Rahul Sharma (Editor)

Order of the Chrysanthemum

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Covid-19
Status  Currently constituted
Grades  Collar Grand Cordon
Next (higher)  None; highest.
Sovereign  HIM The Emperor
Established  1876
Order of the Chrysanthemum
Awarded for  Exceptionally meritorious achievement/service

The Supreme Order of the Chrysanthemum (大勲位菊花章, Dai-kun'i kikka-shō, literally Grand Order of the Capitulum of the Chrysanthemums) is Japan's highest order. The Grand Cordon of the Order was established in 1876 by Emperor Meiji of Japan; the collar of the Order was added on January 4, 1888. Although technically the order has only one class, it can either be awarded "with collar", meaning on a chain, or "with grand cordon", accompanied by a sash. Unlike its European counterparts, the order may be conferred posthumously.

Contents

Apart from the Imperial Family, only six Japanese citizens have ever been decorated with the collar in their lifetimes; the last such award was to former Prime Minister Saionji Kinmochi in 1928. Seven others have been posthumously decorated with the collar; the last such award was to former Prime Minister Sato Eisaku in 1975. Today, only the reigning Emperor holds this dignity as sovereign of the order; however, exceptions are made for foreign heads of state, who can be awarded the collar in friendship.

The grand cordon is the highest possible honour a Japanese citizen can be awarded during his or her lifetime. Aside from the Imperial Family, only 21 grand cordons have been awarded to living citizens and 29 to the deceased.

Insignia

The collar of the order is made of gold, and features the kanji for "Meiji", in classic form, indicating the era of the order's establishment. It is decorated with gold chrysanthemum blossoms and green-enamelled leaves.

The sash of the grand cordon of the order is red with dark blue border stripes. It is worn on the right shoulder.

The star of the order is similar to the badge, but in silver, without the chrysanthemum suspension, and with an eight-pointed gilt medallion (with white-enamelled rays and red-enamelled sun disc) placed at the centre. It is worn on the left chest.

The badge of the order is a four-pointed gilt badge with white-enamelled rays; the centre bears a red enamelled sun disc. On each of the four corners of the badge is a yellow-enamelled chrysanthemum blossom with green-enamelled chrysanthemum leaves. The badge is suspended on a yellow-enamelled chrysanthemum, either on the collar or on the grand cordon.

Sovereigns

Information from the corresponding article in the Japanese Wikipedia

  • Emperor Meiji (27 December 1876)
  • Emperor Taishō (Grand Cordon 3 November 1889; Collar 10 May 1900; Sovereign from 30 July 1912)
  • Emperor Shōwa (Grand Cordon 9 September 1912; Collar as Regent 24 September 1921; Sovereign from 25 December 1926)
  • Emperor Akihito (Grand Cordon 10 November 1952; Sovereign from 7 January 1989)
  • Awards of the Collar of the Order of the Chrysanthemum to members of the Imperial Family and royalty

    Information from the corresponding article in the Japanese Wikipedia

    Awards made to imperial princes while living

  • Prince Komatsu Akihito (5 August 1895)
  • Prince Fushimi Sadanaru (19 January 1916)
  • Prince Kan'in Kotohito (24 September 1921)
  • Prince Fushimi Hiroyasu (29 April 1934)
  • Prince Nashimoto Morimasa (29 April 1940)
  • Posthumous awards to imperial princes

  • Prince Arisugawa Taruhito (16 January 1895)
  • Prince Kitashirakawa Yoshihisa (1 November 1895)
  • Prince Arisugawa Takehito (7 July 1913)
  • Prince Higashifushimi Yorihito (27 June 1922)
  • Prince Kuniyoshi Kuni (27 January 1929)
  • Posthumous award to foreign royalty

  • Gojong of the Korean Empire (21 January 1919)
  • Awards of the Grand Cordon of the Order of the Chrysanthemum to members of the Imperial Family and royalty

