| Sixray corydoras, Aspidoras fuscoguttatus, Aspidoras depinnai, Aspidoras rochai, Aspidoras lakoi|
Aspidoras is a genus of catfishes of the family Callichthyidae.
The type species for this genus is Aspidoras rochai. The name Aspidoras is derived from the Greek aspis (shield) and dora (skin).
Aspidoras is easily distinguished from the other genera of the subfamily Corydoradinae by the presence of a supraoccipital fontanel; this character is an autapomorphy for the genus. Many of the species of Aspidoras are similar and often hard to distinguish. Without specimens, it is often very difficult to positively identify a species from photographs alone. They are all small species. A. taurus is exceptional in that it just surpasses 5 cm in length.
The monophyly of the genus has been demonstrated.
There are currently 22 recognized species in this genus:Aspidoras albater Nijssen & Isbrücker, 1976 (False macropterus)
Aspidoras belenos M. R. Britto, 1998
Aspidoras brunneus Nijssen & Isbrücker, 1976
Aspidoras carvalhoi Nijssen & Isbrücker, 1976
Aspidoras depinnai M. R. Britto, 2000
Aspidoras eurycephalus Nijssen & Isbrücker, 1976
Aspidoras fuscoguttatus Nijssen & Isbrücker, 1976
Aspidoras gabrieli Wosiacki, T. G. Pereira & R. E. dos Reis, 2014
Aspidoras lakoi P. Miranda-Ribeiro, 1949
Aspidoras maculosus Nijssen & Isbrücker, 1976
Aspidoras marianae M. D. V. Leão, M. R. Britto & Wosiacki, 2015
Aspidoras menezesi Nijssen & Isbrücker, 1976
Aspidoras microgalaeus M. R. Britto, 1998
Aspidoras pauciradiatus (S. H. Weitzman & Nijssen, 1970) (Sixray corydoras)
Aspidoras poecilus Nijssen & Isbrücker, 1976
Aspidoras psammatides M. R. Britto, F. C. T. Lima & A. C. A. Santos, 2005
Aspidoras raimundi (Steindachner, 1907)
Aspidoras rochai R. Ihering (pt), 1907
Aspidoras spilotus Nijssen & Isbrücker, 1976
Aspidoras taurus F. C. T. Lima & M. R. Britto, 2001
Aspidoras velites M. R. Britto, F. C. T. Lima & C. L. R. Moreira, 2002
Aspidoras virgulatus Nijssen & Isbrücker, 1980
Aspidoras species are endemic to small and shallow streams draining the Brazilian Shield. The species of Aspidoras are distributed in eastern and central Brazil. Most species are narrowly endemic, occurring in restricted areas of some major river drainages: A. fuscoguttatus and A. lakoi from the Paraná River system. A. albater, A. eurycephalus and A. gabrieli from the Tocantins River system. A. brunneus, A. marianae and A. microgalaeus from the Xingu River system. A. belenos, A. pauciradiatus and A. velites from Araguaia River system. A. rochai from rivers around Fortaleza. A. raimundi from the Parnaíba River. A. carvalhoi from rivers around Guaramiranga, Ceará State. A. maculosus from the Itapicuru River. A. menezesi from the Jaguaribe River. A. spilotus from the Acaráu River. A. poecilus from the Xingu River, Araguaia River, and Tocantins River systems. A. psammatides from the Paraguaçu River. A. virgulatus from the coastal rivers in Espírito Santo. A. depinnai is from the Ipojuca River basin, Pernambuco State. A. taurus is known from the upper Itiquira River and upper Taquari River, both tributaries of the Paraguay River, Mato Grosso State, Brazil.
Aspidoras do fairly well in aquaria under similar conditions as for most Corydoras species. The water conditions that seem best are a pH of 6.8 to 7.0 and a temperature of about 22 °C to 26 °C. The species that is most likely to be found in an aquarium is the sixray corydoras, Aspidoras pauciradiatus.