On the junior level, Pogorilaya won bronze medals at the 2013 World Junior Championships and 2012–13 JGP Final.
Anna Alexeyevna Pogorilaya was born 10 April 1998 in Moscow. Her parents are from Kharkiv, Ukraine. She has a brother who is three years older.
Pogorilaya began skating at age four. Anna Tsareva became her coach around 2004.
Pogorilaya missed the 2009–10 season due to Osgood–Schlatter affecting both of her legs, as well as a concussion. She placed 15th at the Russian Junior Championships in 2011 and 13th in 2012.
In the 2012–13 season, Pogorilaya made her ISU Junior Grand Prix debut. After taking bronze in Croatia, her first event, she then won gold at the JGP event in Germany. She qualified for the JGP Final in Sochi, where she won the bronze medal. At the Russian Championships, Pogorilaya placed fifth in her senior debut and sixth on the junior level. She took the bronze medal at the 2013 World Junior Championships in Milan, with teammates Elena Radionova and Yulia Lipnitskaya taking the gold and silver medals respectively.
Making her senior Grand Prix debut, Pogorilaya placed third in the short program and first in the free skate at the 2013 Cup of China. She edged out teammate Adelina Sotnikova and Italian Carolina Kostner for the gold medal. After winning bronze at the 2013 Trophee Eric Bompard, behind Sotnikova, she qualified for her first senior Grand Prix Final. In early December 2013, Pogorilaya said she was receiving more ice time and training twice as much as before. In Fukuoka, Japan, she placed sixth in the short program, fifth in the free skate, and sixth overall.
Following an eighth-place result at the 2014 Russian Championships, she was not assigned to the 2014 European Championships but was later named in the Russian team to the 2014 World Championships. At Worlds in Saitama, Japan, Pogorilaya placed sixth in the short program and third in the free skate, scoring personal bests in both segments. She won a small bronze medal for the free skate and finished fourth overall, behind Carolina Kostner.
Pogorilaya started the 2014–15 season at the 2014 Japan Open. She placed third with a score of 122.52 points in her free skate, helping Team Europe win the gold medal. Competing at her first Grand Prix event of the season, the 2014 Skate Canada, she placed first in both programs and won the gold medal with a total of 191.81 points. She took the silver medal behind Rika Hongo at the 2014 Rostelecom Cup and qualified for her second GP Final. She finished fourth at the 2014–15 Grand Prix Final in Barcelona after placing fourth in both segments.
Pogorilaya then went on to finish fourth at the 2015 Russian Championships after placing fourth in the short program with a score of 71.17 and fourth in the free skate with a score of 133.34, and earning a combined total of 204.51.
Pogorilaya was selected to compete at the 2015 European Championships where she won the bronze medal after finishing third in both segments, scoring 66.10 in the short program, 125.71 in the freeskate, and earning a combined total of 191.81.
Pogorilaya was selected for the 2015 World Championships in Shanghai. Before the Worlds, Pogorilaya had been off the ice for a month because of an ankle injury where she sprained her foot and partially tore her ligament in practice. Despite not having fully recovered from her injury, Pogorilaya chose to compete anyway. In the short program she had a hard fall on her triple loop and hit her face, placing 9th with a score of 60.50. In the free program, she singled a triple lutz and fell twice, on another triple lutz and on a double Axel-triple toeloop combination. She placed 13th in the free program with a score of 99.81 and 13th overall with a total score of 160.31.
Starting her season on the ISU Challenger Series (CS), Pogorilaya took silver at the 2015 Ondrej Nepela Trophy after placing 9th in the short program and first in the free skate. She won the 2015 CS Mordovian Ornament with personal bests in all segments. Competing on the Grand Prix series, Pogorilaya finished 4th at the 2015 Cup of China and 9th at the 2015 NHK Trophy, she had a series of multiple falls in her short and free programs in both of her Grand Prix events. At the end of December, she won the bronze medal at the 2016 Russian Championships in Yekaterinburg as well as Russia's third spot at Europeans, having placed fourth in the short and third in the free.
In late January 2016, Pogorilaya repeated as the bronze medalist at the European Championships, which were held in Bratislava, Slovakia. At the 2016 World Championships in Boston, Pogorilaya placed second in the short program and fourth in the free skate, winning the bronze medal behind Russia's Evgenia Medvedeva and USA's Ashley Wagner.
Pogorilaya won both of her Grand Prix events, the 2016 Rostelecom Cup and 2016 NHK Trophy. In December, she obtained the bronze medal in Marseille, France, at her third Grand Prix Final. Later that month, she finished 4th behind Maria Sotskova at the 2017 Russian Championships. She injured her knee in practice at the event before the free skating. At the 2017 Worlds, Pogorilaya skated a clean short program to receive a score of 71.92. However, she had a disastrous free where she fell three times, receiving a score of 111.85. She dropped from 4th to 13th (4th in the short, 15th in the free). Due to her poor performance at the World Championships, her selection to the Russian team for the 2017 World Team Trophy team event was revoked and she was subsequently replaced by Elena Radionova.
Pogorilaya withdrew from the Russian test skates on 10th September due to injury.
GP: Grand Prix; CS: Challenger Series; JGP: Junior Grand Prix
Small medals for short and free programs awarded only at ISU Championships. At team events, medals awarded for team results only.