    Information from the corresponding article in the Japanese Wikipedia

    Awards made to imperial princes while living

  • Prince Arisugawa Taruhito (2 November 1877)
  • Prince Komatsu Akihito (7 December 1882)
  • Prince Arisugawa Takahito (24 January 1886)
  • Prince Kitashirakawa Yoshihisa (29 December 1886)
  • Prince Arisugawa Takehito (29 December 1886)
  • Prince Kuni Asahiko (29 December 1886)
  • Prince Fushimi Sadanaru (29 December 1886)
  • Prince Yamashina Akira (29 December 1886)
  • Prince Kan'in Kotohito (18 August 1887)
  • Prince Higashifushimi Yorihito (15 July 1889)
  • Prince Kaya Kuninori (3 November 1903)
  • Prince Kuni Kuniyoshi (3 November 1903)
  • Prince Yamashina Kikumaro (3 November 1903)
  • Prince Nashimoto Morimasa (3 November 1904)
  • Prince Fushimi Hiroyasu (3 November 1905)
  • Prince Arisugawa Tanehito (4 April 1908)
  • Prince Takeda Tsunehisa (31 October 1913)
  • Prince Asaka Yasuhiko (31 October 1917)
  • Prince Kuni Taka (31 October 1917)
  • Prince Kitashirakawa Naruhisa (31 October 1917)
  • Prince Higashikuni Naruhiko (31 October 1917)
  • Prince Chichibu (25 October 1922)
  • Prince Kachō Hirotada (19 March 1924)
  • Prince Takamatsu (1 February 1925)
  • Prince Fushimi Hiroyoshi (3 November 1928)
  • Prince Kaya Tsunenori (7 December 1930)
  • Prince Kuni Asaakira (25 May 1932)
  • Prince Kan'in Haruhito (3 November 1934)
  • Prince Mikasa (1 October 1936)
  • Prince Takeda Tsuneyoshi (3 November 1940)
  • Prince Asaka Takahiko (7 November 1940)
  • Prince Hitachi (28 November 1955)
  • Prince Tomohito of Mikasa (5 January 1966)
  • Prince Katsura (27 February 1968)
  • Prince Takamado (29 December 1974)
  • Crown Prince Naruhito (23 February 1980)
  • Prince Akishino (30 November 1985)
  • Posthumous awards to imperial princes

  • Prince Kitashirakawa Nagahisa (4 September 1940)
  • Awards to foreign royalty

  • Prince Yi Un of Korea (27 April 1920)
  • Prince Yi Kang of Korea (8 January 1924)
  • Prince Yi Geon of Korea (3 November 1926)
  • Prince Yi Wu of Korea (7 November 1943)
  • Ordinary awards of the Collar of the Order of the Chrysanthemum

    Information incorporated from the corresponding article in the Japanese Wikipedia

    Awards made to living individuals

  • Itō Hirobumi (1 April 1906)
  • Ōyama Iwao (1 April 1906)
  • Yamagata Aritomo (1 April 1906)
  • Matsukata Masayoshi (14 July 1916)
  • Tōgō Heihachirō (11 November 1926)
  • Saionji Kinmochi (10 November 1928)
  • Posthumous awards

  • Katsura Tarō (10 October 1913)
  • Inoue Kaoru (1 September 1915)
  • Tokudaiji Sanetsune (4 June 1919)
  • Ōkuma Shigenobu (10 January 1922)
  • Yamamoto Gonbee (9 December 1933)
  • Shigeru Yoshida (20 October 1967)
  • Eisaku Satō (3 June 1975)
  • Ordinary awards of the Grand Cordon of the Order of the Chrysanthemum

    Incorporates information from the corresponding article in the Japanese Wikipedia

