|Covid-19|January 7 – HMS Beagle anchors off the Chonos Archipelago on her second voyage with Charles Darwin on board as naturalist.
January 8 – The United States public debt contracts to zero for the only time in history.
January 26 – Queen Maria II of Portugal marries Auguste de Beauharnais, 2nd Duke of Leuchtenberg, in Lisbon; he dies only two months later.
January 30 – An assassination is attempted against United States President Andrew Jackson in the United States Capitol (the first assassination attempt against a President of the United States).
February 1 – Slavery is abolished in Mauritius.
February 20 – Concepción, Chile, is destroyed by an earthquake.
March 2 – Ferdinand becomes Emperor of Austria.
March 23 – The Mexican Academy of Language is established.
April 18 – Lord Melbourne succeeds Sir Robert Peel as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom.
Rail transport in Belgium: a railway is opened between Brussels and Mechelen, the first in continental Europe.
Braulio Carrillo is sworn in as Head of State of Costa Rica.
May 8 – Hans Christian Andersen's Fairy Tales Told for Children. First Collection. begins publication.
May 11 – Matua, High Priest (taura tupua) of the Polynesian island of Mangareva, is baptized into the Roman Catholic Church.
May 23 – The Mexican State of Aguascalientes is formed by decree of President Santa Anna.
June 1 – Kingston Penitentiary in Kingston, Ontario opens.
June 8 – The Australian city of Melbourne is founded by John Batman and John Pascoe Fawkner.
July – Bertelsmann is founded by Carl Bertelsmann as a religious printer and publisher in Prussia.
July 14 – Organisation of the universal Catholic Apostolic Church, initially in the U.K.
July 28 – In Paris, the assassination of King Louis Philippe I of France is attempted by Giuseppe Marco Fieschi using a home-made volley gun. Ten are killed but the King escapes with a minor wound.
August – H. Fox Talbot exposes the world's first known photographic negatives at Lacock Abbey in England.
August 25 – In the U.S., The New York Sun prints the first of six installments of the Great Moon Hoax.
August 28 – St. Vincent's Ecclesiastical Seminary, a predecessor of Castleknock College, is founded by the Vincentian community in Dublin, Ireland.
August 30 – European settlers landing on the north banks of the Yarra River in southeastern Australia found the city of Melbourne.
September 7 – Charles Darwin arrives at the Galápagos Islands aboard HMS Beagle.
September 19 – William Lloyd Garrison publishes Angelina Grimké's anti-slavery letter in The Liberator.
September 20 – The Ragamuffin War begins in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
October 2 – The Texas Revolution opens with the Battle of Gonzales when Mexican soldiers attempt to disarm the people of Gonzales, Texas, but encounter stiff resistance from a hastily assembled militia.
October 3 – The Staedtler company (pencil manufacturers) is founded by J. S. Staedtler in Nuremberg, Germany.
United Tribes of New Zealand founded at Waitangi with the Declaration of the Independence of New Zealand.
In the first major engagement of the Texas Revolution, Battle of Concepción, the Texian Army defeats the Mexicans.
November 16 – Halley's Comet reaches perihelion, its closest approach to the sun.
November 19 – A force of 500 Māori people invade and enslave the peoples of the Chatham Islands.
November 27 – Two London men, James Pratt and John Smith, are hanged in front of Newgate Prison in London after a conviction of buggery. They are the last to suffer capital punishment for homosexual acts in England.
The Bavarian Ludwig Railway opens between Nuremberg and Fürth, with a train hauled by the English-built Der Adler ("The Eagle"), the first railway in Germany.
Future U.S. President James K. Polk becomes Speaker of the House
December 9 – The Army of the Republic of Texas captures San Antonio.
December 16–17 – The Great Fire of New York destroys 530 buildings, including the New York Stock Exchange.
December 20 – The Texas Declaration of Independence is first signed at Goliad, Texas.
December 21 – The Raleigh and Gaston Railroad is chartered in Raleigh, North Carolina.
December 28 – USA: The Second Seminole War breaks out.
December 29 – The Treaty of New Echota is signed between the United States Government and members of the Cherokee Nation.
The British East India Company negotiates a lease of the Darjeeling area west of the Mahananda River from the Kingdom of Sikkim.
The British Geological Survey is founded as the world's first national geological survey.
Civil war erupts in Uruguay between supporters of Blanco and Colorado parties.
The Cachar Levy, forerunner of the Assam Rifles, is founded in India.
The first Bulgarian-language school opens in the Ottoman Empire.
The French word for their language changes to français, from françois.
Fort Cass is established, the military headquarters and site of the largest internment camps during the 1838 Trail of Tears.
Charles-Louis Havas creates Havas, the first news agency in the world (which later spawns Agence France-Presse).
English becomes the official language of India.
Juan Manuel de Rosas becomes Caudillo of Argentina.
Edward Strutt Abdy publishes his Journal of a Residence and Tour in the United States of North America: From April, 1833, to October 1834.
David Strauss begins publication of Das Leben Jessu, kritisch bearbeitet ("The life of Jesus, critically examined") in Tübingen.
