Gumia is located at 23.78°N 85.82°E / 23.78; 85.82. It has an average elevation of 238 metres (780 feet) and lies within the deciduous forests of Chota Nagpur Plateau.
Gomia took shape around the year 1956, when the Imperial Chemical Industries (ICI as its popularly known as), set up a commercial explosives (IEL) factory there. It was developed together a residential colony to house the 3500 employees that would work in the factory. Since then, Gomia has been known as an example of diversity - with people of different nationalities, cultures and religious beliefs coming together to write a new chapter in the history of the then Hazaribagh district. Since the late 1950s, it has switched districts twice, first becoming a part of Giridih and then becoming a part of Bokaro district.
In mid-1999, the IEL factory was acquired by Orica.
As of the 2011 Census of India, Gumia had a population of 48,141, with 25,119 males and 23,022 females. Scheduled Castes numbered 9,667 and Scheduled Tribes numbered 3,635.
As of 2001 India census, Gumia had a population of 45,532. Males constitute 53% of the population and females 47%. Gumia has an average literacy rate of 64%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 74%, and female literacy is 52%. In Gumia, 14% of the population is under 6 years of age.
As of the 2011 census, the total number of literate citizens in Gumia was listed as 32,968, out of which 19,240 were males and 13,728 were females.
Orica's IEL factory is the lifeline for Gomia. More than 80% of the population benefits from the factory, directly or indirectly.
The people of Gomia also depend on Central Coal Field Limited's CCL Colliery. Bokaro Thermal Power Station is also near Gomia (approx. 5 km)
Gomia lies on one of the first railway links that was set up in Chota Nagpur Plateau. It is on the Gomoh-Barkakhana line. It is well connected with trains to the following places, with the approximate distances shown alongside: