January 15 – Russia cedes Livonia and Southern-Estonia to the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.
February 10 – François, Duke of Anjou, arrives in the Netherlands, where he is personally welcomed by William the Silent.
February 24 – Pope Gregory XIII implements the Gregorian Calendar.
March 9 – Edward Kelley arrives at John Dee's house.
April 3 – Battle of Temmokuzan: Unable to reverse the collapse of Takeda clan, Takeda Katsuyori and his households commit suicide.
April 14 – King James VI of Scotland signs a charter creating the Tounis College, now the University of Edinburgh.
April 16 – Spanish conquistador Hernando de Lerma founds the settlement of Salta, Argentina.
April – Hashiba Hideyoshi begins the siege of Takamatsu Castle.
May–August – Robert Browne and his Brownist congregationalist companions are obliged to leave England and go to Middelburg in the Netherlands.
June 21 – The Incident at Honnō-ji occurs in Kyoto, Japan.
July 2 – Battle of Yamazaki: Counterattacking forces led by Hashiba Hideyoshi decisively defeat Akechi Mitsuhide with Akechi killed while retreating to his domain.
July 26 – Battle of Ponta Delgada (War of the Portuguese Succession): Spanish admiral Santa Cruz decisively defeats a larger mercenary fleet from France, England, supporters of the Portuguese claimant António, Prior of Crato, and the Dutch Republic, under Filippo di Piero Strozzi (who is killed) off the Azores, the first engagement between large fleets of galleons operating at any great distance from the mainland.
August 22 – The Raid of Ruthven in Scotland: a political conspiracy of Presbyterian nobles abduct King James VI.
October 4 of Julian calendar (Thursday) – Italy, Poland and Iberian Peninsula make the next day Friday, October 15 of the Gregorian Calendar, skipping over 10 days. Other countries follow at various later dates.
October 4 – Saint Teresa of Ávila dies. She is buried the next day, October 15.
November 29 – Marriage of future English playwright William Shakespeare and Anne Hathaway.
December 9 of Julian calendar (Sunday) – France makes the next day Monday, December 20 of the Gregorian Calendar.
Kumbum is founded in Tibet.
In Ming Dynasty China
Jesuit Matteo Ricci is allowed to enter the country.
The earliest reference to the publishing of private newspapers in Beijing.
The sultanate of Morocco begins to press southward in search of a greater share of the trans-Saharan trade.
The Douai-Rheims Bible New Testament is published.
"On Embassies" published by Flavius Ursinus.
John Dee practices angel magic with scryer Edward Kelley, including the Angelic Alphabet.
Alonso de Contreras, Spanish privateer and writer (d. 1641)
Jaroslav Borzita of Martinice, Bohemian noble (d. 1649)
January 7 – Magdalene of Brandenburg, Landgravine consort of Hesse-Darmstadt (1598–1616) (d. 1616)
January 26 – Giovanni Lanfranco, Italian painter (d. 1647)
January 28 – John Barclay, Scottish satirist and Latin poet (d. 1621)
January 30 – George II, Duke of Pomerania (d. 1617)
February 8 – Matthias Bernegger, German philologist (d. 1640)
February 22 – John Ratcliffe, English politician and soldier (d. 1627)
Daniel Featley, English theologian and controversialist (d. 1645)
Deodat del Monte, painter, architect (d. 1644)
March 22 – John Williams, Welsh clergyman and political advisor to King James I (d. 1650)
March 31 – Duchess Sophie of Prussia, Duchess consort of Courland (1609–1610) (d. 1610)
April 8 – (bapt.) Phineas Fletcher, English poet (d. 1650)
April 11 – Justus de Harduwijn (d. 1636)
May 1 – Marco da Gagliano, Italian composer of the early Baroque era (d. 1643)
May 5 – John Frederick, Duke of Württemberg (1608–1628) (d. 1628)
May 28 – William Fiennes, 1st Viscount Saye and Sele, English statesman (d. 1662)
June 26 – Johannes Schultz, German composer (d. 1653)
June 28 – William Fiennes, 1st Viscount Saye and Sele, English nobleman and politician (d. 1662)
July 27 – Sir John Isham, 1st Baronet, English Member of Parliament (d. 1651)
August 11 – Sabina Catharina of East Frisia, Countess of Rietberg (1586–1618) (d. 1618)
August 17 – John Matthew Rispoli, major Maltese philosopher of great erudition (d. 1639)
August 26 – Humilis of Bisignano, Italian Franciscan friar and saint (d. 1637)
