|Name In hostage|
|Location West of In Amenas, Algeria|
Coordinates 27°53′49″N 9°07′37″E / 27.897°N 9.127°E / 27.897; 9.127Coordinates: 27°53′49″N 9°07′37″E / 27.897°N 9.127°E / 27.897; 9.127
Date 16 January 2013 (2013-01-16)–19 January 2013 (2013-01-19) (CET – UTC +1)
Target International natural gas plant workers
Attack type Ambush, siege, hostage crisis
Weapons Automatic weaponsMortarsAnti-aircraft missilesExplosives
Similar Manila hostage crisis, Beslan school siege, Moscow theater hostage crisis
In amenas hostage crisis freed hostages describe their ordeal in algeria
The In Amenas hostage crisis began on 16 January 2013, when al-Qaeda-linked terrorists affiliated with a brigade led by Mokhtar Belmokhtar took expat hostages at the Tigantourine gas facility near In Amenas, Algeria. One of Belmokhtar's senior lieutenants, Abdul al Nigeri, led the attack and was among the terrorists killed. After four days, the Algerian special forces raided the site, in an effort to free the hostages.
- In amenas hostage crisis freed hostages describe their ordeal in algeria
- Algerian rescue operation
- International impact
At least 39 foreign hostages were killed along with an Algerian security guard, as were 29 militants. A total of 685 Algerian workers and 107 foreigners were freed. Three militants were captured.
It was one of many attacks in the Maghreb carried out by Islamist groups since 2002.
The best information about the attack comes from the transcript of the eye witness evidence given to HM Coroner in London: see the transcript of the evidence. Tigantourine gas facility is located about 40 kilometres (25 mi) south-west of In Amenas, close to the Libyan border and about 1,300 kilometres (810 mi) south-east of Algeria's capital city, Algiers. The Algerian state oil company Sonatrach operates the gas field jointly with the British firm BP and the Norwegian firm Statoil. It supplies 10% of Algeria's natural gas production.
The crisis began in the early morning of 16 January 2013. Around 32 Islamist terrorists in 4 to 5 vehicles, who had entered Algeria from Libya and northern Mali, attacked a bus transporting employees from a natural gas plant near the town of In Amenas in far eastern Algeria, about 60 kilometres (37 mi) west of the border with Libya, killing a number of the employees. At 5:40 AM, militant gunmen in Toyota Land Cruisers stormed the Base de Vie (accommodation block). The terrorists also attacked the Central Processing facility itself. The terrorists rigged the plant with explosives, and threatened a "tragic end" should attempts be made to free the captives.
As the assault began on a bus carrying expats, a guard named Mohamed Lamine Lahmar succeeded in activating a plant-wide alarm, warning the whole site that a terrorist attack was in progress. Lahmar's actions made it possible for some people to hide and for others to shut down essential processes of the site and possibly prevent its destruction from explosives detonation. Lahmar was shot to death by the terrorists immediately afterward. In addition, a Briton was also killed and at least seven others were injured during the initial capture of hostages and assault on the plant.
For a number of hours, the gunmen hunted door-to-door for foreigners. They dragged people from their hiding places, beating some who did not cooperate, and shooting others as they tried to run away. Some foreigners had their hands bound behind their backs, and some had their mouths taped. The gunmen affixed bombs to some of the captives. Some foreigners were helped by local Algerians, who helped them hide.
Subsequently, Algerian security forces surrounded the facility. At midday local time on 17 January the terrorists at Base de Vie decided to drive to meet those in the CPF. They loaded hostages into 6 vehicles and drove out onto the road. During the 3 km journey they were attacked by the Algerian military and all 6 vehicles were stopped. 4 were blown up and 2 were riddled with bullets. See the transcript of evidence at the London Inquest. A few hostages managed to escape, including some Britons who helped other hostages.
On 18 January in the afternoon the terrorists exploded a bomb at the CPF murdering some hostages and the military attacked the CPF bringing the siege to an end.
