The New World warblers or wood-warblers are a group of small, often colorful, passerine birds which make up the family Parulidae and are restricted to the New World. They are not closely related to Old World warblers or to Australian warblers. Most are arboreal, but some, like the ovenbird and the two waterthrushes, are primarily terrestrial. Most members of this family are insectivores.
It is likely that this group originated in northern Central America, where the greatest number of species and diversity between them is found. From there they spread north during the interglacial periods, mainly as migrants, returning to the ancestral region in winter. Two genera, Myioborus and Basileuterus, seem to have colonized South America early, perhaps before the two continents were linked, and together constitute most warbler species of that region.
The scientific name for the family, Parulidae, originates from the fact that Linnaeus in 1758 named the northern parula as a tit, Parus americanus, and, as taxonomy developed, the genus name was modified first to Parulus and then to Parula. The family name derives from the name for the genus.
New World warbler Wikipedia
All the warblers are fairly small. The smallest species is the Lucy's warbler (Oreothlypis luciae), at about 6.5 g and 10.6 cm (4.2 in). Which species is the largest depends upon which are to be included in the family. Traditionally, this was considered to be the yellow-breasted chat, at 18.2 cm (7.2 in). Since this may not be a parulid, the Parkesia waterthrushes, the ovenbird, the russet-crowned warbler and Semper's warbler, all of which can exceed 15 cm (5.9 in) and 21 g, might be considered the largest.
The migratory species tend to lay larger clutches of eggs, typically up to six, since the hazards of their journeys mean that many individuals will have only one chance to breed. In contrast, the laying of two eggs is typical for many tropical species, since the chicks can be provided with better care, and the adults are likely to have further opportunities for reproduction.
Many migratory species, particularly those which breed further north, have distinctive male plumage at least in the breeding season, since males need to reclaim territory and advertise for mates each year. This tendency is particularly marked in the large genus Setophaga (formerly Dendroica). In contrast, resident tropical species, which pair for life, show little if any sexual dimorphism. There are of course exceptions. The Parkesia waterthrushes and ovenbird are strongly migratory, but have identical male and female plumage, whereas the mainly tropical and sedentary yellowthroats are dimorphic. The Granatellus chats also show sexual dimorphism, but due to recent genetic work have been moved into the family Cardinalidae (New World buntings and cardinals).
There are a number of issues in the taxonomy and systematics of the Parulidae.The New World warblers are closely related to the tanagers, and some species like the conebills Conirostrum and the bananaquit have been placed into either group by different authorities. Currently, the conebills are normally placed in Thraupidae and the bananaquit in its own family.The Green-tailed warbler, Yellow-breasted chat, and White-winged warbler are other species about which there have been questions as to whether they should be considered as warblers or tanagers. Current data suggest they are neither, but rather, in their own families.The pardusco, Nephelornis oneilli is also of uncertain affinities.Genus SeiurusOvenbird, Seiurus aurocapillusGenus Helmitherosworm-eating warbler, Helmitheros vermivorusGenus ParkesiaNorthern waterthrush, Parkesia noveboracensisLouisiana waterthrush, Parkesia motacillaGenus VermivoraBachman's warbler, Vermivora bachmaniiBlue-winged warbler, Vermivora cyanopteraGolden-winged warbler, Vermivora chrysopteraGenus Mniotiltablack-and-white warbler, Mniotilta variaGenus ProtonotariaProthonotary warbler, Protonotaria citreaGenus LimnothlypisSwainson's warbler, Limnothlypis swainsoniiGenus OreothlypisTennessee warbler, Oreothlypis peregrinaOrange-crowned warbler, Oreothlypis celataNashville warbler, Oreothlypis ruficapillaVirginia's warbler, Oreothlypis virginiaeColima warbler, Oreothlypis crissalisLucy's warbler, Oreothlypis luciaeFlame-throated warbler, Oreothlypis gutturalisCrescent-chested warbler, Oreothlypis superciliosaGenus LeucopezaSemper's warbler, Leucopeza semperiGenus OporornisConnecticut warbler, Oporornis agilisGenus GeothlypisCommon yellowthroat, Geothlypis trichasBelding's yellowthroat, Geothlypis beldingiAltamira yellowthroat, Geothlypis