| Endopterygota, Butterflies and moths, Fly, True bugs, Hymenopterans|
Neoptera is a classification group that includes most part of the winged insects, specifically those that can flex their wings over their abdomens. This is in contrast with the more basal orders of winged insects (the "Palaeoptera" assemblage), which are unable to flex their wings in this way.
The taxon Neoptera was proposed by А.М. Martynov in 1923 and 1924, in the following classification:
order Agnatha (correct name: Ephemeroptera)
order Orthoptera (correct name: Saltatoria)
superorder Blattopteroidea (senior name: Pandictyoptera)
order Hemiptera (correct name: Arthroidignatha)
suborder Phytophtires (correct name: Plantisuga)
The order Thysanoptera originally had uncertain systematic position, and later was attributed to Paraneoptera.
Later, a number of other classifications had been proposed. According to various points of view, Neoptera is subordinated either directly to Pterygota (as in the Martynov's classification), or to Metapterygota: 1. Pterygota Gegenbaur 1878 1.1. Ephemeroptera Hyatt & Arms 1890 1.2. Metapterygota Börner 1909 1.2.1. Odonata Fabricius 1793 1.2.2. Neoptera Martynov 1923
The phylogeny of Neoptera is shown, not yet fully resolved, in the cladogram: