|Covid-19|February 27 – Treaty of Berwick: Terms agreed with the Lords of the Congregation in the Kingdom of Scotland for forces of the Kingdom of England to enter Scotland to expel French troops defending the Regency of Mary of Guise.
March 7 – A Spanish-led expedition, commanded by Juan de la Cerda, 4th Duke of Medinaceli, overruns the Tunisian island of Djerba.
March 17 – Leaders of the Amboise conspiracy, including Godefroy de Barry, seigneur de La Renaudie, make an unsuccessful attempt to storm the château of Amboise, where the young French king and queen are residing. La Renaudie is subsequently caught and executed, along with over a thousand of his followers.
April 15 – Denmark buys the Estonian island of Saaremaa from its last prince bishop.
May 11 – At the Battle of Djerba, the Ottoman fleet, commanded by Piali Pasha, overwhelms a large joint European (mainly Spanish) fleet, sinking about half its ships.
June 12 – Battle of Okehazama: Oda Nobunaga defeats Imagawa Yoshimoto.
July 6 – The Treaty of Edinburgh is signed between England, France and Scotland. The French withdraw from Scotland. This largely ends the Auld Alliance between France and Scotland, and ends the wars between England and its northern neighbour.
August 2 – Livonian War: Russians defeat the Livonian Brothers of the Sword in the Battle of Ergeme, precipitating the dissolution of the order.
August 17 – The Scottish Reformation Parliament adopts a Protestant confession of faith and rejects papal authority, beginning the Scottish Reformation and disestablishing Roman Catholicism in Scotland.
August 21 – A total eclipse of the sun is observable in Europe.
September 29 – Eric XIV becomes king of Sweden upon the death of his father Gustav Vasa.
December 5 – Seventeen-year-old Mary, Queen of Scots, is widowed by the death of her first husband, King Francis II of France. Her mother-in-law, Catherine de' Medici, becomes regent of France.
December 6 – Charles IX of France succeeds his elder brother, Francis II, at the age of ten.
Publication of the complete Geneva Bible.
The first tulip bulb is brought from Constantinople to the Netherlands (probable date).
The first scientific society, the Academia Secretorum Naturae, is founded in Naples by Giambattista della Porta.
Solihull School is founded in the West Midlands of England.
The oldest surviving violin (dated inside), known as the Charles IX, is made in Cremona, in northern Italy.
Bairam Khan loses power in the Mughal Empire.
Mongols invade and occupy Qinghai.
The great age of piracy in the Caribbean starts around this time.
January 1 – Hugh Myddelton, Welsh businessman (d. 1631)
January 3 – John Bois, English scholar (d. 1643)
January 17 – Gaspard Bauhin, Swiss botanist (d. 1624)
January 29 – Scipione Dentice, Neapolitan keyboard composer (d. 1633)
March 13 – William Louis, Count of Nassau-Dillenburg, Dutch count (d. 1620)
March 29 – Erekle I, Prince of Mukhrani, Georgian noble (d. 1605)
April 19 – Jobst of Limburg, Count of LImburg (d. 1621)
May 6 – Guido Pepoli, Catholic cardinal (d. 1599)
June 25 – Wilhelm Fabry, German surgeon (d. 1634)
June 28 – Giovanni Paolo Lascaris, Grand Master of the Knights Hospitaller (d. 1657)
June 29 – Wolfgang Ernst I of Isenburg-Büdingen-Birstein, German Count (d. 1633)
July 1 – Charles III de Croÿ, Belgian noble (d. 1612)
July 7 – Margaret Clifford, Countess of Cumberland, English noblewoman and maid of honor to Elizabeth I (d. 1616)
August 6 – Antoine Arnauld, Lawyer (d. 1619)
August 7 – Elizabeth Báthory, Hungarian serial killer (d. 1614)
August 10 – Hieronymus Praetorius, German composer (d. 1629)
August 19 – James Crichton, Scottish polymath (d. 1582)
August 25 – Park Jin, Korean naval commander (d. 1597)
September 4 – Charles I, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld (d. 1600)
September 11 – Krystyna Radziwiłł, Polish noblewoman (d. 1580)
September 19 – Thomas Cavendish, English naval explorer, led the third expedition to circumnavigate the globe (d. 1592)
October 10 – Jacobus Arminius, Dutch theologian (d. 1609)
October 17 – Ernest Frederick, Margrave of Baden-Durlach (d. 1604)
October 29 – Christian I, Elector of Saxony (d. 1591)
November 3 – Annibale Carracci, Italian painter (d. 1609)
November 22 – Charles, Margrave of Burgau, German nobleman (d. 1618)
November 28 – Baltasar Marradas, Count of Spain (d. 1638)
December 3 – Jan Gruter, Dutch critic and scholar (d. 1627)
December 13 – Maximilien de Béthune, Duke of Sully, 2nd Prime Minister of France (d. 1641)
December 28 – Samuel Sandys, English politician (d. 1623)
Felice Anerio, Italian composer (died 1614)
Charles Butler, English beekeeper and philologist (d. 1647)
James Crichton, Scottish scholar (d. 1582)
Lieven de Key, Dutch architect (d. 1627)
Ishida Mitsunari, Japanese samurai (d. 1600)
Katarzyna Ostrogska, Polish noblewoman (d. 1579)
Anton Praetorius, German pastor (d. 1613)
Jan Karol Chodkiewicz, Polish military commander (d. 1621)
Adam Haslmayr, commentator of Rosicrucian manifestos (d. 1630)
January 1 – Joachim du Bellay, French poet (b. 1522)
January 8 – Jan Łaski, Polish Protestant evangelical reformer (b. 1499)
February 7 – Bartolommeo Bandinelli, Florentine sculptor (b. 1493)
February 16 – Jean du Bellay, French cardinal and diplomat (b. 1493)
April 19 – Philip Melanchthon, German humanist and reformer (b. 1497)
June 11 – Mary of Guise, queen of James V of Scotland and regent (b. 1515)
June 12 – Imagawa Yoshimoto, Japanese daimyo (b. 1519)
June 12 – Ii Naomori, Japanese warrior (b. 1506)
August 4 – Maeda Toshimasa, Japanese samurai
August 7 – Anastasia Romanovna, wife of Russian Tsar Ivan the Terrible (b. 1530)
September 8 – Amy Robsart, English noblewoman (b. 1536)
September 29 – King Gustav I of Sweden (b. 1496)
September 30 – Melchor Cano, Spanish theologian (b. 1525)
November 25 – Andrea Doria, Italian naval commander (b. 1466)
December 5 – King Francis II of France (b. 1544)
Year 1560 (MDLX) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.