August 27 – Maria Amalia of Nassau-Dillenburg, German noble (d. 1635)
Taichang Emperor, of the Ming dynasty of China (d. 1620)
Hans Meinhard von Schönberg, Military commander (d. 1616)
September 25 – Archduchess Eleanor of Austria (d. 1620)
September 26 – Eitel Frederick von Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, Catholic cardinal (d. 1625)
October 2 – Augustus, Count Palatine of Sulzbach, Count Palatine of Neuburg (1614–1632) (d. 1632)
October 12 – Francesco Piccolomini, Italian Jesuit (d. 1651)
October 17 – Johann Gerhard, Lutheran church leader (d. 1637)
October 19 – Dmitri Ivanovich, Russian Tsarevich (d. 1591)
October 21 – Johan Ernst van Nassau-Siegen, Dutch general (d. 1617)
November 2 – Elizabeth Jane Weston, English Czech poet (d. 1621)
November 17 – George, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (d. 1641)
November 18 – Gaspar de Crayer (d. 1669)
November 21 – François Maynard, French poet (d. 1646)
November 27 – Pierre Dupuy, French historian (d. 1651)
November 30 – Anselm Casimir Wambold von Umstadt, Archbishop of Mainz (d. 1647)
December 10 – William Chappell, Irish bishop (d. 1649)
December 16 – Robert Bertie, 1st Earl Lindsey (d. 1642)
December 23 – Severo Bonini, Italian composer (d. 1663)
Giovanni Francesco Abela, Maltese writer (d. 1655)
Giulio Alenio, Italian Jesuit missionary (d. 1649)
Gregorio Allegri, Italian composer (d. 1652)
John Bainbridge, English astronomer (d. 1648)
Richard Corbet, English poet and bishop (d. 1635)
William Feilding, 1st Earl of Denbigh (d. 1643)
Kobayakawa Hideaki, Japanese samurai and warlord (d. 1602)
William Juxon, Archbishop of Canterbury (d. 1663)
William Lithgow, Scottish traveller (d. 1645)
Thomas Moulson, Lord Mayor of London (d. 1638)
David Teniers the Elder, Flemish painter (d. 1649)
Francis Windebank, English politician (d. 1646)
Jacomina de Witte, politically influential Dutch woman (d. 1661)
Jakub Zadzik, Polish nobleman and diplomat (d. 1642)
probable – Sigismondo d'India, Italian composer (d. 1629)
January 26 – Thomas Platter, Swiss humanist scholar (b. 1499)
March 18 – Juan Jauregui, attempted assassin of William I of Orange (b. 1562)
March 30 – Takeda Nobukado, Japanese nobleman (b. 1529)
April 3 – Takeda Katsuyori, Daimyo of Takeda Clan (b. 1546)
April 16 – Oyamada Nobushige, Japanese samurai (b. 1545)
May 3 – Giorgio Mainerio, Italian composer (b. 1530)
May 5 – Charlotte of Bourbon, third wife of William I of Orange (b. 1547)
Oda Nobunaga, Daimyo of the Oda Clan (b. 1534) (forced suicide)
Anayama Nobukimi, Japanese military commander (b. 1541)
June 23 – Shimizu Muneharu, Japanese military commander (b. 1537)
July 2 – Akechi Mitsuhide, Japanese samurai and warlord (b. 1528)
July 3 – James Crichton, Scottish scholar (b. 1560)
July 7 – Kawajiri Hidetaka, Japanese samurai (b. 1527)
July/August – Jacques Peletier du Mans, French mathematician (b. 1517)
September 28 – George Buchanan, Scottish humanist scholar (b. 1506)
October 4 – Saint Teresa of Avila, Spanish Carmelite nun and poet (b. 1515)
December 11 – Fernando Álvarez de Toledo, 3rd Duke of Alba, Spanish general (b. 1507)
Wu Cheng'en, Chinese novelist and poet of the Ming dynasty
Giocangga, chieftain of the Jurchens
Hans Hendrik van Paesschen, Flemish architect (b. 1510)
Zhang Juzheng, Ming dynasty official (b. 1525)
Year 1582 (MDLXXXII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar, and a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Proleptic Gregorian calendar. However, this year also saw the beginning of the Gregorian Calendar switch, when the Papal bull known as Inter gravissimas introduced the Gregorian calendar, adopted by Spain, Portugal, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and most of present-day Italy from the start. In these countries, the year continued as normal until Thursday, October 4. However, the next day became Friday, October 15 (like a common year starting on Friday), in those countries (France followed two months later, letting Sunday, December 9 be followed by Monday, December 20). Other countries continued using the Julian calendar, switching calendars in later years, and the complete conversion of the Gregorian calendar was not entirely done until 1929.