Témiscaming is a town located at the south end of Lac Témiscamingue on the upper Ottawa River in the Témiscamingue Regional County Municipality of western Quebec, Canada. Also nearby is Lake Kipawa.
It is the administrative headquarters of the Wolf Lake First Nations band government.
The Ottawa River had long been used by natives, explorers, coureurs des bois, and missionaries. Some of the notable travelers passing by Témiscaming were Radisson and des Groseilliers, Saint-Lusson, Charles le Moyne and Pierre Le Moyne, and Chevalier de Troyes. A small chapel had existed there for the trappers and fur traders en route to Ottawa.
The area began to be developed circa 1850 when forestry companies began logging the land. Some of these logging crews had brought their families, and together with some pioneer families, they had formed a settlement of about 13 families by 1880. It was originally called "Long Sault", taken from the name of the rapids on the Ottawa River at this place. From 1884 on, Long Sault became an important stopover for colonists traveling upstream to Lake Timiskaming, leading to the construction of a hotel, wharfs, stores, and a railroad to Mattawa. On August 12, 1886, the first train arrived at Long Sault, also called Gordon's Creek by then.
In 1888, the Municipality of Témiscaming was officially incorporated. Its name, also spelled Témiskaming, was taken from Lake Timiskaming and in turn came from the Algonquin tim ("deep"), and kami ("open water"). In the fall of that same year, Alex Lumsden built a sawmill on Gordon Creek and the settlement came to be known as Lumsden's Mill. Around 1909 work began on the dam across the Ottawa River.
The place experienced major growth when the Riordon Pulp and Paper Company built the Kipawa Mills pulp and paper mill there in 1918. It bought the Lumsden Mill as well as all the property in Long Sault. For all the construction workers and mill employees, a new town was built, designed according to a Garden City plan by Scottish architect Thomas Adams.
In 1920, Témiscaming gained town status under the name "Kipawa" but the name was replaced by the original name the following year. On paper, there was a municipal council, but in reality, Témiscaming was a company town. The Canadian International Paper Company, that had bought out the Riordon Company in 1925, had total control by owning every property, appointing the mayor and council members, and even applying the law. No municipal elections were held for 35 years.
On November 1, 1935, a magnitude 6.2 earthquake had its epicentre a few kilometres east of Témiscaming. In 1936, the road between North Bay and Témiscaming was completed. In 1956, the Canadian International Paper Company declared Témiscaming as an "open town" and sold all its infrastructure. W.N. Irwin became the town's first mayor elected in a municipal election. In 1972, when the company decided to close the mill, the employees formed Tembec to take over the operation of the mill.
In 1988, the Municipality of Letang, incorporated in 1980, was merged into Témiscaming.
CKVM-FM, a community radio station based in Ville-Marie has a retransmitter in Témiscaming.
From the 2007-2011, Temiscaming is the home of the Temiscaming Royals Junior "A" ice hockey team of the Ontario-based Northern Ontario Junior Hockey League.
Since 2011, the town of Temiscaming now take on a new team called the Temiscaming Titans, they are a Canadian junior ice hockey team that are members of the Greater Metro Junior Hockey League.
According to the Canada 2011 Census:Population: 2,385
% Change (2006–2011): -11.6
Area (km²): 718.18
Density (persons per km²): 3.3
Private dwellings occupied by usual residents: 1055 (total dwellings: 1402)
Mother tongue (according to the Canada 2006 Census):English as first language: 27.9%
French as first language: 69.0%
English and French as first language: 0.7%
Other as first language: 2.4%
Population trend:Population in 2011: 2385 (2006 to 2011 population change: -11.6%)
Population in 2006: 2697
Population in 2001: 2903
Population in 1996: 3112
Population in 1991: 2944