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Sergei Winogradsky

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Covid-19
Citizenship  Russian and French
Nationality  Ukrainian

Name  Sergei Winogradsky
Fields  Microbiology
Sergei Winogradsky httpsuploadwikimediaorgwikipediacommonsthu
Institutions  Imperial Conservatoire of Music in St Petersburg (piano)University of Saint PetersburgUniversity of StrasbourgPasteur Institute
Alma mater  University of Saint Petersburg
Known for  Nitrogen cycleChemoautotrophySulfur-oxidizing bacteria
Influences  Anton de BaryNikolai Menshutkin (chemistry)Nevskia Famintzin (botany)Martinus Beijerinck
Died  February 25, 1953, Brie-Comte-Robert, France
Education  Saint Petersburg State University
Influenced  Selman Waksman, Martinus Beijerinck
Similar People  Martinus Beijerinck, Selman Waksman, Heinrich Anton de Bary

Sergei winogradsky


Sergei Nikolaievich Winogradsky ForMemRS (or Vinogradskiy; Russian: Серге́й Николаевич Виноградский; 1 September 1856 – 25 February 1953) was a Russian microbiologist, ecologist and soil scientist who pioneered the cycle-of-life concept.

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Sergei Winogradsky Sergei Winogradsky Biography Facts and Pictures

Winogradsky discovered the first known form of lithotrophy during his research with Beggiatoa in 1887. He reported that Beggiatoa oxidized hydrogen sulfide (H2S) as an energy source and formed intracellular sulfur droplets. This research provided the first example of lithotrophy, but not autotrophy.

Sergei Winogradsky 1887 Sergei Winogradsky Pioneer in Environmental Microbiology

His research on nitrifying bacteria would report the first known form of chemoautotrophy, showing how a lithotroph fixes carbon dioxide (CO2) to make organic compounds.

Sergei Winogradsky Biografa de Sergei Winogradsky Cientficos famosos

Siguiendo los pasos de sergei winogradsky


Biography

Sergei Winogradsky The Winogradsky Column

Winogradsky was born in Kiev (then in the Russian Empire). In this early stage of his life, Winogradsky was "strictly devoted to the orthodox faith", though he later became irreligious.

Sergei Winogradsky How old is Sergei Winogradsky Age Birthday Facts

He entered the Imperial Conservatoire of Music in St Petersburg in 1875 to study piano. However, after two years of music training, he entered the University of Saint Petersburg in 1877 to study chemistry under Nikolai Menshchutkin and botany under Andrei Sergeevich Famintzin.

He received a diploma in 1881 and stayed at the St. Petersburg University for a degree of master of science in botany in 1884. In 1885, he began work at the University of Strasbourg under the renowned botanist Anton de Bary; Winogradsky became renowned for his work on sulfur bacteria.

In 1888, he relocated to Zurich, where he began investigation into the process of nitrification, identifying the genera Nitrosomonas and Nitrosococcus, which oxidizes ammonium to nitrite, and Nitrobacter, which oxidizes nitrite to nitrate.

He returned to St. Petersburg for the period 1891–1905, and headed the division of general microbiology of the Institute of Experimental Medicine; during this period, he identified the obligate anaerobe Clostridium pasteurianum, which is capable of fixing atmospheric nitrogen.

In 1901, he was elected honorary member of the Moscow Society of Naturalists and, in 1902, corresponding member of the French Academy of Sciences.

He retired from active scientific work in 1905, dividing his time between his private estate and Switzerland. In 1922, he accepted an invitation to head the division of agricultural bacteriology at the Pasteur Institute at an experimental station at Brie-Comte-Robert, France, about 30 km from Paris. During this period, he worked on a number of topics, among them iron bacteria, nitrifying bacteria, nitrogen fixation by Azotobacter, cellulose-decomposing bacteria, and culture methods for soil microorganisms. Winogradsky retired from active life in 1940 and died in Brie-Comte-Robert in 1953.

Discoveries

Winogradsky discovered various biogeochemical cycles and parts of these cycles. These discoveries include

  • His work on bacterial sulfate reduction for which he first became renowned, including the first known form of lithotrophy (in Beggiatoa).
  • His work on the Nitrogen cycle including
  • The identification of the obligate anaerobe Clostridium pasteurianum capable of fixing atmospheric nitrogen and living in legume root nodules.
  • chemosynthesis – his most noted discovery
  • The Winogradsky column
  • Chemosynthesis

    Winogradsky is best known for discovering Chemoautotrophy, which soon became popularly known as chemosynthesis, the process by which organisms derive energy from a number of different inorganic compounds and obtain carbon in the form of carbon dioxide. Previously, it was believed that autotrophs obtained their energy solely from light, not from reactions of inorganic compounds. With the discovery of organisms that oxidized inorganic compounds such as hydrogen sulfide and ammonium as energy sources, autotrophs could be divided into two groups: photoautotrophs and chemoautotrophs. Winogradsky was one of the first researchers to attempt to understand microorganisms outside of the medical context, making him among the first students of microbial ecology and environmental microbiology.

    The Winogradsky column remains an important display of chemoautotrophy and microbial ecology, demonstrated in microbiology lectures around the world.

    References

    Sergei Winogradsky Wikipedia


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