January 14 – Emmy Rappe, Swedish nurse pioneer (d. 1896)
February 13 – Mirza Ghulam Ahmad, founder of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community (d. 1908)
February 15 – Demetrius Vikelas, Greek International Olympic Committee president (d. 1908)
February 18 – César Cui, Lithuanian composer (d. 1918)
March 12 – Simon Newcomb, Canadian-American Astronomer (d. 1909)
March 14 – Giovanni Schiaparelli, Italian astronomer (d. 1910)
March 15 – Eduard Strauss, Austrian composer (d. 1916)
March 21 –Maria Magdalena Mathsdotter, Swedish Sami (d. 1864)
March 24 – Jožef Stefan, Slovenian physicist, mathematician, and poet (d. 1893)
April 2 – Jacob Nash Victor, American railroad builder (d. 1907)
April 4 – John Hughlings Jackson, English neurologist (d. 1911)
April 9 – King Léopold II of Belgium (d. 1909)
May 1 – Marie Rée, Danish newspaper publisher (d. 1900)
May 3 – Alfred Austin, English poet (d. 1913)
May 7 – Manuel de la Cámara y Libermoore, Spanish admiral (d. 1920)
May 18 – Charles N. Sims, American Methodist preacher and third chancellor of Syracuse University (d. 1908)
May 21 – František Chvostek, Moravian physician (d. 1884)
June 2 – Pope Pius X, (d. 1914)
June 10 – Ferdinand IV, Grand Duke of Tuscany, (d. 1908)
June 12 – George Atzerodt, conspirator with John Wilkes Booth, assigned to assassinate Vice President Andrew Johnson (d. 1865)
June 15 – Adah Isaacs Menken, American actress (d. 1868)
June 24 – Johannes Wislicenus, German chemist (d. 1902)
June 26 – Thomas W. Knox, American author and journalist (d. 1896)
July 6 – George White, British field marshal (d. 1912)
July 7 – Ernest Giles, Australian explorer (d. 1897)
July 10 – Henryk Wieniawski, Polish composer (d. 1880)
July 27 – Giosuè Carducci, Italian writer, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1907)
August 2 – Elisha Gray, American inventor and businessman (d. 1901)
August 6 – Hjalmar Kiærskou, Danish botanist (d. 1900)
August 19 – Tom Wills, Australian cricketer and pioneer of Australian rules football (d. 1880)
August 27 – Thomas Burberry, English businessman and inventor (d. 1926)
October 7 – Felix Draeseke, German composer (d. 1913)
October 9 – Camille Saint-Saëns, French composer (d. 1921)
October 16 – William R. Shafter, American general (d. 1906)
October 23 – Adlai E. Stevenson I, 23rd Vice President of the United States (d. 1914)
October 31 – Adolf von Baeyer, German chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1917)
November 17 – Andrew L. Harris, American Civil War hero and Governor of Ohio (d. 1915)
November 19 – Rani Lakshmibai, Indian freedom fighter (d. 1858)
November 21 – Rose Eytinge, American actress (d. 1911)
November 25 – Andrew Carnegie, American industrialist and philanthropist (d. 1919)
November 29 – Empress Dowager Cixi of China (d. 1908)
November 30 – Mark Twain, American author and humorist (d. 1910)
December 4 – Samuel Butler, English writer (d. 1902)
December 6 – Wilhelm Rudolph Fittig, German chemist (d. 1910)
December 17 – Alexander Emanuel Agassiz, American scientist, son of Louis Agassiz (d. 1910)
December 18 – Lyman Abbott, American clergyman and author (d. 1922)
December 28 – Archibald Geikie, Scottish geologist (d. 1924)
undated – Mathilda Fogman, Finnish-Swedish religious leader (d. 1921)
January 1 – Mátyás Godina, writer, teacher and pastor (b. 1768)
February 8 – Guillaume Dupuytren, anatomist and military surgeon (b. 1777)
February 15 – Henry Hunt, British politician (b. 1773)
March 2 – Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor (b. 1768)
March 18 – Christian Günther von Bernstorff, Danish and Prussian statesman and diplomat (b. 1769)
March 30 – Richard Sharp MP, known as 'Conversation Sharp' London merchant, critic, poet and wit.
April 1 – Józef Zeydlitz, Polish military leader (b. 1755)
April 8 – Wilhelm von Humboldt, German linguist and philosopher (b. 1767)
April 10 – Saint Magdalene of Canossa (b. 1774)
April 21 – Samuel Slater, American industrialist (b. 1768)
May 8 – Francisca Zubiaga y Bernales, first lady of Peru and controversial socialite (b. 1803)
May 13 – John Nash, English architect (b. 1752)
June 18 – William Cobbett, English journalist and author (b. 1763)
June 24 – Andreas Vokos Miaoulis, Greek admiral (b. 1768)
July 6 – John Marshall, influential American Chief Justice (b. 1755)
July 15 – Izabela Czartoryska, Polish magnate princess (b. 1746)
July 28 – Édouard Mortier, duc de Trévise, French marshal (b. 1768)
Georg Adlersparre, Swedish military leader (b. 1760)
Vincenzo Bellini, Italian composer (b. 1801)
November 14 – James Freeman, first clergyman in America to call himself a Unitarian (b. 1759)
November 29 – Princess Catharina of Württemberg, wife of Jérôme Bonaparte (b. 1783)
December 13 – John Storm, American Revolutionary soldier (b. 1760)
December 17 – Pierre Louis Roederer, French politician, economist, and historian (b. 1754)
Sally Hemings – slave and concubine to Thomas Jefferson (b. c. 1773)
Ishak Efendi – Ottoman engineer and translator (b. c. 1774)
1835 (MDCCCXXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (dominical letter D) of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Tuesday (dominical letter F) of the Julian calendar, the 1835th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 835th year of the 2nd millennium, the 35th year of the 19th century, and the 6th year of the 1830s decade. As of the start of 1835, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.