|Covid-19|February 22 – Native American Quadequine introduces popcorn to English colonists.
March – Fedorovych Uprising: Zaporozhian Cossacks rebel against the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and occupy a large part of present day Ukraine. After a number of indecisive skirmishes with a Polish army sent to pacify the region, the Treaty of Pereyaslav is signed, ending the uprising.
March 3 – A fleet sent by the Dutch West India Company captures Recife from the Portuguese, establishing Dutch Brazil.
March 9 – 1630 Crete earthquake.
March 22 – Massachusetts Bay Colony outlaws the possession of playing cards, dice, and gaming tables.
April 8 – Winthrop Fleet: The ship Arbella and three others set sail from the Solent in England with 400 passengers under the leadership of John Winthrop headed for the Massachusetts Bay Colony in America as part of the Puritan migration to New England (1620–1640); seven more, with another 300 aboard, follow in the next few weeks.
June – Scottish-born Presbyterian (and former physician) Alexander Leighton is brought before Archbishop William Laud's Star Chamber court in London for publishing the seditious pamphlet An Appeale to the Parliament, or, Sions Plea Against the Prelacy, an attack on Anglican bishops (printed in the Netherlands, 1628). He is sentenced to be pilloried and whipped, have his ears cropped, one side of his nose slit, and his face branded with "SS" (for "sower of sedition"), to be imprisoned, and be degraded from holy orders.
June 6 – Swedish warships depart from Stockholm, Sweden for Central Europe.
June 14 – Passengers of the Arbella, including Anne Bradstreet, America's first poet of significance, finally set foot in the New World at Salem, Massachusetts.
July – The Italian plague of 1629–31 reaches Venice.
The Success, last ship of the Winthrop Fleet, lands safely at Salem harbor, Massachusetts Bay Colony.
Swedish intervention in the Thirty Years' War begins when King Gustav Adolf of Sweden, leading an army of 13,000 on the Protestant side, makes landfall at Peenemünde, Pomerania.
July 9 – Thirty Years' War: Stettin is taken by Swedish forces.
July 18 – War of the Mantuan Succession: Mantua is sacked by an army of the Holy Roman Empire led by Count Johann von Aldringen.
July 30 – John Winthrop helps in founding a church in Massachusetts which will later become known as First Church in Boston.
August – Thirty Years' War: As a result of heavy pressure from the Prince-electors, Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor, dismisses general Albrecht von Wallenstein from command of the imperial army.
September 4 – Thirty Years' War: the Treaty of Stettin is signed by Sweden and the Duchy of Pomerania, forming a close alliance between them, as well as giving Sweden full military control over Pomerania.
September 7 – The city of Boston, Massachusetts is founded.
September 24 – The first ship of de Sauce's emigrants arrive at Southampton Hundred on the James River in Virginia.
October 13 – War of the Mantuan Succession: the Peace of Regensburg is signed. Charles Gonzaga is confirmed as Duke of Mantua.
November 10–11 – Day of the Dupes: Marie de' Medici unsuccessfully attempts to oust Cardinal Richelieu from the French Court.
Paramaribo (Suriname) is first settled by the British.
Deccan Famine of 1630–32 in India begins; it will kill some two million.
In the Mughal Empire, Shah Jahan's Pearl Mosque at Lahore Fort is consecrated (completed 1635).
The central square of Covent Garden in London is laid out and a market begins to develop there.
Johann Heinrich Alsted's Encyclopaedia septem tomis distincta is published.
January 3 – Herbert Westfaling, English politician (d. 1705)
January 5 – Manuel da Câmara III, Portuguese noble (d. 1673)
January 8 – Fernando de Valenzuela, 1st Marquis of Villasierra, Spanish noble (d. 1692)
January 10 – Edward Blaker, English politician (d. 1678)
Charles Berkeley, 1st Earl of Falmouth, son of Charles Berkeley (d. 1665)
John Rogers, President of Harvard (d. 1684)
January 13 – Ōta Suketsugu, daimyō (d. 1685)
January 18 – Andrew Balfour, Scottish doctor (d. 1694)
January 20 – Philip Florinus of Sulzbach, Austrian field marshal (d. 1703)
January 25 – Louis VI, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt (1661–1678) (d. 1678)
January 27 – Job Adriaenszoon Berckheyde, Dutch painter (d. 1693)
February 8 – Pierre Daniel Huet, French churchman and scholar (d. 1721)
February 12 – Cornelis Bisschop, Dutch painter (d. 1674)
February 16 – Jan Vermeer van Utrecht, Dutch painter (d. 1696)
February 19 – Shivaji, founder of the Maratha Empire (d. 1680)
February 20 – Josefa de Óbidos, Spanish artist (d. 1684)
February 26 – Guru Har Rai, Sikh Guru (d. 1661)
