplete metamorphosis. The use of sound is generally crucial in courtship, and most species have distinct songs. Most grasshoppers lay their eggs in the ground or on vegetation. The eggs hatch and the young nymphs resemble adults, but lack wings and at this stage are often called 'hoppers'. They may often also have a radically different coloration from the adults. Through successive moults, the nymphs develop wings until their final moult into a mature adult with fully developed wings.

Orthoptera Orthoptera Bugwoodwiki

The number of moults varies between species; growth is also very variable and may take a few weeks to some months depending on food availability and weather conditions.

Phylogenetics

The branching order of these animals is fairly well understood. The suborders Caelifera and Ensifera appear to be monophyletic and the Rhaphidophoridae are a sister group of the Tettigoniidae. The Pyrgomorphidae are the most basal group of Caelifera. The Myrmecophilidae appear to form a clade with the Gryllotalpidae instead of with the Gryllidae. Additional work may be needed to confirm this.

Among the four subfamilies of Tettigoniidae, the relationships are (Phaneropterinae + (Conocephalinae + (Bradyporinae + Tettigoniinae))); among six acridid subfamilies the relationships are (Oedipodinae + (Acridinae + (Gomphocerinae + (Oxyinae + (Calliptaminae + Cyrtacanthacridinae))))).

Relationships with Humans

  • As Pest- Several species of Orthoptera are considered pests of crops and rangelands or seeking warmth in homes by humans. The two species of Orthoptera that are known to cause the most damage are Grasshoppers and Locusts. Locust are historically known for wiping out fields of crops in a day. Locust have the ability to eat up to their own body weight in a single day. Individuals gather in large groups called swarms, these swarms can range up to 80 million individuals that stretch 460 square miles. Grasshoppers can cause major agricultural damage but not to the documented extent as locust historically have. These insects mainly feed on weeds and grasses, however, during times of drought and high population density they will feed on crops. They are known pest in soybean fields and will likely feed on these crops once preferred food sources have become scarce.
  • As Food-The Orthoptera include the only insects considered kosher in Judaism. The list of dietary laws in the book of Leviticus forbids all flying insects that walk, but makes an exception for certain locusts. Strangely, the dragonfly and cranefly are not kosher, but they are helpless when unable to fly. The Torah states the only kosher flying insects with four walking legs have knees that extend above their feet so that they hop. Thus nonjumping Orthoptera such as mole crickets are certainly not kosher.
  • As biofuel-With new research showing promise in locating alternative fuel sources in the gut of insects, grasshoppers are one species of interest. The insect'S ability to break down cellulose and lignin without producing greenhouse gases has piqued scientific interest.
  • Classification

    Two suborders and 235 subfamilies are in this order.

  • Suborder Caelifera – grasshoppers, locusts
  • Infraorder Acrididea
  • Superfamily Acridoidea
  • Acrididae – grasshoppers, locusts
  • Charilaidae
  • Dericorythidae
  • Lathiceridae
  • Lentulidae
  • Lithidiidae
  • Ommexechidae
  • Pamphagidae – toad grasshoppers
  • Pyrgacrididae
  • Romaleidae – lubber grasshoppers
  • Tristiridae
  • Superfamily Eumastacoidea
  • Chorotypidae
  • Episactidae
  • Eumastacidae – monkey grasshopper or matchstick grasshoppers
  • Euschmidtiidae
  • Mastacideidae
  • Morabidae
  • Promastacidae†
  • Proscopiidae – stick grasshoppers or jumping sticks
  • Thericleidae
  • Superfamily Locustopsoidea†
  • Araripelocustidae†
  • Bouretidae†
  • Eolocustopsidae†
  • Locustavidae†
  • Locustopsidae†
  • Superfamily Pneumoroidea
  • Pneumoridae – bladder grasshoppers
  • Superfamily Pyrgomorphoidea
  • Pyrgomorphidae – gaudy grasshoppers
  • Superfamily Tanaoceroidea
  • Tanaoceridae
  • Superfamily Tetrigoidea
  • Tetrigidae – grouse locusts
  • Superfamily Trigonopterygoidea
  • Trigonopterygidae
  • Xyronotidae
  • Infraorder Tridactylidea
  • Superfamily Dzhajloutshelloidea†
  • Dzhajloutshellidae†
  • Superfamily Regiatoidea†
  • Regiatidae†
  • Superfamily Tridactyloidea
  • Cylindrachetidae – sandgropers
  • Ripipterygidae
  • Tridactylidae – pygmy mole crickets
  • Suborder Ensifera
  • Superfamily Grylloidea
  • Gryllidae – true crickets
  • Gryllotalpidae – mole crickets
  • Mogoplistidae
  • Myrmecophilidae – ant crickets
  • Superfamily Hagloidea
  • Haglidae†
  • Hagloedischiidae†
  • Prophalangopsidae – grigs
  • Tuphellidae†
  • Superfamily Phasmomimoidea†
  • Phasmomimidae†
  • Superfamily Rhaphidophoroidea
  • Rhaphidophoridae – camel crickets, cave crickets, cave wetas
  • Superfamily Schizodactyloidea
  • Schizodactylidae – dune crickets
  • Superfamily Stenopelmatoidea
  • Anostostomatidae – wetas, king crickets
  • Cooloolidae
  • Gryllacrididae – leaf-rolling crickets
  • Stenopelmatidae – Jerusalem crickets
  • Superfamily Tettigonioidea
  • Haglotettigoniidae†
  • Tettigoniidae – katydids / bush crickets
  • References

    Orthoptera Wikipedia


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