| Polk, San Jacinto, Trinity and Walker Counties, Texas|
16,616 sq mi (43,040 km)
Onalaska, Trinity, Point Blank, Riverside
Pine Island, Alligator Island
Lake Livingston State Park, Lewisville Lake, Benbrook Lake, Wolf Creek Park, Lake Worth
Lake Livingston is a reservoir located in the East Texas Piney Woods. Lake Livingston was built, and is owned and operated, by the Trinity River Authority of Texas (TRA) under contract with the City of Houston for water-supply purposes. The lake is the second-largest lake located wholly within the state of Texas (only the Sam Rayburn Reservoir is larger). The Livingston Dam, constructed across the Trinity River approximately 7 miles (11 km) southwest of the city of Livingston is 2.5 miles (4 km) in length and has an average depth of 55 feet (17 m).
Lake Livingston Wikipedia
The lake construction was paid for by the sale of revenue bonds that were to be redeemed with income derived from the sale of water. The dam construction began in 1966 and was completed in 1969, by Forrest and Cotton, Incorporated. The cost to build the earthen dam was US$83,996,957.
Water stored in the lake is used to supply industrial, municipal and agricultural needs in the lower Trinity River Basin and the Houston/Galveston metropolitan area. Its significance in the face of the extraordinary growth experienced by this region of the Upper Texas Gulf Coast is tremendous. A wide range of public and commercial recreation facilities including full service marinas, camping and motel accommodations are located along the shoreline. The City of Houston owns two-thirds of the water rights of the lake, with the other 1/3 remaining under control of the TRA.
The earthfill dam has a concrete spillway and was designed by Brown and Root, Incorporated (now KBR, Inc). The dam has a spillway crest elevation of 99 feet (30 m) above mean sea level. The average base width of the Dam's earthen embankment is 310 feet (94 m) wide. The spillway is designed and constructed to pass flows of three times the maximum-recorded flow of the river at this site.
Lake Livingston has a surface area of 83,000 acres (360 km²) and impounds 1,750,000 acre feet (2.16 km3) of water at its normal pool elevation of 131 feet (40 m) above mean sea level. The average depth of the lake is 23 feet (7 m) with a maximum depth of 90 feet (27 m). Lake Livingston has more than 450 miles (700 km) of shoreline extending into San Jacinto, Polk, Walker, and Trinity Counties.
Lake Livingston was built with no flood control capabilities/flood storage capabilities, and because of this all water entering the lake whether it be from rainfall or inflow, must exit the lake as increase intake occurs. Flow through the dam is controlled by 12 tainter gates in a concrete and steel spillway that has an average depth of 55 feet. Operations of the spillway mirror river flows, so within a relative short period of time of increase of river flow discharge is increased, and vice versa.
On September 23, 2005, rain and winds from Hurricane Rita caused waves up to 4 feet (1 m) in height to pound against the Lake Livingston dam. As a result, 11,000 feet (3.4 km) of large protective stones, or riprap, was stripped from the upstream face of the dam. To repair the damage the Trinity River Authority lowered the lake's pool level by 4 feet to 127 feet, preventing any further erosion of the exposed earthen embankment. The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and the City of Houston footed the $9.6 million repair bill and awarded the repair contract to Archer Western Contractors. Over the course of the repair movement of 72,215 tons of 32 inch rock in 3,183 truckloads and 15,808 tons of eight-inch (200 mm) bedding rock in 687 truckloads was required. The rock was mined from a quarry in Navarro County near Corsicana. Work was largely completed by April 28, 2006, but due to severe drought, the lake's regular pool level was not reached until November, 2006.