An al-Qaeda-affiliated group, known variously as both Katibat al-Mulathameen ('The Masked Brigade') and al-Muwaqqi‘un bi-d-Dima’ (Arabic: الموقعون بالدماء 'Those who Sign with Blood'), perpetrated the attack. The terrorists were under the command of Mokhtar Belmokhtar, known also as Khalid Abu al-Abbas.
Belmokhtar, a veteran of Algeria's civil war and the Soviet war in Afghanistan and dubbed "The Uncatchable" by French intelligence, was a senior commander in al-Qaeda's local branch before deciding to form his own armed Islamist group late in 2012 after an apparent fallout with other terrorist leaders. Despite the split, his fighters remain loyal to al-Qaeda, a fact mentioned in their communication with the media after the initial assault.
The Algerian Prime Minister said 32 terrorists were involved in the attack, and that three were Algerian while the rest were made up of eight nationalities, including 11 Tunisians, 2 Canadians, plus Egyptian, Malian, Nigerian, and Mauritanians. An Algerian news website had reported that three Egyptians, two Algerians, two Tunisians, two Libyans, one Mali national, and one French national were among the attackers, but the French Minister of the Interior Manuel Valls disputed the presence of a French national among the attackers.
On 19 January, Algerian state media announced that 11 of the hostage-takers were killed after a military offensive which ended the siege. Seven hostages were executed by the perpetrators during the offensive.
Algeria's Prime Minister Abdelmalek Sellal said on 21 January that 29 of the attackers had been killed and 3 captured alive. The New York Times reported that one of the captured attackers said the Egyptians involved in the attack were also involved in the 2012 Benghazi attack.
Libyan hardline Islamist sources declared that the kidnappers had logistical support from Islamists in Libya, such as aiding the media to contact the terrorists, while local Algerian outlets like Numidia News or TSA said that the attackers wore Libyan uniforms, had Libyan weapons and vehicles.
According to a senior Algerian security source, Zintan brigadesmen sold arms to the assailants group, and former Libyan Islamic Fighting Group emir Abdelhakim Belhadj had prior knowledge of the attack on In Amenas.
The militants demanded an end to French military operations against Islamists in northern Mali, in return for the safety of the hostages. A spokesman claiming to represent the "Masked Brigade" (or al-Mulathameen Brigade) said the hostage seizure was a response to Algeria's opening of its airspace to French warplanes that attacked Mali's militants five days prior. Another report mentioned a demand for the release of Aafia Siddiqui and Omar Abdel-Rahman, both held in American prisons on terrorism-related convictions. Other reports suggested the hostage-takers demanded the release of about 100 Islamist prisoners held in Algeria. They also demanded safe passage to Northern Mali and ransom for their expat hostages.
According to U.S. officials, 132 foreign nationals were taken hostage. In all, more than 800 people were taken hostage. According to the eye witness accounts at the London Inquest the terrorists were only interested in expats and did not tie up any Algerian Nationals. A statement released by the Islamist group to a Mauritanian news agency said they had 41 foreign nationals. Five were reportedly being held at the gas facility, and the rest at a nearby housing unit. The number included 13 Norwegians (4 of whom escaped to a nearby military camp), 7 U.S. citizens, 5 Japanese, 1 Irish, as well as nationals from France, Romania, and the United Kingdom. France 24 broadcast parts of a phone conversation with a French hostage, who said he was being held along with British, Japanese, Filipino, and Malaysian nationals.
On 17 January 2013, one Algerian security official told the Associated Press that at least 20 foreigners had escaped. Algeria's private Ennahar TV channel cited 15 foreign hostages, including 2 Japanese, a French couple and the sole Irish national, as having escaped or been freed. Earlier, the Algeria Press Service news agency reported that some 30 Algerian workers managed to free themselves.
According to U.S. officials, 100 of the 132 foreign nationals had either escaped or been set free by mid-day 18 January. The same reports stated that 500 Algerians had been rescued as of 18 January. One American worker was also confirmed dead on 18 January.
On 19 January, 11 militants and 7 hostages were killed in a final assault to end the standoff. In addition, 16 foreign hostages were freed, including 2 Americans, 2 Germans, and 1 Portuguese.