flavovelataBahama yellowthroat, Geothlypis rostrataOlive-crowned yellowthroat, Geothlypis semiflavaBlack-polled yellowthroat, Geothlypis speciosaMasked yellowthroat, Geothlypis aequinoctialisGrey-crowned yellowthroat, Geothlypis poliocephalaHooded yellowthroat, Geothlypis nelsoniKentucky warbler, Geothlypis formosaMourning warbler, Geothlypis philadelphiaMacGillivray's warbler, Geothlypis tolmieiGenus Catharopezawhistling warbler, Catharopeza bishopiGenus SetophagaPlumbeous warbler, Setophaga plumbeaElfin woods warbler, Setophaga angelaeArrowhead warbler, Setophaga pharetraHooded warbler, Setophaga citrinaAmerican redstart. Setophaga ruticillaKirtland's warbler, Setophaga kirtlandiiCape May warbler, Setophaga tigrinaCerulean warbler, Setophaga ceruleaNorthern parula, Setophaga americanaTropical parula, Setophaga pitiayumiMagnolia warbler, Setophaga magnoliaBay-breasted warbler, Setophaga castaneaBlackburnian warbler, Setophaga fuscaAmerican yellow warbler, Setophaga petechiaChestnut-sided warbler, Setophaga pensylvanicaBlackpoll warbler, Setophaga striataBlack-throated blue warbler, Setophaga caerulescensPalm warbler, Setophaga palmarumOlive-capped warbler, Setophaga pityophilaPine warbler, Setophaga pinusYellow-rumped warbler, Setophaga coronataMyrtle warbler, Setophaga coronata coronataAudubon's warbler, Setophaga coronata auduboniBlack-fronted warbler, Setophaga coronata nigrifronsGoldman's warbler, Setophaga coronata goldmaniYellow-throated warbler, Setophaga dominicaBahama warbler, Setophaga flavescensVitelline warbler, Setophaga vitellinaPrairie warbler, Setophaga discolorAdelaide's warbler, Setophaga adelaidaeBarbuda warbler, Setophaga subitaSt. Lucia warbler, Setophaga delicataGrace's warbler, Setophaga graciaeBlack-throated Gray warbler, Setophaga nigrescensTownsend's warbler, Setophaga townsendiHermit warbler, Setophaga occidentalisGolden-cheeked warbler, Setophaga chrysopariaBlack-throated green warbler, Setophaga virensGenus MyiothlypisCitrine warbler, Myiothlypis luteoviridisSanta Marta warbler, Myiothlypis basilicaWhite-striped warbler, Myiothlypis leucophrysFlavescent warbler, Myiothlypis flaveolaWhite-browed warbler, Myiothlypis leucoblepharablack-crested warbler, Myiothlypis nigrocristataPale-legged warbler, Myiothlypis signataBuff-rumped warbler, Myiothlypis fulvicaudaRiverbank warbler, Myiothlypis rivularisTwo-banded warbler, Myiothlypis bivittataGolden-bellied warbler, Myiothlypis chrysogasterWhite-lored warbler, Myiothlypis conspicillataGray-throated warbler, Myiothlypis cinereicollisGray-and-gold warbler, Myiothlypis fraseriRusset-crowned warbler, Myiothlypis coronataGenus BasileuterusFan-tailed warbler, Basileuterus lachrymosusGray-headed warbler, Basileuterus griseicepsgolden-crowned warbler, Basileuterus culicivorusWhite-bellied warbler, Basileuterus culicivorus hypoleucusThree-banded warbler, Basileuterus trifasciatusRufous-capped warbler, Basileuterus rufifronsGolden-browed warbler, Basileuterus belliBlack-cheeked warbler, Basileuterus melanogenysPirre warbler, Basileuterus ignotusThree-striped warbler, Basileuterus tristriatusBlack-eared warbler, Basileuterus melanotisTacarcuna warbler, Basileuterus tacarcunaeGenus CardellinaRed-faced warbler, Cardellina rubrifronsWilson's warbler, Cardellina pusillaCanada warbler, Cardellina canadensisRed warbler, Cardellina ruberPink-headed warbler, Cardellina versicolorGenus Myioborus (often, less accurately, named as redstarts, but they have conspicuous white, not red, feathers on the tail sides)Painted whitestart, Myioborus pictusSlate-throated whitestart, Myioborus miniatusTepui whitestart, Myioborus castaneocapillusBrown-capped whitestart, Myioborus brunnicepsParia whitestart, Myioborus pariaeWhite-faced whitestart, Myioborus albifaciesGuaiquinima whitestart, Myioborus cardonaiCollared whitestart, Myioborus torquatusSpectacled whitestart, Myioborus melanocephalusGolden-fronted whitestart, Myioborus ornatusWhite-fronted whitestart, Myioborus albifronsYellow-crowned whitestart, Myioborus flavivertex
The placement of the following species represents an unresolved taxonomic problem. Recent work has shown all of the following species are closely related to the New World warblers and New World blackbirds.Black-crowned palm-tanager, Phaenicophilus palmarumGray-crowned palm-tanager, Phaenicophilus poliocephalusGreen-tailed warbler or green-tailed ground warbler, Microligea palustrisWhite-winged warbler, Xenoligea montanaYellow-headed warbler, Teretistris fernandinaeOriente warbler, Teretistris fornsiwrenthrush, Zeledonia coronataYellow-breasted chat, Icteria virens
(Text) CC BY-SA