    Awards made to living recipients

  • Sanjō Sanetomi (11 April 1882)
  • Iwakura Tomomi (1 November 1882)
  • Shimazu Hisamitsu (5 November 1887)
  • Nakayama Tadayasu (14 May 1888)
  • Itō Hirobumi (5 August 1895)*
  • Kujō Michitaka (10 May 1900)
  • Ōyama Iwao (3 June 1902)*
  • Saigō Tsugumichi (3 June 1902)
  • Yamagata Aritomo (3 June 1902)*
  • Inoue Kaoru (1 April 1906)**
  • Katsura Tarō (1 April 1906)**
  • Tōgō Heihachirō (1 April 1906)*
  • Tokudaiji Sanetsune (1 April 1906)**
  • Matsukata Masayoshi (1 April 1906)*
  • Nozu Michitsura (6 October 1908)
  • Itō Sukeyuki (10 November 1913)
  • Ōkuma Shigenobu (14 July 1916)**
  • Saionji Kinmochi (21 December 1918)*
  • Oku Yasukata (10 November 1928)
  • Yamamoto Gonbee (10 November 1928)**
  • Shigeru Yoshida (29 April 1964)**
  • Eisaku Satō (3 November 1972)**
  • Yasuhiro Nakasone (29 April 1997)
  • * Later awarded the Collar
    ** Posthumously awarded the Collar

    Posthumous awards

  • Kuroda Kiyotaka (25 August 1900)
  • Terauchi Masatake (3 November 1919)
  • Hara Takashi (4 November 1921)
  • Kabayama Sukenori (8 February 1922)
  • Katō Tomosaburō (24 August 1923)
  • Hasegawa Yoshimichi (28 January 1924)
  • Katō Takaaki (28 January 1926)
  • Lee Wan-Yong (12 February 1926)
  • Kawamura Kageaki (28 April 1926)
  • Inoue Yoshika (22 March 1929)
  • Uehara Yūsaku (8 November 1933)
  • Saitō Makoto (26 February 1936)
  • Takahashi Korekiyo (26 February 1936)
  • Tokugawa Iesato (5 June 1940)
  • Kaneko Kentarō (16 May 1942)
  • Kiyoura Keigo (5 November 1942)
  • Isoroku Yamamoto (18 April 1943)
  • Ichiki Kitokurō (17 December 1944)
  • Ichirō Hatoyama (7 March 1959)
  • Hayato Ikeda (13 August 1965)
  • Kōtarō Tanaka (1 March 1974)
  • Masayoshi Ōhira (12 June 1980)
  • Nobusuke Kishi (7 August 1987)
  • Takeo Miki (14 November 1988)
  • Takeo Fukuda (5 July 1995)
  • Keizō Obuchi (14 May 2000)
  • Noboru Takeshita (19 June 2000)
  • Zenkō Suzuki (19 July 2004)
  • Ryūtarō Hashimoto (1 July 2006)
  • Collar

  • Willem-Alexander, King of the Netherlands, 2014
  • Elizabeth II, Queen of the United Kingdom, 1962
  • Margrethe II, Queen of Denmark
  • Harald V, King of Norway
  • Carl XVI Gustav, King of Sweden
  • Albert II, King of the Belgians, 1996
  • Philippe, King of the Belgians, 2016
  • Mohammed VI, King of Morocco, 2005
  • Abdullah II, King of Jordan, 1999
  • Tuanku Syed Sirajuddin, Yang di-Pertuan Agong (king) of Malaysia, 2005
  • Sultan Abdul Halim, Yang di-Pertuan Agong (king) of Malaysia, 1970
  • Hassanal Bolkiah, Sultan of Brunei, 1984
  • Qaboos, Sultan of Oman
  • Jigme Singye Wangchuck, King of Bhutan, 1987
  • Juan Carlos I, King of Spain, 1980
  • Sabah Al-Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah, Emir of Kuwait, 2012
  • Salman bin Abdulaziz Al Saud, King of Saudi Arabia, 2017
  • Grand Cordon