One Algerian hostage (a security guard) and 39 foreign hostages from nine different countries are believed to have died. The nationality breakdown of the dead hostages, as of 25 January 2013, was as follows:
Algerian rescue operation
Minister of Interior Dahou Ould Kablia said the Algerian government would not "respond to the demands of terrorists", and would not negotiate with the hostage takers.
On the afternoon of 17 January 2013, the Algerian Special Intervention Group began an assault on the complex using helicopter gunships and heavy weapons. Algerian commanders explained they launched the assault because the gunmen had demanded to be allowed to take the hostages abroad. The Mauritanian news agency ANI said the assault came while the militants were attempting to move hostages by vehicle. An Irish engineer who survived is reported as having said he saw four trucks of hostages being blown up by the Algerian forces. Hostages in two other SUVs were freed by the Algerian forces.
Hostages who escaped from the convoy of 6 vehicles which left the Base de Vie heading for the Central Processing plant do not accept the Algerian Governments account. They told HM Coroner that the military did not attack the Base deVie. Instead they attacked the vehicles carrying hostages and terrorists. A few Britons and Philippine hostages survived by chance when the vehicles in which they were being carried blew up or were overturned. See the transcript.
An Algerian security source said that 30 hostages and 11 militants were killed during the raid, which was reported as lasting eight hours. According to the ANI, militants claimed that 34 of the hostages and 14 of the Islamists were killed in this initial attack. According to a kidnapper who spoke with the agency, seven hostages were still being held – three Belgians, two Americans, one Japanese, and one British citizen. An Algerian security source earlier confirmed that about 25 foreign hostages had escaped the compound. At least 180 Algerian workers had either escaped the complex or been freed, according to local sources, with a number of others still remaining inside.
Several Western officials bemoaned Algeria's failure to minimize casualties, while Japan criticized Algeria for failing to heed Japan's earlier request to "put human lives first and asked Algeria to strictly refrain".
Analysts say Algeria's lack of consultation fit in with a general pattern of acting independently, its policy of no negotiation with terrorists, and, according to Anouar Boukhars of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, that "Algerians are jealous of their sovereignty".
Algeria's prime minister Abdelmalek Sellal in a press conference on 21 January praised the decision by Algerian special forces to storm the site, adding that the aim of the kidnappers was to "blow up the gas plant". He stressed that "The terrorists also shot some of the hostages in the head, killing them".
England, Norway, the Philippines, France and Japan each have different methods of dealing with the overseas death of their subjects. France is carrying out a Judicial investigation. The French authorities will not exchange evidence with the Uk Coroner. Norway has no Coronial process. In the UK a coronial hearing took place from September 2014 and is still ongoing. 69 witnesses were called and most gave evidence from the witness box in Court 73 in the High Court in London. All were cross examined by the families of the deceased. The inquest should be complete by the end of January 2015. A verdict will be reached by the coroner on the cause of death of each Briton and on the security at the plant. The transcript is online at www.inamenasinquest.org.uk.
BP are being sued in the USA and in the UK for failing to protect their staff properly.
On 22 February 2013, Sonatrach on behalf of the joint venture started up a limited production at the In Amenas plant, involving one of the three plant trains. Staff from Statoil and BP were not redeployed at the time. full production recommenced in September 2014. The plant has been heavily fortified.
On 26 February 2013, Statoil commissioned a report to investigate the terrorist attack and to see what lessons could be learned. The report was published on 12 September 2013.
BP has stated that, unlike Statoil, it is not carrying out an inquiry. Sonatrach has been obstructive and refused to assist the UK coronial process.
The 3 captured terrorists are for criminal trial in Algeria.
As of July 2014, unlike the families of BP and Statoil staff, there are still families of deceased agency workers who have received neither moral support nor financial recompense from the Joint Venture. These families have had to cope with losing not only their loved ones but also their means of support in countries where there are little or no social welfare systems. The JV claims that all agencies involved were contractually obliged to provide life cover, but the JV failed to verify that their agents complied with this.