|Covid-19|February – Napoleon attacks Russia.
February 3 – Napoleonic Wars and Anglo-Spanish War – Battle of Montevideo: The British Army captures Montevideo from the Spanish Empire as part of the British invasions of the Río de la Plata.
February 7 – Battle of Eylau: Napoleon's French Empire begins fighting against Russian and Prussian forces of the Fourth Coalition.
February 8 – Battle of Eylau: Napoleon fights a hard, but inconclusive battle against the Russians under Bennigsen.
February 10 – The United States Coast Survey is established; work begins on August 3, 1816.
February 17 – Henry Christopher is elected first President of the State of Haiti, ruling the northern part of the country.
February 19 – In Alabama, former Vice President of the United States Aaron Burr is tried for conspiracy but acquitted.
March 2 – The U.S. Congress passes an act to "prohibit the importation of slaves into any port or place within the jurisdiction of the United States ... from any foreign kingdom, place, or country" (to take effect 1 January 1808).
The Slave Trade Act becomes law, abolishing the slave trade in the British Empire. (Slavery is abolished in 1833).
The Swansea and Mumbles Railway in South Wales, at this time known as the Oystermouth Railway, becomes the first passenger-carrying railway in the world.
March 29 – H. W. Olbers discovers the asteroid Vesta.
April 4–12 – Froberg mutiny at Fort Ricasoli on Malta by men of the irregularly-recruited Frobert Regiment, suppressed by the protecting British power.
April 27 – French forces capture Danzig after a 6-week siege.
May 22 – A grand jury indicts former Vice President of the United States Aaron Burr for treason.
May 29 – Selim III, Ottoman Emperor since 1789, is deposed in favour of his nephew Mustafa IV.
May 31 – Primitive Methodism originates in an All Day of Prayer at Mow Cop in the north midlands of England.
June 9 – The Duke of Portland wins the United Kingdom general election.
June 14 – Battle of Friedland: Napoleon decisively defeats Bennigsen's Russian army.
June 22 – Chesapeake–Leopard Affair: British Royal Navy warship HMS Leopard attacks and boards the United States Navy frigate USS Chesapeake off Norfolk, Virginia, seeking deserters.
July 5 – A disastrous British attack is mounted against Buenos Aires during the second failed invasion of the Río de la Plata.
July 7–July 9 – The Peace of Tilsit is signed between France, Prussia and Russia. Napoleon and Russian Emperor Alexander I ally together against the British. The Prussians are forced to cede more than half their territory, which is formed into the Duchy of Warsaw in their former Polish lands and the Kingdom of Westphalia in western Germany.
July 13 – With the death of Henry Benedict Stuart, the last Stuart claimant to the throne of the United Kingdom, the movement of Jacobitism comes to an effective end.
July 20 – Nicéphore Niépce is awarded a patent by Napoleon Bonaparte for the Pyréolophore, the world's first internal combustion engine, after it successfully powers a boat upstream on the river Saône in France.
August 17 – The North River Steamboat, Robert Fulton's first American steamboat, leaves New York City for Albany on the Hudson River, inaugurating the first commercial steamboat service in the world.
September 1 – Former U.S. Vice President Aaron Burr is acquitted of treason. He had been accused of plotting to annex parts of Louisiana and Mexico to become part of an independent republic.
September 2–7 – Battle of Copenhagen: The British Royal Navy bombards Copenhagen with fire bombs and phosphorus rockets to prevent the Dano-Norwegian navy from surrendering to Napoleon; 30% of the city is destroyed and 2,000 citizens are killed.
September 4 – Robert Morrison, the first Protestant missionary to China, arrives in Guangzhou.
October 9 – Serfdom is abolished in Prussia by law.
October 13 – Geological Society of London founded.
November 24 – Battle of Abrantes: The French under Jean-Andoche Junot take the town.
November 29 – The Portuguese Queen Maria I and the Court embark at Lisbon bound for Brazil. Rio de Janeiro becomes the Portuguese capital.