March 23 – Ignace Cotolendi, French bishop (d. 1662)
March 24 – José Saenz d'Aguirre, Catholic cardinal (d. 1699)
March 25 – Thierry Beschefer, Jesuit missionary (d. 1711)
March 28 – Silvestro Valiero, Doge of Venice (d. 1700)
April 1 – Jacob Boreel, Dutch diplomat and politician (d. 1697)
April 7 – Ulrik Christian Gyldenløve, commander-in-chief of the Danish army (d. 1658)
April 16 – Lambert van Haven, Danish architect (d. 1695)
April 21 – Pieter Gerritsz van Roestraten, Dutch painter (d. 1700)
April 28 – Charles Cotton, English poet and writer (d. 1687)
Thomas Rosewell, English minister (d. 1692)
Jacob von Sandrart, German engraver (d. 1708)
May 4 – Hendrik Schoock, Dutch painter (d. 1707)
May 6 – Johan Hadorph, Swedish director-general of the Central Board of National Antiquities (d. 1693)
May 12 – Jean-Baptiste de Santeul, French writer (d. 1697)
May 17 – John Howe, English Puritan theologian (d. 1705)
King Charles II of England, Scotland, and Ireland (d. 1685)
Margaret Hughes, British actor (d. 1719)
June 1 – Carlo Barberini, Italian Caardinal (d. 1704)
June 4 – Jacques Rousseau, French painter (d. 1693)
June 7 – John Talbot of Lacock, English politician and general (d. 1714)
June 8 – Wolf Caspar von Klengel, German architect in Saxony (d. 1691)
June 10 – Willem van Bemmel, Dutch Golden Age painter (d. 1708)
June 24 – Henry Cavendish, 2nd Duke of Newcastle, English politician (d. 1691)
July 22 – Madame de Brinvilliers, French murderer (d. 1676)
August 1 – Thomas Clifford, 1st Baron Clifford of Chudleigh, English statesman (d. 1673)
August 2 – Estephan El Douaihy, Maronite Patriarch, Historian (d. 1704)
August 22 – Guy Aldonce de Durfort de Lorges (d. 1702)
Maria van Oosterwijck, Dutch Golden Age painter (d. 1693)
Thomas Risley, Presbyterian minister (d. 1716)
September 6 – Thomas Hele, English politician (d. 1665)
September 17 – Ranuccio II Farnese, Duke of Parma from 1646 until his death (d. 1694)
September 25 – Pierre Cally, French philosopher and theologian (d. 1709)
September 27 – Michael Willmann, German painter (d. 1706)
October 2 – Henry Caesar, English politician (d. 1668)
October 8 – Henry Bull, English politician (d. 1692)
October 10 – Thomas Lawson, British botanist (d. 1691)
October 14 – Sophia of Hanover, heir to the throne of Great Britain (d. 1714)
October 18 – Henry Powle, English politician (d. 1692)
October – John Tillotson, Archbishop of Canterbury (d. 1694)
November 8 – Robert Bertie, 3rd Earl of Lindsey, English noble (d. 1701)
November 12 – Catherine Duchemin, Flower and fruit painter (d. 1698)
November 16 – Edvard Edvardsen, Norwegian historian and educator (d. 1695)
November 17 – Hachisuka Mitsutaka, daimyō who ruled the Tokushima Domain (d. 1666)
November 18 – Eleonora Gonzaga, Queen consort of Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor (d. 1686)
November 24 – Étienne Baluze, French scholar (d. 1718)
November 27 – Sigismund Francis, Archduke of Austria, ruler of Further Austria including Tyrol from 1662 to 1665 (d. 1665)
December 5 – Sophie Augusta of Holstein-Gottorp, Regent of Anhalt-Zerbst (d. 1680)
December 12 – Olaus Rudbeck, Swedish architect (d. 1702)
December 14 – Horatio Townshend, 1st Viscount Townshend, English viscount (d. 1687)
December 16 – Mary Somerset, Duchess of Beaufort, British botanist (d. 1715)
December 28 – Ludolf Bakhuizen, Dutch painter (d. 1708)
probable – John Leslie, 1st Duke of Rothes (d. 1681)
January 26 – Henry Briggs, English mathematician (b. 1556)
February 12 – Fynes Moryson, English traveler and writer (b. 1566)
February 26 – William Brade, English composer (b. 1560)
April 29 – Agrippa d'Aubigné, French poet and soldier (b. 1552)
July 26 – Charles Emmanuel I, Duke of Savoy (b. 1562)
September 17 – Thomas Lake, English statesman (b. 1567)
September 18 – Melchior Klesl, Austrian cardinal and statesman (b. 1552)
September 20 – Claudio Saracini, Italian composer (b. 1586)
September 25 – Ambrogio Spinola, 1st Marquis of the Balbases, Italian general (b. 1569)
November 15 – Johannes Kepler, German astronomer (b. 1571)
November 19 – Johann Schein, German composer (b. 1586)
November 29 – Teodósio II, Duke of Braganza (b. 1568)
Gabriel Harvey, writer (b. c. 1545)
Giulio Mancini, papal physician (b. 1558)
Adam Haslmayr, commentator of the Rosicrucian manifestos (b. c. 1560)
1630 (MDCXXX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (dominical letter F) of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Friday (dominical letter C) of the Julian calendar, the 1630th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 630th year of the 2nd millennium, the 30th year of the 17th century, and the 1st year of the 1630s decade. As of the start of 1630, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.