  • Elizabeth II, Queen of the United Kingdom
  • Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, Prince consort of the United Kingdom
  • Charles, Prince of Wales, Crown Prince of the United Kingdom
  • Victoria, Crown Princess of Sweden
  • Frederik, Crown Prince of Denmark
  • Prince Joachim of Denmark
  • Maha Vajiralongkorn, King of Thailand
  • Willem-Alexander, King of the Netherlands
  • Philippe, King of the Belgians
  • His Majesty George Tupou the fifth
  • Furst von Hannover, B. 1959
  • Porfirio Diaz, President of Mexico
  • Toomas Hendrik Ilves, President of Estonia
  • Valdas Adamkus, President of Lithuania
  • Aleksander Kwaśniewski, President of Poland
  • Vaira Vīķe-Freiberga, President of Latvia
  • Gloria Macapagal Arroyo, President of the Philippines
  • Nursultan Nazarbayev, President of Kazakhstan
  • Benigno Aquino III, President of the Philippines
  • Collar (deceased)

  • Guangxu Emperor of Qing dynasty China (1872–1908)
  • Emperor Kojong of Korea (1852–1919)
  • Emperor Sunjong of Korea (1874–1926)
  • Tuanku Syed Putra, Yang di-Pertuan Agong (king) of Malaysia (1920–2000)
  • Haile Selassie I, Emperor of Ethiopia (1892–1974)
  • Sultan Ismail Nasiruddin Shah, Yang di-Pertuan Agong (king) of Malaysia (1906–1979)
  • Alfonso XIII, King of Spain (1886–1941)
  • Sultan Azlan Shah, Yang di-Pertuan Agong (king) of Malaysia (1928–2014)
  • Birendra, King of Nepal (1945–2001)
  • Mahendra, King of Nepal (1920–1972)
  • Muhammad Zahir Shah, King of Afghanistan (1914–2007)
  • Fuad I, King of Egypt and the Sudan (1868–1936)
  • Faruk I, King of Egypt and the Sudan (1920–1965)
  • Hussein I, King of Jordan (1935–1999)
  • Norodom Sihanouk, King of Cambodia (1922-2012) 1968
  • Jaber Al-Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah, Emir of Kuwait (1926–2006)
  • Muhammad Reza Pahlavi, Shah (king) of Iran (1919–1980)
  • Abdul Hamid II, Sultan (emperor) of the Ottoman Empire, 1887
  • Edward VII, King of the United Kingdom and Emperor of India (1841-1910)
  • Bhumibol Adulyadej, King of Thailand (1946-2016)
  • Khalifa bin Hamad Al Thani, Emir of Qatar, 1984
  • Grand Cordon (deceased)

  • Abdul Hamid II, Sultan (emperor) of the Ottoman Empire (1842–1918)
  • Prince Arthur of Connaught (1883–1938)
  • Aishwarya, Queen consort of Nepal (1949–2001)
  • Dipendra, Crown Prince of Nepal (1971–2001)
  • Dwight D. Eisenhower, President of the United States (1890–1969)
  • Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester (1900–1974)
  • Benito Mussolini, Prime Minister of Italy (1883–1945)
  • Álvaro Obregón, President of Mexico (1880–1928)
  • Prajadhipok, King of Siam (1893–1941)
  • Puyi, Emperor of Manchukuo (1906–1967)
  • Ronald Reagan, President of the United States (1911–2004)
  • Samuel Robinson (1870–1958)
  • Ferdinand Marcos, President of the Philippines (1917–1989)
  • Amha Selassie I, Emperor of Ethiopia (1916–1997)
  • Prince Imperial Makonnen of Ethiopia (1923–1957)
  • Prince Imperial Sahle Selassie of Ethiopia (1931–1962)
  • Norodom Suramarit, King of Cambodia (1896–1960)
  • Josip Broz Tito, President of Yugoslavia (1892–1980)
  • Prince Imperial Uihwa of Korea (1877–1955)
  • Crown Prince Vong Savang of Laos (1931–1978?)
  • Crown Prince Euimin of Korea (1897–1970)
  • References

    Order of the Chrysanthemum Wikipedia


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