December 22 – The United States Congress passes the Embargo Act.
December 27 – Thomas Parr, Resident of British Bencoolen, is decapitated by a mob.
The municipality of Mogpog in Marinduque, Philippines, is founded.
Napoleon purchases the Borghese art collection, including the Antinous Mondragone, and brings it to Paris.
The world's oldest international football stadium, the Racecourse Ground, opens in Wrexham, Wales, although it will not host football games until 1872.
January 13 – Napoleon Bonaparte Buford, American general and railroad executive (d. 1883)
January 19 – Robert E. Lee, American Confederate general (d. 1870)
February 27 – Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, American poet (d. 1882)
March 1 – Wilford Woodruff, American religious leader (d. 1898)
March 14 – Josephine of Leuchtenberg, Queen of Sweden and Norway (d. 1876)
April 8 – Ann Pouder, supercentenarian (d. 1917)
April 20 – John Milton, Governor of Florida (d. 1865)
May 28 – Louis Agassiz, French zoologist and geologist (d. 1873)
June 6 – Adrien-François Servais, Belgian musician (d. 1866)
July 4 – Giuseppe Garibaldi, Italian patriot (d. 1882)
August 8 – Emilie Flygare-Carlén, Swedish author (d. 1892)
August 11 – David Rice Atchison, American politician (d. 1886)
August 18 – Charles Francis Adams Sr., American historical editor, politician and diplomat (d. 1886)
September 2 – Fredrika Runeberg, Finnish writer (d. 1879)
September 7 – Henry Sewell, 1st Premier of New Zealand (d. 1879)
September 16 – John Lenthall, American naval architect and shipbuilder (d. 1882)
October 8 – Harriet Taylor, English philosophical writer (d. 1858)
October 19 – Edward Bigge, English cleric, 1st Archdeacon of Lindisfarne (d. 1844)
December 17 – John Greenleaf Whittier, Quaker poet and abolitionist (d. 1892)
February 1 – Sir Thomas Troubridge, 1st Baronet, British admiral (b. ca. 1758)
February 5 – Pasquale Paoli, Corsican patriot and military leader (b. 1725)
February 27 – Louise du Pierry, French astronomer (b. 1746)
March 10 – Jean Thurel, French soldier (b. 1698)
April 4 – Jérôme Lalande, French astronomer (b. 1732)
April 10 – Duchess Anna Amalia of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, regent of Weimar and Eisenach (b. 1739)
May 10 – Jean-Baptiste Donatien de Vimeur, comte de Rochambeau, French soldier (b. 1725)
May 13 – Eliphalet Dyer, American statesman and judge (b. 1721)
May 17 – John Gunby, Maryland soldier in the American Revolutionary War (b. 1745)
May 18 – John Douglas, Scottish Anglican bishop and man of letters (b. 1721)
June 9 – Andrew Sterett, American naval officer (b. 1778)
October 22 – Jean-François Houbigant, French perfumer (b. 1752)
November 2 – Baron de Breteuil, prime minister of King Louis XVI of France (b. 1730)
November 5 – Angelica Kauffman, Swiss painter (b. 1741)
Darejan Dadiani, Georgian queen consort (b. 1738)
Pierre-Alexandre-Laurent Forfait, French engineer, hydrographer, politician, and Minister of the Navy (1799-1801) (b. 1752)
November 23 – Jean-François Rewbell, French politician (b. 1747)
November 26 – Oliver Ellsworth, Chief Justice of the United States (b. 1745)
December 19 – Friedrich Melchior, Baron von Grimm, German writer (b. 1723)
December 21 – John Newton, English cleric and hymnist (b. 1725)
1807 (MDCCCVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (dominical letter D) of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Tuesday (dominical letter F) of the Julian calendar, the 1807th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 807th year of the 2nd millennium, the 7th year of the 19th century, and the 8th year of the 1800s decade. As of the start of 1807, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.