During 1946-1950 the Tebhaga movement in several parts of the 24 Parganas district led to the enactment of the Bargadari Act. Although the Bargadari Act of 1950 recognised the rights of bargadars to a higher share of crops from the land that they tilled, it was not implemented. Large tracts, beyond the prescribed limit of land ceiling, remained with the rich landlords. In 1967, West Bengal witnessed peasant uprising, against non-implementation of land reforms legislation, starting from Kheyadaha gram panchayat in Sonarpur CD Block. From 1977 onwards major land reforms took place in West Bengal under the Left Front government. Land in excess of land ceiling was acquired and distributed amongst the peasants. Subsequently, “Operation Barga” was aimed at securing tenancy rights for the peasants. In Falta CD Block 742.19 acres of land was acquired and vested. Out of this 395.71 acres or 53.82% of the vested land was distributed. The total number of patta holders was 2,256.
Falta is located at 22°17′42″N 88°07′26″E.
Falta CD Block is bounded by Budge Budge II and Bishnupur II CD Blocks in the north, Magrahat I CD Block in the east, Diamond Harbour I and Diamond Harbour II CD Blocks in the south, and Shyampur I CD Block in Howrah district across the Hooghly, in the west.
It is located 36 km from Alipore, the district headquarters.
Falta CD Block has an area of 130.68 km2 Falta police station serves this CD Block. Falta panchayat samity has 13 gram panchayats. The block has 133 inhabited villages. Headquarters of this block is at Chaberia.
South 24 Parganas district is divided into two distinct physiographic zones: the marine-riverine delta in the north and the marine delta zone in the south. As the sea receded southwards, in the sub-recent geological period, a large low lying plain got exposed. Both tidal inflows and the rivers have been depositing sediments in this plain. The periodical collapse of both the natural levees and man-made embankments speed up the process of filling up of the depressions containing brackish water wetlands. The marine delta in the south is formed of interlacing tidal channels. As non-saline water for irrigation is scarce, agriculture is monsoon dominated. Some parts of the wetlands are still preserved for raising fish.
Gram panchayats of Falta block/panchayat samiti are: Banganagar I, Banganagar II, Belsingha I, Belsingha II, Chaluari, Debipur, Falta, Fatepur, Gopalpur, Harindanga I, Harindanga II, Mallickpur and Noapukuria.
As per 2011 Census of India Falta CD Block had a total population of 249,561, of which 226,162 were rural and 23,399 were urban. There were 127,665 (51%) males and 121,896 (49%) females. Population below 6 years was 28,715. Scheduled Castes numbered 60,276 and Scheduled Tribes numbered 87.
In 2011, Falta village had a population of 969.
As per 2001 census, Falta block had a total population of 221,589, out of which 114,207 were males and 107,382 were females. Falta block registered a population growth of 11.64 per cent during the 1991-2001 decade. Decadal growth for South 24 Parganas district was 20.89 per cent. Decadal growth in West Bengal was 17.84 per cent. Scheduled castes at 56,817 formed around one-fourth the population. Scheduled tribes numbered 1,623.
Census towns in Falta CD Block (2011 census figures in brackets): Hasimnagar (5,267), Baneshwarpur (4,741), Chandpala Anantapathpur (5,286) and Fatepur (8,105).
Large villages in Falta CD Block (2011 census figures in brackets): Mamudpur (4,037), Rajarampur (7,548), Chak Dhanumandal Krishnarambasu (4,011), Basulat (4,963), Chandideul (4,631), Iswaripur (4,127), Belsingha (4,401), Chaluary (4,708), Banganagar (4,469) and Zafarpur (6,457).
As per 2011 census the total number of literates in Falta CD Block was 170,430 (77.17% of the population over 6 years) out of which 93,829 (55%) were males and 76,601 (45%) were females.
As per 2011 census, literacy in South 24 Parganas district was 77.51 Literacy in West Bengal was 77.08% in 2011. Literacy in India in 2011 was 74.04%.
As per 2001 census, Falta block had a total literacy of 71.89 per cent for the 6+ age group. While male literacy was 81.25 per cent female literacy was 61.86 per cent. South 24 Parganas district had a total literacy of 69.45 per cent, male literacy being 79.19 per cent and female literacy being 59.01 per cent.
See also – List of West Bengal districts ranked by literacy rate
Bengali is the local language in these areas.
In the 2011 census Hindus numbered 161,873 and formed 64.86% of the population in Falta CD Block. Muslims numbered 87,352 and formed 35.00% of the population. Others numbered 336 and formed 0.13% of the population.
In the 2011 census, Hindus numbered 5,155,545 and formed 63.17% of the population in South 24 Parganas district. Muslims numbered 2,903,075 and formed 35.57% of the population. In West Bengal Hindus numbered 64,385,546 and formed 70.53% of the population. Muslims numbered 24,654,825 and formed 27.01% of the population.
According to the South 24 Parganas district Human Development Report it is an overwhelmingly rural district with 85% of the population living in rural areas. Although South 24 Parganas is a predominantly rural district, there is a strong industrial presence in the east bank of the Hooghly covering Maheshtala, Budge Budge and Falta.An analysis of the district’s population shows that 33 percent of the district’s population belongs to Scheduled Castes. While 65.86% of the people are Hindus, 33.24% are Muslims. 86% of the population resided in the 29 CD Blocks. In 2005, more than 4 lakh households were identified as living below poverty line, pushing the poverty ratio in the district to 34.11%, way above the state and national poverty ratios.
Falta CD Block has a poverty ratio of 21.56% of the households in 2005. In standard of living it has a rank 7 amongst all the 29 blocks. In infrastructure development it has the 10th rank amongst all CD Blocks. In Falta, 28.30% households have access to electricity. The length of surfaced roads is 1.01 km per km2 area. The number of bank branches is 0.31 per 10,000 population. In Falta, 51.20% of rural households are engaged as daily/ agricultural/ other physical labour, 10.55% are culivators, 11.02% are self-employed rural artisans/ hawkers, 14.48% are engaged in labour oriented regular jobs in the unorganised sector, and 12.74% are engaged in the organised sector or work as professionals.
As per 1991 census, while male literacy rate was 73.08% female literacy was 45.27% and there was a gender gap of 27.76% in Falta. The CD Blocks are gradually catching up with the municipalities in matters of literacy. In 2006, Falta had 34 secondary and higher secondary schools. 3 of them had no library facilities and 26 of them did not have computer facilities.
In 2006, in Falta for 175 villages there were 30 health sub-centres and 2 rural hospital/public health centre having 25 beds with 5 medical officers, 4 nurses, 43 health assistants and 3 pharmacists and technicians. 16.6% of the 193 habitations in Falta CD Block were fully covered with safe drinking water (including tube wells and tap water), 71.0% habitations were partly covered and 12.4% habitations were not covered.